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Computer Fundamental (Bangla Book) - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File Computer Fundamental, bangla boi computer, bangla boi. Hardware. Results 1 - 9 of 9 Free access for PDF Ebook Computer Books In Bengali. computer and networking hardware tutorials and whitepapers Computer hardware. Associate Professor, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Acknowledgement: The structure and several of the good examples are derived from the book.

During World War II similar devices were developed in other countries as well. Replica of Zuse 's Z3 , the first fully automatic, digital electromechanical computer. Early digital computers were electromechanical; electric switches drove mechanical relays to perform the calculation. These devices had a low operating speed and were eventually superseded by much faster all-electric computers, originally using vacuum tubes. The Z2 , created by German engineer Konrad Zuse in , was one of the earliest examples of an electromechanical relay computer.

It was quite similar to modern machines in some respects, pioneering numerous advances such as floating point numbers. Rather than the harder-to-implement decimal system used in Charles Babbage 's earlier design , using a binary system meant that Zuse's machines were easier to build and potentially more reliable, given the technologies available at that time.

The engineer Tommy Flowers , working at the Post Office Research Station in London in the s, began to explore the possible use of electronics for the telephone exchange. Experimental equipment that he built in went into operation five years later, converting a portion of the telephone exchange network into an electronic data processing system, using thousands of vacuum tubes.

The German encryption machine, Enigma , was first attacked with the help of the electro-mechanical bombes which were often run by women. It had paper-tape input and was capable of being configured to perform a variety of boolean logical operations on its data, but it was not Turing-complete.

Colossus Mark I contained 1, thermionic valves tubes , but Mark II with 2, valves, was both 5 times faster and simpler to operate than Mark I, greatly speeding the decoding process. Like the Colossus, a "program" on the ENIAC was defined by the states of its patch cables and switches, a far cry from the stored program electronic machines that came later.

Once a program was written, it had to be mechanically set into the machine with manual resetting of plugs and switches. It could add or subtract times a second, a thousand times faster than any other machine. It also had modules to multiply, divide, and square root.

High speed memory was limited to 20 words about 80 bytes. Built under the direction of John Mauchly and J. The machine was huge, weighing 30 tons, using kilowatts of electric power and contained over 18, vacuum tubes, 1, relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Turing proposed a simple device that he called "Universal Computing machine" and that is now known as a universal Turing machine.

He proved that such a machine is capable of computing anything that is computable by executing instructions program stored on tape, allowing the machine to be programmable. The fundamental concept of Turing's design is the stored program , where all the instructions for computing are stored in memory. Von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to this paper.

Except for the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern computers are said to be Turing-complete , which is to say, they have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine. Stored programs A section of the Manchester Baby , the first electronic stored-program computer Early computing machines had fixed programs.

Changing its function required the re-wiring and re-structuring of the machine. A stored-program computer includes by design an instruction set and can store in memory a set of instructions a program that details the computation. The theoretical basis for the stored-program computer was laid by Alan Turing in his paper.

In , Turing joined the National Physical Laboratory and began work on developing an electronic stored-program digital computer. His report "Proposed Electronic Calculator" was the first specification for such a device. Grace Hopper was the first person to develop a compiler for programming language.

At least seven of these later machines were delivered between and , one of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam. The LEO I computer became operational in April [48] and ran the world's first regular routine office computer job. Transistors A bipolar junction transistor The bipolar transistor was invented in From onwards transistors replaced vacuum tubes in computer designs, giving rise to the "second generation" of computers.

Compared to vacuum tubes, transistors have many advantages: they are smaller, and require less power than vacuum tubes, so give off less heat. Silicon junction transistors were much more reliable than vacuum tubes and had longer, indefinite, service life.

Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relatively compact space. At the University of Manchester , a team under the leadership of Tom Kilburn designed and built a machine using the newly developed transistors instead of valves.

The idea of the integrated circuit was first conceived by a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the Ministry of Defence , Geoffrey W.

Produced at Fairchild Semiconductor, it was made of silicon , whereas Kilby's chip was made of germanium.

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This new development heralded an explosion in the commercial and personal use of computers and led to the invention of the microprocessor. While the subject of exactly which device was the first microprocessor is contentious, partly due to lack of agreement on the exact definition of the term "microprocessor", it is largely undisputed that the first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel , [58] designed and realized by Ted Hoff , Federico Faggin , and Stanley Mazor at Intel.

If not integrated, The RAM is usually placed directly above known as Package on package or below on the opposite side of the circuit board the SoC, and the flash memory is usually placed right next to the SoC, this all done to improve data transfer speeds, as the data signals don't have to travel long distances. Since ENIAC in , computers have advanced enormously, with modern SoCs being the size of a coin while also being hundreds of thousands of times more powerful than ENIAC, integrating billions of transistors, and consuming only a few watts of power.


Mobile computers The first mobile computers were heavy and ran from mains power. The 50lb IBM was an early example. Later portables such as the Osborne 1 and Compaq Portable were considerably lighter but still needed to be plugged in.

The first laptops , such as the Grid Compass , removed this requirement by incorporating batteries — and with the continued miniaturization of computing resources and advancements in portable battery life, portable computers grew in popularity in the s. Flash has been getting cheaper, so it may take over niches at the expense of hard drives. Note that Adobe Flash is an unrelated concept; it is a proprietary media format. Flash storage is what underlies USB thumb drives, SD cards for use in cameras, or the built-in storage in a tablet or phone.

File System How are the bytes in persistent storage organized? Bytes on a flash drive? Typically the hard disk or flash disk is formatted with a "file system" which organizes the bytes into the familiar pattern of files and directories, where each file and directory has a somewhat useful name like "resume. When you connect the drive to a computer, the computer presents the drive's file system to the user, allowing them open files, move file around, etc.

Essentially, each file in the file system refers to a block of bytes, so the "flowers.

The file system in effect gives the user a name and probably an icon for a block of data bytes, and allows the user to perform operations on that data, like move it or copy it or open it with a program. The file system also tracks information about the bytes: how many there are, the time they were last modified.

FAT32 is an old and primitive file system, but it is good where wide support is important. Persistent Storage Examples This one is easy to understand, since you have used files and files sytems e. It broke, and so became a classroom example. Here is the flat "motherboard", a little smaller than a 8. At the center is the CPU. At the far right is the RAM memory.

Just to the right of the CPU are a couple support chips. Prominently, one of the chips is covered with a copper "heatsink".. Here the mechanism is released so the CPU can be picked up. The fingernail sized CPU is packaged underneath this metal cover which helps conduct the heat from the CPU up to its heatsink.

The gray stuff on the metal chip cover is "thermal paste", a material which helps conduct heat from the chip housing to its not shown heatsink.


CPU chip in metal package Heatsink has been removed Bottom of package.. Each pad is connected by a very fine wire to a spot on the silicon chip. Here is a picture of another chip, but with the top packaging removed. You see the pinky-fingernail silicon chip at the center with the tiny transistor details etched onto it. At the chip edge, see the very fine wires connecting parts of the chip to outside pads CC licensed attribution sharealke 3. Moore's law in action.Since ENIAC in , computers have advanced enormously, with modern SoCs being the size of a coin while also being hundreds of thousands of times more powerful than ENIAC, integrating billions of transistors, and consuming only a few watts of power.

Input Device. The carriage holding the pens should provide all motions. The 50lb IBM was an early example.

RAM is volatile. The planimeter was a manual instrument to calculate the area of a closed figure by tracing over it with a mechanical linkage.