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CCS C Compiler Manual. PCB, PCM, PCH, and PCD. March ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Copyright Custom Computer Services, Inc. CCS C Compiler Manual. PCD. July ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Copyright Custom Computer Services, Inc. Page 2. PCD doc ii. Table of. the CCS C Compiler as the tool suite, then follow the normal MPLAB instructions. To download the latest version of MPLAB to go Microchip's web page at.

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CCS C Compiler Reference Manual June vi. Functional Overviews. See MCU sppn.info for detailed information on these files. Each unit will . CCS - C Compiler Reference Manual - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. About This Manual. This book explains how to use the Code Composer Studio development environment to build and debug embedded real-time software.

The actual comment that follows it will be exported as a paragraph to the documentation generator. Multiple line comments can be specified by adding a: These comments appear before the function, and the names are exported as- is to the documentation generator. Sequence Same as?? All the header files, standard libraries and driver files can be included using this method to automatically link them. Note that the module directive can be used in any include file to limit the visibility of the symbol in that file.

To separately compile your files see the section "multiple compilation units". When using multiple compilation units, care must be given that pre-processor commands that control the compilation are compatible across all units. All of these methods and example projects are included in the MCU.

The process is repeated forever. Items in [ ] are optional if if-else The if-else statement is used to make decisions. The syntax is: If it is false then stmt-2 is done. If none of the conditions are satisfied the last else part is executed. Statements do-while do-while: Differs from while and for loop in that the termination condition is checked at the bottom of the loop rather than at the top and so the body of the loop is always executed at least once. If true, the same is repeated and when it becomes false the loop terminates.

Also See: Any of them can be omitted. Statements switch Switch is also a special multi-way decision maker. If none of the cases are satisfied the default case is executed. The break causes an immediate exit, otherwise control falls through to the next case. Statements return return A return statement allows an immediate exit from a switch or a loop or function and also returns a value.

Statements goto goto The goto statement cause an unconditional branch to the label. The goto's are used sparingly, if at all.

Statements break break. The break statement is used to exit out of a control loop. It provides an early exit from while, for ,do and switch. The syntax is break; It causes the innermost enclosing loop or switch to be exited immediately. Statements continue The continue statement causes the next iteration of the enclosing loop While, For, Do to begin.

Statements expr The syntax is: Statements ; Statement: Statements stmt Zero or more semi-colon separated. Where c is one of: Logical negation operator ll Logical OR operator. In C all the variables should be declared before they are used. They can be defined inside a function local or outside all functions global. This will affect the visibility and life of the variables. A declaration consists of a type qualifier and a type specifier, and is followed by a list of one or more variables of that type.

All types, except float char , by default are un-signed; however, may be preceded by unsigned or signed Except int64 may only be signed. Short and long may have the keyword INT following them with no effect. Also see TYPE to change the default size. Pointers to bits are not permitted.

Integers are stored in little endian format. The LSB is in the lowest address. Float formats are described in common questions. Only accessible from this static compilation unit. Variable exists only while the procedure is active. This is the default and auto AUTO need not be used. No storage is allocated.

Is used to make otherwise out of scope data accessible.

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Data is always positive. This is the default data type if not specified. Data is read-only. Pointers may be used to this data rom but they can not be mixed with RAM pointers. Built-in basic type. Type void is used to indicate no specific type in void places where a type is required. The ids in the list are each created as a constant. By default the first id is set to zero and they increment by one. They provide a way to manipulate different kinds of data in a single area of storage.

The identifier does not allocate space but rather may be used as a type specifier in other data definitions. Addressmod replaces the older typemod with a different syntax.

The usage is: If the area is defined in RAM then read and write functions are not required, the variables assigned in the memory region defined by the addressmod can be treated as a regular variable in all valid expressions.

Pointers can also be made to an addressmod data type. The type directive can be used to make this memory region as default for variable allocations.

The different ways are discussed below: Constant Data: The const qualifier will place the variables into program memory. If the keyword const is used before the identifier, the identifier is treated as a constant. Constants should be initialized and may not be changed at run-time.

This is an easy way to create lookup tables. The rom Qualifier puts data in program memory with 3 bytes per instruction space. The address used for ROM data is not a physical address but rather a true byte address. The constant ID will be at 1C Some extra code will precede the The constant variable can be accessed in the code. This is a great way of storing constant data in large programs. Variable length constant strings can be stored into program memory.

A special method allows the use of pointers to ROM. This method does not contain extra code at the start of the structure as does constant. Another method is to use rom to assign data to program memory. The compiler also provides built-in functions to place data in program memory, they are: These functions can be used only on chips that allow writes to program memory. The compiler uses the flash memory erase and write routines to implement the functionality.

The data placed in program memory using the methods listed above can be read from width the following functions: These functions can be used only on chips that allow reads from program memory. The compiler uses the flash memory read routines to implement the functionality.

This syntax is being proposed as a C extension for embedded use. The same functionality is provided with the non-standard byte, word, bit and locate. See Statements. See Data Types The qualifiers for a function are as follows: When one of the above are used and the function has a prototype forward declaration of the function before it is defined you must include the qualifier on both the prototype and function definition.

A non-standard feature has been added to the compiler to help get around the problems created by the fact that pointers cannot be created to constant strings. A function that has one CHAR parameter will accept a constant string where it is called. The compiler will generate a loop that will call the function once for each character in the string. Here is an example of function overloading: Two functions have the same name but differ in the types of parameters.

The compiler determines which data type is being passed as a parameter and calls the proper function. This function finds the square root of a long integer variable. If variable is of long type, it will call the first FindSquareRoot example. If variable is of float type, it will call the second FindSquareRoot example.

This increases the readability of code and the efficiency of some inline procedures.

The following two procedures are the same. The one with reference parameters will be implemented with greater efficiency when it is inline. If a character is received, it saves it to the pointer c and returns TRUE.

The function can be passed any number of variables and any data types. First, it requires the ellipsis The ellipsis represents the variable argument list. Second, it requires one more variable before the ellipsis Usually you will use this variable as a method for determining how many variables have been pushed onto the ellipsis. Here is a function that calculates and returns the sum of all variables: Relevant Functions: Relevant Preprocessor: Relevant Interrupts: None, all functions built-in Relevant getenv Parameters: ADC These options let the user configure and use the analog to digital converter module.

They are only available on devices with the ADC hardware. The options for the functions and directives vary depending on the chip and are listed in the device header file. On some devices there are two independent ADC modules, for these chips the second module is configured using secondary ADC setup functions Ex.

Starts the conversion and reads the value. None, all functions built-in Relevant getenv parameters: Only available in some devices. Enables and sets the analog comparator module. Refer to the header file for details. Interrupt fires on comparator detect. Relevant Include Files: The listed interrupts are no available to the MCP interface chip. It is also used to set the ID ext ; of the message to be sent.

Returns the ID of a received message. ECAN Disables the automatic response feature. None Relevant Interrupts: There might be multiple CCP modules for a device. These functions are only available on devices with CCP hardware. They operate in 3 modes: The options available are different for different devices and are listed in the device header file.

Sets the mode to capture, compare or PWM. So check the fuses to see which pin is set by default. Code Profile Profile a program while it is running. Unlike in-circuit debugging, this tool grabs information while the program is running and provides statistics, logging and tracing of it's execution.

This is accomplished by using a simple communication method between the processor and the ICD with minimal side-effects to the timing and execution of the program. Another benefit of code profile versus in-circuit debugging is that a program written with profile support enabled will run correctly even if there is no ICD connected.

In order to use Code Profiling, several functions and pre-processor statements need to be included in the project being compiled and profiled. Doing this adds the proper code profile run-time support on the microcontroller. See the help file in the Code Profile tool for more help and usage examples. Send a user specified message or variable to be profileout displayed or logged by the code profile tool. Relevant Pre-Processor: Global configuration of the code profile run-time on use profile the microcontroller.

This Relevant Interrupts: None — all the functions are built into the compiler. Relevant getenv: This functionality is not available on the PIC16 Family of devices.. None Relevant Include Files: None Example Code: They are only available on devices with the DAC hardware.

Right enable, clock divisor Writes the bit value to the specified channel Relevant Preprocessor: None, all functions built-in Relevant getenv None parameters: These options lets the user read and write to the data eeprom memory. These functions are only available in flash chips. The maximum return size is int Both the carrier and the modulator signals are supplied to the DSM module, either internally from the output of a peripheral, or externally through an input pin.

The modulated output signal is generated by performing a logical AND operation of both the carrier and modulator signals and then it is provided to the MDOUT pin.

Using this method, the DSM can generate the following types of key modulation schemes: These functions are available only on devices that support external memory bus. These functions will affect the pins that are listed in the device header file.

Sets the specified pin to the input mode. A '1' is an input and '0' is for output. A makes the output open-drain and 0 makes the output push-pull. None, all functions built-in Relevant getenv PIN: B3 as input and B4: B7 as output Example Code: Relevant getenv Parameters: There are different ways to configure the internal oscillator. Some chips have a constant 4 Mhz factory calibrated internal oscillator.

The value is stored in some location mostly the highest program memory and the compiler moves it to the osccal register on startup. The programmers save and restore this value but if this is lost they need to be programmed before the oscillator is functioning properly. They are also software tunable. Some chips also provide the PLL option for the internal oscillator. The options vary depending on the chip and finetune are listed in the device header files.

None Relevant Preprocessor: None, all functions built-in Relevant Include Files: None Relevant getenv parameters: Example Code: The use delay statements should be used to tell the compiler about the oscillator speed.

Interrupts The following functions allow for the control of the interrupt subsystem of the microcontroller. With these functions, interrupts can be enabled, disabled, and cleared. Disables the specified interrupt. This can be either rising or falling edge.

This function will clear the specified interrupt flag. This directive specifies that the following function should be called whenever an interrupt is triggered. This directive specifies that the following function should be called whenever the xxx interrupt is triggered. Functions available on the chips that have the low voltage detect hardware. The options vary depending on the chip and are listed in the device header files.

Key features of the PMP module are: This will write a byte of data to the next buffer location or will write a byte to the specified buffer location. Reads a byte of data.

CCS - C Compiler Reference Manual

Configures the address register of the PMP module with the destination address during Master mode operation. This will return the status of the output buffer underflow bit. This will return the status of the input buffers. This will return the status of the output buffers. Relevant getenv parameters: They are only available on devices equipped with PWM.

The options for these functions vary depending on the chip and are listed in the device header file. Sets up the PWM clock, period, dead time etc. This duty cycle value is the time for which the PWM is in active state.

Here period is Example Code: These options lets the user read and write to the Flash program memory. Interrupt fires when eeprom write is complete. If the first ORY - address is not the start of a block that block is not erased. Will erase a block. No erase is needed. Gets a character on the receive pin from the specified getc or getch stream in case of fgetc, stdin by default. Use getc to receive each gets or fgets character until return is encountered. Puts a character over the transmit pin on the specified putc or putchar or stream in the case of fputc, stdout by default fputc Puts a string over the transmit pin on the specified stream in the case of fputc, stdout by default.

Uses putc to send puts or fputs each character. Prints the formatted string on the specified stream in the case of fprintf, stdout by default. Refer to the printf help for printf or fprintf details on format string. Useful for polling without waiting in getc. Specifying stream is optional.

Refer to the help for d,[stream] more advanced options. Configures the compiler to support RS to specifications. This operating system is cooperatively multitasking and allows for tasks to be scheduled to run at specified time intervals. Begins the operation of the RTOS. This function terminates the operation of the RTOS and returns operation to the original program.

Enables one of the RTOS tasks. The parameter to this function is the name of task to be enabled. Disables one of the RTOS tasks. The parameter to this function is the name of the task to be disabled.

Returns true if there is data in the task's message queue. Sends a byte of data to the specified task. Will return true if the given task over ran its alloted time.

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Configure the hardware SPI to the specified mode. Timer0 These options lets the user configure and use timer0. It is available on all devices and is always enabled. It counts up and also provides interrupt on overflow.

The options available differ and are listed in the device header file. So please refer to the Timer1 section for more details. Timer4 Timer4 is very similar to Timer2. So please refer to the Timer2 section for more details. Timer5 These options lets the user configure and use timer5. It is available on devices with Timer A hardware. The options available are listed in the device's header file. It is available on devices with TimerB hardware.

Initializes the USB hardware. Will enable and use the USB interrupt. Removes the PIC from the bus. Attaches the PIC to the bus. Else will always return TRUE. Places the packet of data into the specified endpoint buffer.

Returns the number of bytes saved endpoint, ptr, max to ptr. Reads a message from the specified endpoint. Returns the number of bytes max, timeout received.

Relevant CDC Functions: The same as getc , reads and returns a character from the receive buffer. The same as putc , sends a character.

Relevant Preporcessor: A USB event has happened, and requires application intervention. Relevant Include files: You can use this external peripheral usbnx. Common definitions and prototypes used by the USB driver usb. Due to the complexity of USB example code will not fit here.

A vendor-specific class using bulk transfers is demonstrated. Voltage Reference These functions configure the votlage reference module. These are available only in the supported chips. Enables and sets up the internal voltage reference value. Relevant Preprocesser: Voltage level is above 3.

Availability Devices with interrupts Requires Interrupt constants defined in the device's. In this case the data is written to the array with a 0 terminator. In this case the function is called for each character to be output. May be any integer, char, float or fixed type. Char arrays are Output: In this case the data is read from the array up to the 0 terminator.

In this case the function is called for each character to be input. Char arrays are Input: Floats may use the E format. Reading of each item terminates with any character not valid for the type. Usually items are separated by spaces. The termination character is discarded.

No termination character is read for a single char input. Syntax is dependent on the command. Many commands do not allow other syntactical elements on the remainder of the line.

A table of commands and a description is listed on the previous page. Several of the pre-processor directives are extensions to standard C. C provides a pre- processor directive that compilers will accept and ignore or act upon the following data.

To be compatible with other compilers, this may be used before non-standard features. Valid values for x are as follows: This is to prevent an address fault when accessing an element of struct. See the following example: By applying the 'packed' attribute to this struct then it would take 3 bytes as originally intended: The aligned attribute will force the compiler to allocate a location for the specified variable at a location that is modulus of the y parameter.

B data,W0 Examples: None Also See: This is useful to gain access in C directly to a bit in the processors special Purpose: It may also be used to easily access a bit of a standard C variable.

This id resolves to a number representing the number of successful builds of the project. Start and end are used to specify a range in memory to be used. When linking multiple Purpose: In this case the variable type does not change from the original definition. If the id is not known a new C variable is created and placed at address x with the type int 8 bit Purpose: In both cases memory at x is not exclusive to this variable. Other variables may be located at the same location. In fact when x is a variable, then id and x share the same memory location.

None Elements: Will cause the compiler to be case sensitive. By default the compiler is case insensitive. When linking multiple compilation units, this directive must appear exactly the same in each compilation unit. Not all the CCS example programs, headers and drivers have been tested with case sensitivity turned on.

This pre-processor identifier is replaced at compile time with the date of the Purpose: Used to provide a simple string replacement of the ID with the given text from this point of the program and on.

In the second form a C macro the local identifiers are matched up with similar identifiers in the text and they are replaced with text passed to the Purpose: If the text contains a string of the form idx then the result upon evaluation will be the parameter id concatenated with the string x. Within the define text two special operators are supported: In this case, all remaining arguments are combined with the commas.

A C status for the type of id entered as follows: All devices Requires: PIC16C74 , To get a current list of supported devices: Valid options are: The default is 1. Requires the use of the keyword for overloading. Allows higher priority interrupts to interrupt lower priority interrupts. This is not a commonly used option; used rarely in cases where the user is writing their own ISR handler. This option prevents that action.

The default mode is CCS4. This is the default compilation mode. Compilation is case sensitive, all other modes ANSI case insensitive. The overload keyword is required. Compilation mode selection - The compilation mode selection Purpose: The base number is Purpose: For example the PIC16C has a base number of Code is any standard c source code.

Only preprocessor Purpose: Forces the compiler to generate an error at the location this directive appears in the file. The text may include macros that will be expanded for the display. This may be used to see the macro Purpose: The command may also be used to alert the user to an invalid compile time situation.

If not given, the Elements: Must be imported or linked before loading into a PIC. Ready to be loaded into a PIC. EVEN Only even bytes placed in hex file. This directive will tell the compiler to either generate a relocatable object file or a stand-alone HEX binary. A relocatable object file must be linked into your application, while a stand-alone HEX binary can be programmed directly into the PIC. See Also: The pre-processor identifier is replaced at compile time with the file Purpose: The pre-processor identifier is replaced at compile time with the Purpose: This directive specifies the data to be used to fill unused ROM locations.

When linking multiple compilation units, this directive must Purpose: None Example Files: ROM Also See: A list of all valid options has Elements: Some common options are: This directive does not affect the compilation; however, the information is put in the output files.

If the fuses need to be in Parallax format, add a PAR option. This is required for some device programmers. Some fuses are set by the compiler based on other compiler directives. For example, the oscillator fuses are set up by the USE delay directive. Some processors allow different levels for certain fuses. To access Purpose: When linking multiple compilation units be aware this directive applies to the final object file.

Later files in the import list may reverse settings in previous files. To eliminate all fuses in the output files use: Puts a comment in the hex file Purpose: This directive defines the ID word to be programmed into the part. This directive does not affect the compilation but the information is put in the output file. The first syntax will take a 16 -bit number and put one nibble in each of the four ID words in the traditional manner.

When a filename is specified the ID is read from the file. This directive acts much like the IF except that the preprocessor simply checks to see if the specified ID is known to the preprocessor Purpose: IF Also See: This function will suppress warning messages from the compiler. ALL indicates no warning will be generated.

NONE indicates all warnings Purpose: If numbers are listed then those warnings are suppressed. Warning messages Also See: HEX Imported data is straight hex data. This directive will tell the compiler to include link a relocatable object with this unit during compilation. It may include normal drive and path information.

A file with the extension ". This allows include files to be distributed without releasing the source code. Text from the specified file is used at this point of the compilation. If a full path is not specified the compiler will use the list of directories specified for the project to search for the file. If the filename is in "" Purpose: This will cause a duplicate copy of the code to be placed everywhere the function is called.

This is useful to Purpose: Check the devices. These directives specify the following function is an interrupt function.

Interrupt functions may not have any parameters. Not all directives may be used with all parts. See the devices. It will generate code to save and restore the machine state, and will clear the interrupt flag.

A high-priority interrupt can interrupt another interrupt handler. An interrupt marked FAST is performed without saving or restoring any registers. You should do as little as possible and save any registers that need to be saved on your own.

Interrupts marked HIGH can be used normally. A summary of the different kinds of PIC18 interrupts: This interrupt will not interrupt any interrupt in progress. Only one is allowed in a program.

CCS C Manual

This interrupt will interrupt any normal interrupt in progress. User function is located at address 8 for user interrupt handling. Example Files: If an interrupt is flagged, but is Purpose: This directive causes the following function to replace the compiler interrupt dispatcher.

The function is normally not required and should be used with Purpose: When used, the compiler does not generate start-up code or clean-up code, and does not save the registers. The pre-processor identifier is replaced at compile time with line Purpose: LIST begins inserting or resumes inserting source lines into the. LST Purpose: LIST 16c Number is non-negative decimal integer. File name is optional. The C pre-processor informs the C Compiler of the location in your source code. If the C variable was not previously defined, it will be defined as an INT8.

A special form of this directive may be used to locate all A functions local variables starting at a fixed location. This may be used to limit the scope of global variables and functions within include files. This directive also applies to pre-processor defines. The extern and static data qualifiers can also be used to denote scope of variables and functions as in the standard C methodology. Stops inserting source lines into the.

All Devices: The optimization level is set with this directive. This setting applies to the entire program and may appear anywhere in the file.

The PCW default is 9 for normal. When Compress is specified the optimization Purpose: Debugging with this level my be more difficult. End may be omitted if a segment was previously defined if you only want to add another function to the segment. The RAM for a ORG'd function may be reset to low memory so the local variables and scratch variables are placed in low memory. This should only be used if the ORG'd function will not return to the Purpose: If a compiler function is called from the generated code while DEFAULT is in effect the compiler generates a new version of the function within the specified address range.

For a ROM declaration only the start address should be specified. The PCB compiler defines this pre-processor identifier. It may be used Purpose: The PCM compiler defines this pre-processor identifier.

None The PCH compiler defines this pre-processor identifier. This directive is used to maintain compatibility between C compilers. This compiler will accept this directive before any other pre- Purpose: In no case does this compiler require this directive. The priority directive may be used to set the interrupt priority. The highest priority items are first in the list. If an interrupt is active it is never interrupted.

If two interrupts occur at around the same time then Purpose: When linking multiple compilation units be aware only the one in the last compilation unit is used. Re-enables the code profiling that was previously disabled with a profile off on command.

This will use the last options before disabled with the off command. Large programs on the microcontroller may generate lots of profile data, which may make it difficult to debug or follow.

By using profile Purpose: This directive allows RAM locations to be reserved from use by the compiler. ORG Also See: HEX file. Note that if the ROM address is inside the program memory space, the directive creates a segment for the data, resulting in an error if a ORG is over the same area.

The ROM data will also be counted as used program memory space. Using char as the type treats each item as 7 bits packing 2 chars into every pcm bit word. Some special forms of this directive may be used for verifying program memory: This will save ROM space but it does use more stack space. Use only one of the next three options: It is assumed this is a one line file with the serial number. The programmer will increment the serial number.

It is assumed this is a file one serial number per line. The programmer will read the first line then delete that line from the file. Other optional parameters: If used with one of the above three options then the default value the user may use is picked according to the above rules. Comments are inserted into the hex file that the Purpose: ICD software interprets. Each RTOS task is specified as a function that has no parameters and no return. An RTOS task cannot be called directly like a regular function can.

TASK options Syntax: This specifies how often the task will execute. This specifies the budgeted time for this task. The default value is 0. True for enabled, false for disabled. The default value is enabled. This directive tells the compiler that the following function is an RTOS task. The rate option is used to specify how often the task should execute.

The max option is used to specify how much processor time a task will use in one execution of the task. The compiler does not have a way to enforce this limit on processor time, so a programmer must be careful with how much processor time a task uses for execution.

This option does not need to be specified. The queue option is used to specify the number of bytes to be reserved for the task to receive messages from other tasks or functions. The default queue value is 0. This pre-processor identifier is replaced at compile time with the time Purpose: The traditional C convention is to have INT defined as the most efficient size for the target processor. In order to help with code compatibility a TYPE directive may be used to allow these types to be changed.

TYPE can redefine these keywords. Note that the commas are optional. Since TYPE may render some sizes inaccessible like a one bit int in the above four keywords representing the four ints may always be used: This directive may also be used to change the default RAM area used for variable storage. When linking multiple compilation units be aware this directive only applies to the current compilation unit.

The specified pre-processor ID will no longer have meaning to the pre- Purpose: Useful for device with remappable pins, this will cause compiler to automatically assign pin to peripheral. If not specified it will be set to fastest as possible or if same timer was already setup by a previous stream it will be set to that tick time. If using same timer as previous stream and different tick time an error will be generated.

Valid options are 1, 4 and 16, default to 1 if not specified. This directive tells the compiler to setup an input capture on the specified pin using the specified settings. Options may be any of the following separated by commas: This number can contains commas.

This number also supports the following denominations: This specifies the clock the CPU runs at. Depending on the PIC this is 2 or 4 times the instruction rate. The compiler will automatically set the oscillator configuration bits based upon your defined type. If you specified internal, the compiler will also automatically set the internal oscillator to the defined speed. Configuration fuses are modified when this option is used. Speed is the input frequency. ACT can only be used when the system clock is set to run from the internal oscillator.

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There is no timeout for the slave. The options available are different for different devices and are listed in the device header file.