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You ended up with a perfect spark timing only in a limited RPM band. A complete map of variables was entered into the ignition program and the preset timing would be read from a table.
What does ECU remapping do? Electronic ignition allows the manufacturer to fine tune economy at popular road speeds such as 30mph, 56mph and 70mph where most cars spend a large proportion of their time. Some manufacturers in the cheat software scandal have even created code to detect test conditions and run super lean to pass emissions limits.
It is now possible to advance the timing if the throttle is wide open to give greater power or back off the timing when cruising at constant speed for improved economy.
Manufacturers do not want people breaking down, suffering premature parts failure or to get a reputation for uneconomical cars so they build in a wide margin of tolerance.
Different countries use different grades of fuel and have varying degrees of extreme weather conditions, all these factors add to the fudge that has to be done to keep all the cars working well across the globe. Each car that leaves the production line is also unique, some achieve 20bhp less and others can be 20bhp up on standard specs, depending on how well the components are machined and put together. So rather than put each car through a unique assessment and get a bespoke timing map, they adopt a standard one map fits all philosophy.
It is also a fact that manufacturers use the remap to produce different power versions of the same engine and get lower insurance cover ratings and better fuel consumption.
You start to see the fantastic scope for improvement, when you add into the mix the fact that the average TorqueCars reader will be adding better performing components to the car, you have a really strong case for a remap.
Other things that the manufacturer builds in to their map equation is the possibility of user neglect i. The list goes on. In some countries emissions targets vary as measured by CO2, HC, NOx and these usually require a fudging of the one setup for all approach. Anyone who has added performance parts to their engine should consider a remap. What are the hidden costs or drawbacks? You will need to be prepared to keep the car serviced more frequently, and, sometimes decreasing the service interval by half.
When you fill up you are also restricting yourself to high quality fuel and even high octane fuel if this was what the map was optimized for, and you must be prepared to replace components that fail due to the extra work they are doing.
When an engine is tuned to produce more power, you are also creating more stress and strain, so things will start to fail such as air flow sensors.
Any weak spots in an engine usually show up a couple of months after a remap has been done. Also turbos can wear out, other major components like pistons and bearings will need care and attention and you will find that the clutch lasts a shorter time. If you do not have a turbo there's very little to be gained by a remap alone - perhaps only a few BHP so TorqueCars' recommendation for non turbo cars is to modify everything else first cams, pistons, increase compression, engine balance, air intake, exhaust, head work, bigger valves etc On the subject of turbos, briefly though as we have a comprehensive article on turbos in the forced induction section , a remap will often introduce boost from lower down the rev range and because of this the turbo is running faster and hotter.
In this situation you must let the turbo cool down a little before shutting off the engine, otherwise the oil will degrade and you will have an expensive turbo repair on your hands. Fitting a turbo timer will also help with this problem and keeps the engine ticking over. Of course the amount of power you choose has a bearing on the reliability and cost of running the car. This is better than the manufacturers map in that it uses tighter parameters but it is still a one size fits all job. If you are after big power gains and have changed major components like the turbo, waste gate and have done extensive engine work then a custom remap is the best option.
Switchable Remaps Things have moved on and it is now possible to have a few maps stored which you can select from.
It is typical to have a valet mode to stop the boy racers at the garage thrashing your pride and joy on the "test run" to bed in the new wiper blades they have fitted. Then there is often an economy option to give very frugal fuel consumption, particularly useful when cruising on long journeys.
Then you have the 'sport' or 'power' modes which give lots of power and often require high octane fuel. TorqueCars strongly recommend that you get a switchable remap - it may cost a little more at the outset but you will avoid many of the pitfalls of running a high power remap all of the time by doing this and get the best of both worlds.
Some maps use the cruise control to choose a map, other companies offer handheld flash devices which allow you to choose a range of maps and upload these. It typically takes about 3 minutes to flash a car through the OBD port so is not an on the fly option. Most people will run an economy map through the weekly commute and then go for a performance map at the weekend or a race map for track days. If it was really this easy to get more power from a car then the manufacturers would have already done that themselves.
Some ECU's are simply not reprogrammable. So what can you do? Is there an option? All work slightly differently and apply some or all of the following combinations.
Some will adjust the sensor readings such as air temp, engine speed, crank position and effectively lie to the standard ECU forcing a more aggressive timing.
Some will actually perform their own calculations and take over control of some aspects of engine management like turbo waste gate control and ignition timing. Some will take the standard ECU output and modify the signals sent to change timing and learn to guess the next output a split second before it is needed using the base ECU map and just enhancing it a little.
Tuning boxes are relatively new and these alter readings going to and from the ECU giving extra power or economy.
Aftermarket ECUs are often direct replacements for the car's ECU and will take over all the functions associated with it. If this is the case then set your timing conservatively and use high octane fuel. Or Dinan ECU - which are "best guess" chips?
Should I get one of those chips I see for sale on site all the time? It's supposed to be one of your last modifications and not one of your first, to prevent the need for multiple chip reprogrammings after each addition of a new modification.
The reason you see so many chips for resale on site? Other enthusiasts made the mistake of downloading a chip too early that was not programmed correctly for the unique way their engine package breathes.
It made very little power for them , or likely made their engine run too rich, or both. They are now trying to recover the money lost from an obsolete or incompatible chip. Then there are the programmers who take advantage of import enthusiasts who do not understand the performance difference between a pre-programmed, mail-order chip versus a chip tuned and programmed on your car at a dyno.
They are selling them based on the attractiveness of convenience for unsuspecting people who don't have a local programmer and dyno, the hyped hp gains from the magazine articles or ads, and a lower cost compared to other significant hp gain modifications, like cams or an intake manifold IM.
The ECU controls: the fuel map ie. When you get a new chip, the programmer has changed the program's commands of the ignition map and fuel map in response to a change in air flow and rpm ie. The amount of ignition timing and fuel delivery is changed for a given air flow and rpm compared to the stock program.
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The programmer can also remove or inactivate the sensor CEL warning codes and move the VTEC point, redline, and speed limiter points to anywhere you like. What do these ECU program's commands look like? The program commands can be entered on 2 dimenional tables. Most but not all plug in chip replacements claim to be a 'Mugen' program.
The chips are popular with engine swaps because they eliminate most error codes caused by poor wiring The stock knock sensor is designed to compensate for different qualities of fuel, and has a limited scope of adjustment. It is not designed to co for detonation under boost and may be fooled by forged pistons rattling into retarding the ignition when knock is not present. Read our review of Ubuntu Linux 18 Bionic Beaver which also covers all the ins-and-outs of exactly a Linux distro is vs.
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The tool allows encrypting PDFs and protect them from being opened, printed etc. Other things that the manufacturer builds in to their map equation is the possibility of user neglect i.