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Hardware is any part of the computer that you can touch. The seeming miles of wires that get tangled on your desk, the CD drive, the monitor are all hardware. Software is a set of electronic instructions consisting of complex codes Programs that make the computer perform tasks.
Windows is a software, so is any other program that runs on your computer. While there are thousands of parts even in the smallest computers that make up its hardware, you are not required to know them all. You only need to know about basic computer hardware. Basic computer hardware consists of the following parts: 1.
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It performs all types of data processing operations, stores data, intermediate results and instructions program.
It controls the operation of all parts of computer. A CPU has 3 components as listed below. The ALU thinks in bits i. It is made up of a group of memory locations built directly into the CPU called registers.
These are used to hold the data binary information that are being processed by the current instruction. C Memory Primary memory is memory that is part of the computer itself and necessary for its functioning.
As soon as the machine is switched off, data is erased. RAM is volatile. Volatile means that the data stored in memory is lost when we switch off the computer or if there is a power failure. There are different types of RAM available. Some of them are described below. The term dynamic indicates that the memory must be constantly refreshed or it loses its contents.
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This type of memory is more economical. The term static is derived from the fact that it does not need to be refreshed like DRAM. This type of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture.
A ROM, stores such instructions that are required to start a computer. This operation is referred to as bootstrap. The different types of ROM are given below. The MROM cannot be programmed by the user. EPROM is erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes. It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times.
Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 milliseconds. Secondary Storage External Storage Devices Floppy diskettes, hard disk, tapes and optical disks come under the category of external storage devices or ancillary storage devices. These devices are very sensitive to environmental conditions humidity and temperature as well as to external magnetic fields and need to be stored carefully.
Information on a floppy disk is recorded in the magnetized states of particles of iron oxides evenly placed upon concentric circles known as tracks. It contains a stack of metal platters, each coated with iron oxide, that spin on a spindle and the entire unit is encased in a sealed chamber. C Magnetic Tape This is plastic tape, usually made of Mylar that is coated with iron oxide, thereby enabling the introduction writing ; retention memory and reading of magnetically recorded information. Icons A tiny picture that represents a program, folder, or program function.
There is a bar that is usually at the bottom of the desktop, however it may also be on any other side. If you cannot see it, then move the cursor to the edge where it is and it will come up. It is called the task-bar. Taskbar The taskbar is the bar along one side of the desktop. It is used for launching programs or opening the window of an open program. This area is called the system tray.
On the main part of the task-bar there is sometimes a small group of icons, this is called the quick-launch bar. Clicking on one of these icons opens whatever it represents. On the opposite side of the task-bar from the clock and the system tray is a button. A button or command button is just like a real button, when it is pushed clicked it does something.
Some buttons have text on them that say what they do, and some have icons representing what they do. Some have both. Command Buttons Buttons do something when you click on them. They may be labeled by text, an icon, or both. The quick-launch icons are also buttons. Some buttons are raised to look like real buttons and some only raise up when you hover put the cursor on top of them. The button on the other side of the start-bar from the clock and system tray is called the start-button.
When you click the start-button it opens the start-menu. The start-menu has icons for more programs and data collections, although it is usually programs.
Start button The Start button is a button that opens the start-menu. Start menu The Start menu contains icons for all installed programs and data collections, usually for programs. The icons that are on the desktop, the quick-launch bar, and the start-menu are usually shortcuts. On the desktop shortcuts are often indicated by a small symbol on top of the icon. Icons represent all data collections and programs even if they are not shortcuts, however normally the ones on the desktop and in the start-menu are shortcuts.
Shortcuts Icons that are only links to the things those icons represent. The difference between icons and shortcuts is important so be sure you understand it. An icon is any picture that is meant to convey what something is.
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The icon on the start-button represents the fact that it is a major part of Windows, which is why it is a Windows logo. Shortcuts are a link to a program or data collection; the icon on a shortcut represents whatever the shortcut opens, however the same icon would be on the real thing as well.
A Venn Diagram can maybe better show this, see Figure 2. You open whatever is linked to by each shortcut on the start-menu by clicking on it.
If any icon has a right-arrow beside it, then hovering over it or clicking on it will make a sub-menu a menu inside a menu come out with more shortcuts on it. Everything we just talked about is part of the Windows interface. An interface is just anything that goes between two or more things. This interface goes between you and the computer, you could also say that the Operating System is the interface between the hardware and software. Interface An interface, just as the name suggests, is anything that acts as or creates a medium of interaction or communication between multiple things.
A user-interface is the means of interaction between you the user and the computer. There are some standard things that are on most user-interfaces.
We have already talked about one, buttons. These things are called controls. Below is a table of some of the more common controls, starting with buttons: Name of control and picture Description Buttons also called command buttons do something when clicked.
Check box A check box turns something on or off. There is a check in the box if it is on, to change it click on it. Text box Also called edit boxes, these boxes let you type text in them.Secondary Storage External Storage Devices Floppy diskettes, hard disk, tapes and optical disks come under the category of external storage devices or ancillary storage devices.
How to design and implement a stripped-down version of an interpreter for the BASIC language was covered in articles by Allison in the first three quarterly issues of the People's Computer Company newsletter published in and implementations with source code published in Dr.
We hope this article helped you to find the best book for getting you started with computer programming.
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It controls the operation of all parts of computer. The most common replacement Operating System is called Linux. The Apple II and TRS each had two versions of BASIC, a smaller introductory version introduced with the initial releases of the machines and a more advanced version developed as interest in the platforms increased.
D Printer Printer is an output device, which is used to print information on paper.
This section should help students who are not familiar with the basic concepts to understand the rest of this document. This interface goes between you and the computer, you could also say that the Operating System is the interface between the hardware and software. The latter has essentially the same power as C and Java but with syntax that reflects the original Basic language.