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EBOOK TU DUY D?T PHA

Wednesday, July 31, 2019


51 - T DUY TCH CC TO THNH CNG g nht than v tin thng v pha trc, nh th ng l mt trong nhng ngi anh hng ca Alger vy. l mt trn nh d di. C ba cu b kia nhy b. Tư duy thiên sppn.info by hthuong ngng cao u v tin v pha trc, sng cuc i nh mnh hng mong i? . no n s tr li, day dt trong bn thm ch dn vt bn mi ngy th ta cng. D n ebook cho thit b di ng. Pht hnh ebook: . cc k nng t duy khng d dng nhng khng phi l khng th. . c trong cun sch ny khng th snh c vi thnh tu c nht v nh ca Strunk v so snh hai my pha c ph c sn xut hng lot ly ra t cng mt nh my, chng.


Ebook Tu Duy D?t Pha

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Tiện đây thì mình cũng rất thích bộ truyện Gintama nên mình hỏi bạn có thể giúp mình bản Pdf có được không ạ Tủ Sách Truyện Tranh Cổ Tích Việt Nam – Sự Tích Trầu Cau gia đình phật tử, gđpt Với cuộc sống hiện đại ngày nay, tư duy phát triển của các bé ngày một tăng cao. Inuyasha khuyn d xoa chap ting vit. Khoa K thu t Hóa h c ỹ ậ ọ B môn K thu t Ch bi n D u ộ ỹ ậ ế ế ầ khí MÔN THI: THI . EBOOK KHAM PHA TU DUY GIAI NHANH THAN TOC HOA THAY NGUYEN. BÀI T P KỸ THU T PHÁN Ậ Ậ NG Ứ CÁC THÍ D Ụ Thi d 1 Nhi t ph n ng. ự ệ ả ứ . EBOOK KHAM PHA TU DUY GIAI NHANH THAN TOC HOA THAY NGUYEN.

Thc t, ph ca n ngy cng rng khp v n thch hp vi suy lun con ngi v chng ta c th rn luyn hng ngy theo n. V vy quy tc logic c bn v quy tc c bn trong suy lun con ngi c th xem l cng mt ni dung. C bn quy tc logic c bn hay quy tc c bn trong suy lun con ngi , trong chng ta quan tm nht ti quy tc mu thun. Tuy nhin, c mt h thng hon chnh, chng ta cng lt qua ba quy tc cn li ca logic trc. Gii thch: Ton b thc th hin hu khng phi l mt m hn n ng dng. Nu mt s vt l chnh n, hin nhin n khng phi l th g khc.

N khng phi qu cam, qu chui hay qu l. Gia tn ti v khng tn ti khng c hnh thi trung gian no. Mt s vt hoc tn ti hoc khng tn ti, khng c trung im gia hai cc. Ci n trn bn ti hoc l thc s hoc khng. Khng cn kh nng no khc. Chng ta c th t cu hi: Bn ngh sao v chuyn ang hnh thnh? C trng thi ang hnh thnh nm gia tn ti v khng tn ti khng? Cu tr li l Khng. Khng c th g ang hnh thnh, ch c nhng th tr thnh. Trng thi ang hnh thnh thuc a ht tn ti. Mt ci n ang trong qu trnh sn xut th cha phi l ci n, tuy nhin, nhng b phn to thnh ci n hin hu v trng thi ang hnh thnh ca ci n ph thuc hon ton vo s tn ti ca chng.

Theo ci nhn tuyt i th khng c chuyn ang hnh thnh. Elaineang tng ngy tr thnh mt nhc cng ti nng nh chuyn cn luyn tp. Khng th c chuyn ang tr thnh mt nhc cng nu khng c mt Elaine ang tn ti. Khng c trng thi ang hnh thnh i vi s tn ti ca mt con ngi. Elaine ang tr thnh mt cch tng i ch khng phi tuyt i: Mt ln na, nim c bn trong quy tc bi trung l khng tn ti nhng khong cch trong khi nim tn ti. Ci chng ta gi l ang tr thnh khng phi l con ng chuyn dch t khng tn ti n tn ti, ch c s bin i bn trong mt hay cc s vt tn ti.

C mt l do y cho mi chuyn. Ng trong quy tc ny l khng c th g trong v tr vt cht mang tnh t l gii hay l nguyn nhn cho chnh bn thn n. B m ca Larry l nguyn nhn dn n s tn ti ca anh ny; nu khng c h th anh ta khng tn ti. Hun luyn vin qun vt ca Larry thi trung hc l nguyn nhn khin anh tr thnh mt tay chi qun vt gii. V hun luyn vin l nguyn nhn khin Larry tn ti theo cch c th l mt tay chi qun vt gii. Tt nhin, c th cn nhng nguyn nhn khc khin Larry tr thnh mt tay chi qun vt gii v v th, v hun luyn vin ch l mt trong s nhiu nguyn nhn.

Khng c i tng no c th va tn ti va khng tn ti cng lc trong cng mt phng din. Cm t trong cng mt phng din trong pht biu trn ni n cch thc tn ti ang bn n. S khng c mu thun no nu th g va mang mt trng thi va cng lc khng mang trng thi trn nhng phng din khc nhau.

V d, hin nay bn ang thc s New York cn trong u li ngh ang cch San Francisco ba ngn dm.

Nhng bn khng th thc s cng mt phng din c New York v San Francisco. Hai pht biu mu thun nhau nu mt trong hai pht biu hon ton ph nhn pht biu kia. Alexander Hamilton l mt thnh vin trong ni cc ca Tng thng George Washington. Alexander Hamilton khng phi l mt thnh vin trong ni cc ca Tng thng George Washington. Hai pht biu ny khng th cng lc ng. Nu mt ci ng, ci cn li phi sai v ngc li.

Nu a ng th theo b phi sai. T mu thun contradiction trong ting Anh bt ngun t ting Latin contra tng phn v dicere ni. Ni dung ca mt mnh mu thun tng phn vi chnh bn thn n v n khng tng ng vi thc ti khch quan. Theo , trnh mu thun cng n gin l trnh sai lm. Nu mc ch chnh ca logic l vn ti chn l th hin nhin iu quan trng nht l n trnh s i lp vi chn l. Nu chng ta ch a ra nhng pht biu v nhng vn quan trng trong mt mi trng nghim tc, chng ta s phi chu trch nhim v tnh chun xc ca cc mnh vi thc ti khch quan.

Hu ht mi ngi khng cm thy thoi mi nu c thi quen gi nhng pht biu mu thun trong tin thc ca mnh. V d, ti khng th thng thn vi chnh mnh rng Ti c tnh ni di Stephanie rt nhiu ln v Ti cha bao gi ni di Stephanie. Khi gi nh rng pht biu th nht phn nh thc ti khch quan, ti ngm trit tiu pht biu th hai. Mt cch khc ti gi ly nhng pht biu mu thun vi thc ti l c tnh khng kim chng ni dung ca n vi thc ti. Thi ny thng c biu t bng cu ni: Kiu suy ngh ny khng ging vi l lun lng trnh.

N chng c g lin quan n logic c. T duy duy l l cch l lun bo v nhng nim tin sai lm. Nhng quy tc logic c bn va c nhc n chc hn khng c g mi m vi bn. D rt hin nhin nhng chng ta vn cn ghi nh i iu v chng. Nhng ngay sau khi bn hiu ni dung n nu ra, phn ng t nhin li l Tt nhin ri! Cng vi s hin nhin, nhng quy tc c bn ny vn cn mt c im l chng khng th chng minh.

Ngha l chng khng phi l nhng kt lun theo sau nhng tin ; chng khng phi l nhng chn l ph thuc vo cc chn l i trc. Chng c bn theo ngha chnh xc nht ca t ny. Ti khng th tm ra nguyn nhn cho tt c nhng g ang tn ti v cng khng cn phi chng minh v vi ti, n l chn l qu hin nhin, n gin ch bng cch quan st cch vn hnh ca n. Nu nhng quy tc c bn ca mt ngnh khoa hc khng c nhn nhn nh l. Vng xm thc t, vng xm nhn to Vng xm l vng m chn l khng th c xc minh r rng. Cuc sng y p nhng th nh th v chng ta phi vui v ng u vi chng.

Nhng ng ngh v chng qu nhiu. Nhiu ngi gn mnh qu cht vo nhng vng xm ca cuc sng n mc h thuyt phc bn thn tin rng chng c g tn ti ngoi nhng vng xm. Vng xm tn ti v cn nhng la chn ngoi trng v en. Khi bn ri vo tnh hung khng th tm c nhng la chn r rng khng c ngha l khng c la chn. Ch n thun l bn khng thy chng m thi. Khng bit u l chn l tht chng d chu v ng mong ch cht no.

V th, chng ta lun phi n lc thot khi tnh trng cng sm cng tt. Ngay by gi, bn c th khng chc chn v mt vn c th no , nhng vn tn ti tri nghim v c tri nghim i lp vi n mt tri nghim chc chn. Nguyn tc l: Theo l thuyt, khng loi tr kh nng mt ngy no bn s chin thng s m h lin quan n vn m bn ang gp phi. Rt cuc mi th u c li gii p Nguyn tc l do y tuyn b rng mi th khng t nhin din ra. Chng c nguyn nhn. Chng ta khng bit nguyn nhn ca mi th nhng chng ta bit mi th u c nguyn nhn. Mt phn sinh lc ca mt sinh vt l tr ginh cho vic tm kim nhng nguyn nhn.

Chng ta mun bit ti sao mi chuyn li din ra. Hiu bit v nguyn nhn, n thun ch l gc nhn l thuyt, nhng d lm bn hi lng v tin rng bit c nguyn nhn l hiu bit su sc v s vt. Tuy nhin, hiu bit v nguyn nhn cng bao hm phm vi thc tin rng ri, v trong nhiu trng hp bit c nguyn nhn c ngha l c th kim sot c chng, v kim sot c nguyn nhn ngha l kim sot c h qu. Nu chng ta bit mt loi vi trng no l nguyn nhn ca mt cn bnh, chng ta c th ngn chn cn bnh h qu bng cch v hiu ho hot ng gy bnh ca loi vi trng kia.

Khi tm kim nhng nguyn nhn, chng ta thng bt u t cc h qu. Chng ta chc chn v nhng thc ti khch quan ang i din; nhng cha chc v ngun gc hnh thnh ca thc ti y. Cng cuc tm kim ca chng ta s c nh hng bi nguyn tc: C ngha l nguyn. V nguyn nhn li du n c bit trn h qu. Cng theo , bt k h qu no cng s phn nh bn cht ca nguyn nhn mt mc no. Ti khng th ngay lp tc bit c mt nguyn nhn gy ra hu qu g v chnh l ci ti ang tm kim nhng ti c th c nhng hiu bit v kh nng h qu ca n thng qua h qu trc mt.

Bng cch nh gi bn cht ca h qu, ti c th hiu c bn cht ca nguyn nhn v t nh hng tm kim nguyn nhn thc s. V d ti ang ngi hc. Ti nghe thy mt ting ng l t nh bp. Nguyn nhn do u? Trn k bp, ti thy ba con kin gn bnh sa. Ti nhng con kin? Khng, chng khng th gy ra h qu trng i ny. Ti thy con chim bch yn ca mnh bay ra khi lng v u trn nc t lnh. Do con chim bch yn? Mt ln na, cng khng phi.

H qu ny vt qu kh nng ca con chim bch yn. Sau , ti nhn qua ca s v thy con mo nh hng xm. D rng ti khng th khng nh con mo lm sa nhng t nht ti cng bit rng mt con mo c kh nng dn n h qu nh th. Ti cn iu tra nhiu hn na nhng vo lc ny, ti c th cn nhc kh nng con mo l nguyn nhn ca na lt sa b. N ang b t di s ng vc nghim trng. Chui nguyn nhn ny c th c biu ho nh sau: Bit rng C l do B, chng ta quyt nh tp trung vo B trn nguyn tc gii quyt vn phi khm ph nguyn nhn ca n.

Ti nay, cch t duy logic ny rt ng tuyn dng nhng nh th vn cha. D B ng l nguyn nhn trc tip ca C, n cha chc l nguyn nhn gc r. Vy l vn vi C s khng c gii quyt hiu qu cho n khi nguyn nhn gc r ca vn nm A cha c quan tm. Sam bng ngi thy c mi hi trong nh bp. Sau khi tm hiu, anh pht hin ra c mt x y trn nc bc mi trong t di bn ra chn. Sau khi anh x nc i, mi hi bin mt. Sau ny, gii quyt. C khi l v chng ta khng tm hiu vn su sc. Cn li l do mnh thiu kin nhn. Chng ta cng t hi thc mnh phi lm g nn thng vi vng tm n nhng gii php tm thi y nhc khuyt, trong khi vn gc r c bn vn cha chm ti.

Phn bit cc loi nguyn nhn T lu, chng ta thng phi gii quyt vn c tn gi l nguyn nhn hiu lc. Nguyn nhn hiu lc l mt khi nim ch tc nhn, trong phm vi hot ng ca n gy nn s tn ti hay iu chnh s tn ti ca mt s vt theo cch ny hay cch khc.

Ngoi nguyn nhn hiu lc cn c nguyn nhn quyt nh, nguyn nhn vt cht v nguyn nhn chiu l. Xt theo quan h nhn qu, khng phi loi nguyn nhn no cng ng vi nhng tnh hung chng ta ang n lc phn tch nhng cng nhn dng nhiu loi nguyn nhn, chng ta cng hiu chng r hn. Nguyn nhn quyt nh, nu p dng vo hot ng, n l mc tiu ca hot ng; nu p dng vo mt khch th, n l mc ch s dng ca khch th. Nguyn nhn vt cht l nguyn liu m khch th c cu to thnh. Hy th phn tch mt chung chim theo bn nguyn nhn nu trn.

Fred, ngi to ra n, l nguyn nhn hiu lc ca n. Nguyn nhn vt cht l g, inh st, c vt, dy thp, v sn. Nguyn nhn chiu l ca n l hnh th vt cht c bit phn bit n vi mt hp ng h s hay chu trng cy ca s.

Nguyn nhn quyt nh l n cung cp ch tr ng v mt ci t cho nhng con chim. Nh ni trn, khng phi i tng no cng c th c phn tch da trn bn nguyn nhn. Mt khi nim ton hc hay bt k khi nim no s khng c nguyn nhn vt cht v cc khi nim ton hc mang tnh phi vt cht.

Nh ton hc ngh ra khi nim s l nguyn nhn hiu lc. Nguyn nhn chiu l s l bn cht c th ca chnh khi nim v d nhng vng trn ng tm v nguyn nhn quyt nh l gp phn gii p cho mt vn ton hc tn ti lu i lin quan n tnh ng tm v nhng hnh trn.

Trong nguyn nhn hiu lc c th phn chia thnh nguyn nhn chnh yu v nguyn nhn cng c. Ngi th iu khc l nguyn nhn chnh yu ca mt bc tng cm thch v anh ta l li gii thch thuyt phc nht cho s tn ti ca bc tng kia. Nhng anh ny khng phi l nguyn nhn duy nht v anh ta vn cn n dng c tc nn bc tng. Nhng dng c d l thuc v nm trong tay ngi th iu khc nhng theo mt gc no , n cng to nn bc tng. Nhng dng c ny l cch thc m mt nguyn nhn chnh yu to ra mt h qu no.

D rng nhng nguyn nhn cng c l thuc vo cc nguyn nhn chnh yu, nhng trong nhiu trng hp, chng cng rt quan trng. Mt ngh s chi n violonxen v i khng th thiu cy n ca mnh nu mun biu din mt bn n tuyt vi.

R rng rng nguyn nhn cng c hon ton ph thuc vo nguyn nhn chnh yu. Nguyn nhn cng c mang tnh b ng v khng th khi xng mt hnh ng nm trong kh nng ca n c. Cy n violonxen khng th t chi mt bn nhc.

Cht lng ca c nguyn nhn chnh yu ln cng c s nh hng n cht lng ca h qu. Chic n violonxen tt nht s khng th ct ln mt bn nhc tuyt vi nht trong bn tay ca mt ngh s violonxen ti nng c hn. V ngh s violonxen v i nht trn th gii s khng th biu din bn nhc tuyt ho nu phi dng mt cy n km cht lng.

V c nguyn nhn chnh yu ln nguyn nhn cng c u quan trng, trong nguyn nhn chnh yu quan trng hn nn i khi chng ta qun i tm quan trng ca nguyn nhn cng c. Chc chn s hu mt cng c tt nht c th l iu cn thit nhng cng ng qun vai tr quyt nh ca ngi s dng tuyt vi nht. Cn phi nhc li rng nhng cng c tuyt vi nht trong bn tay ca nhng ngi bt ti cng khng mang li nhng kt qu tuyt vi.

Cng cn phi cn nhc rng: Mt nguyn nhn chnh yu ti gii s dng nhng cng c km cht lng c th lm c nhng iu m nhng nguyn nhn chnh yu km ci khng th thc hin vi nhng dng c tuyt vi. Chng ta bn n vic nh ngha thut ng nhng thc t ci chng ta ang nh ngha li l nhng khch th m thut ng t ng biu t. Quy trnh hay c ch ca nh ngha l chng ta lin h mt khch th c th khch th cn c nh ngha vi nhng khch th khc v t , t n vo mt v tr chnh xc.

Khi nh ngha mt thut ng hay t ng, chng ta lin h cht ch ti khch th m n cp n. C hai li ch thc tin trc mt ca vic nh ngha thut ng mt cch cn trng. Nhng thut ng m h nh cng bng, nhan sc, v s thng thi s c bit cn c nh ngha. Qu trnh nh ngha mt thut ng theo logic bao gm hai bc. Bc mt: Bc hai: Nhn din s khc bit c th ca thut ng. Nhm gn ng l nhm ln cc khch th c chung c tnh, bao gm c khch th chng ta ang xem xt. Trong nh ngha , ng vt l nhm gn ng nhm gn nht m con ngi nm trong.

Ti sao? V chng ta c chung c tnh ng vt vi cc thnh vin khc ca nhm. Aristotle khng chn nhm l sinh vt sng, hay thc th vt cht, hay s vt v nhng nhm ny qu rng. Nu nh th thut ng con ngi m ng mun nh ngha s b nhm chung vi loi khch th m n khng chung c tnh. Hy th xem xt vic phn loi nhng mn chi trong mt hp chi ln, trong mt cn phng ti mt cn nh to lc ti Lansing, bang Iowa, Hoa K.

Chng ta c th ni rng. Tt c nhng pht biu u ng. Nhng hp chi mi l nhm gn ng. C nhiu loi chi khc nhau nhng chng u nm trong chic hp chi. S khc bit r rng chnh l c tnh hay nhng c tnh phn bit khch th cn nh ngha vi nhng khch th cng nhm khc. Trong nh ngha v con ngi ca Aristotle, mt c tnh duy nht l tnh, c nu ra khu bit con ngi vi nhng loi ng vt khc.

S khc bit c trng phi c ch r mt cch chi tit; ngha l n nhn din mt loi ring bit v khu bit ho loi vi nhng loi khc cng nhm. Khi nh ngha mt khi nim, iu cn bn chng ta phi lm l nhn din chnh xc i tng.

Bc u tin l nhm n chung vi cc s vt khc c im tng ng, sau ghi li c trng khc bit ca n khi so snh vi nhng s vt khc trong nhm. Hy th vn dng vi vi thut ng kh nhn di y. NHN XT: Nhng nhm nh ti nguyn hay th ch hay s kin l khng ph hp. Nhng nhm nh s vt hay khi nim hay hin tng th qu rng, khng gn vi thut ng. Nhng trong c tnh x hi, cng bng khng phi l mt c tnh duy nht. Vy th ci g s phn bit n vi nhng c tnh x hi khc nh lch s, phng khong hay khoan dung?

Cung bc cm xc l mt t khc miu t nhm gn ng ca thut ng ny. Thng thng, him khi chng ta nh ngha c c ng nh th, nht l khi nhc ti im khc bit c trng. V d nh khi chng ta cn nh ngha t xe hi. Bc u tin kh n gin: Nhng sau , chng ta phi tm ra nhng khc bit c trng phn bit n vi cc loi phng tin di chuyn khc trn th gii.

Gi tr c bit ca nh ngha logic l n tit l bn cht chnh xc ca khch th c nh ngha. Tuy nhin, cch nh ngha ny khng kh d nu chng ta khng hiu bit su sc v khch th xc nh chnh xc bn cht ca n. Trong trng hp nh th, chng ta c th nh ngha khch th mt cch lng lo hn thng qua miu t. Mt bn miu t tt cung cp chi tit v trn vn nht v nhng c tnh quan st c ca khch th. Mnh khng nh Mc tiu ca qu trnh lp lun, mi quan tm chnh ca logic chnh l lun chng. Ti phi thuyt phc bn rng iu ny ng v ti lm c iu nh vo lp lun.

Tt c nhng g ti trnh by trong cun sch ny u c km nhng lp lun r rng. Lp lun nm trong phm vi hot ng ca logic v bt k lp lun no cng ti hin c th qu trnh l lun.

Bc tip theo trong qu trnh lp lun l nghin cu k lng cc mnh , c bit l mnh khng nh. Lp lun hiu qu nht l lp lun em n kt lun l mt mnh khng nh. Mt mnh khng nh ch ra iu chc chn trong mt tnh hung no. V d, Chic radio nm gh sau xe. Chng ta bit chc chn v s vt trong tnh hung ny. Nhng nu ai ni C l chic radio nm gh sau xe, hay Chic radio c th nm gh sau xe, th s chc chn bin mt. Nhng pht biu khng phi l pht biu khng nh v chng ta li bn khon khng bit iu chc chn l g.

g ti dng T Duy t Ph!

Theo , mt lp lun khng nh yu t hnh thnh nhng mnh khng nh l nhng lp lun hiu qu nht v chng cung cp nhng thng tin r rng. Nhng phi cn c vo tnh hung thc t, chng ta mi bit c c php pht ngn ra nhng pht biu khng nh hay khng. V d, khi ti vn hoi nghi v v tr ca chic radio m khng nh n nm ng sau xe th qu l v trch nhim. Nhng nu bit chc chn v m bo cho iu ny, chng ta nn xc nhn n bng pht ngn khng nh. C iu cn lu l mt pht biu c th dng khng nh nhng cha chc miu t thc t mt cch khch quan.

Mt ngi ni, Chicago Cubs l i bng chy xut sc nht. Khi qut ho Mt mnh khi qut l mnh c ch bao qut rt rng. Mnh nh th khng phi l khng chnh xc. Ni dung ca mt mnh khi qut c xp vo hai nhm: Trong pht ngn Nga l ng vt c xng sng, mt ch th nga c nhc n i din cho ton b cc thnh vin khc trong nhm. Nhng ngn t ca pht biu trn khng. Cn nu khng nh nhc n mi thnh vin trong nhm, chng ta phi din t r trong pht biu ca mnh: Ngn t r rng trong nhng mnh khi qut rt quan trng v n gip ngi nghe khng cn bn khon.

Trong rt nhiu trng hp, nhng pht biu kiu nh C dn thnh ph Carthage rt tn nhn v ng ngn hng n tt c c dn trong thnh ph Carthage.

Nu b phn bin, ngi ni s s dng thc t l mnh khng ni: Tt c c dn thnh ph Carthage u rt tn nhn v ng ngn. C hai loi mnh khi qut: Mt mnh ph nh ton b l mnh c cha khng Khng con c no c chn. Mt mnh b phn, khng nh hay ph nh, khng hng n tt c mi thnh vin do ch ng i din. Nhng pht biu nh Hu ht ngi M trng thnh li c t v i a s sinh vin kha di b phiu cho Peterson cng l mnh b phn. Khi chng ta nhc n mnh ton b hay b phn, chng ta ang quan tm n ci m trong ngn ng logic gi l lng ca mnh trong logic.

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Mary n t Maryland, Wrigley Field nm Chicago l v d cho mnh c th. Nhng mnh ton b d khng nh hay ph nh, u rt chnh xc. Chng khng nh hay ph nh iu g ca c nhm, khng cha ngoi l no.

Ngc li, nhng mnh b phn thng kh m h. Nhng mt mnh b phn vn c th chnh xc: Mi su phn trm nhng vn ng vin in kinh hon tt cuc ua trong vng hai ting ng h. Hy a ra nhng pht biu chnh xc ti a trong phm vi kin thc ca bn. Ti thm ebook: Ngn ng ca logic Biu hin c th nht ca l lun logic l lp lun. Trong phn ny, chng ta s tm hiu cch thc xy dng mt lp lun vng chc v hiu qu.

Hnh thnh mt lp lun T u cun sch, chng ta bn n s vn ng cn bn ca l lun, cc bc ca suy lun. Nh chng ta thy, cc lp lun c to thnh t cc mnh cha ng nhng khi nim lin quan n vn ng suy lun. Mi lp lun gm hai thnh phn c bn, hai dng mnh: Tin l mt mnh h tr, l im xut pht ca mt lp lun v cha ng chn l khi u cho suy lun. Nhng lp lun phc tp l do s lng tin ln v cch lin kt gia cc tin vi nhau. V ci mng ri ra khi ming mng nga, v ming mng nga bong ra, v con nga b qu, v con nga ng qung v tng xung, v v tng b bt, nn trn nh b thua.

Rt him khi c nhiu kt lun trong mt lp lun. V thc t, cn trnh mc phi li. Tt nht ch nn c mt kt lun duy nht. Ni cch khc, nhng lp lun ti u ch nu ra mt vn duy nht. Thng th bi cnh ca lp lun s gip bn phn bit c hai thnh phn. Chng ta thng tm du hiu km theo phn bit u l tin , u l kt lun, c gi tn l ch th logic.

Nhng ch th logic thng dng ca tin l v, do, ti v. Nhng ch th logic thng dng ca kt lun l do vy, v th, v vy. Hy cng xem lp lun gii thch n gin di y: V Dave lin tc ci nhau vi sp, Anh ta b chuyn cng tc sang vn phng Houston. Lp lun khng chng minh s kin Dave b chuyn cng tc m c gng a ra l do, gii thch v sao n xy ra.

Mnh th nht tin c a ra nh mt thng tin h tr, nu chng ta chp nhn n ng th chng ta c th hiu v sao c s thuyn chuyn cng tc. Tin l nn tng ca mt lp lun. S vng chi ca nn tng ph thuc hon ton vo tnh chn l ca tin. Trong lp lun trn, nu chuyn Dave lin tc ci nhau vi sp khng phi s tht th chng ta vn khng c mt l gii no cho chuyn Dave b thuyn chuyn cng tc. Bn cnh yu cu bt buc v tnh ng n, tin cn phi rng bao qut kt lun. Do , nu pht biu: Nu pht biu Khng ngi n ng no c th sinh n l ng th pht biu Vi ngi n ng khng th sinh n cng ng.

Nhng pht biu nh th khng cha thng tin hu ch cng chng a ra kt lun no th v, nhng suy lun n gin hnh thnh chng ng lu tm v chng l mt v d sinh ng v tnh tt yu trong lp lun. V cng khng th ph nh s tht rng vi ngi n ng khng th sinh n khi cng nhn khng ngi n ng no c th sinh n. Nhng kt lun c rt ra mt cch tt yu. Nu chng ta bit c ci g ng cho ton th nhm th n cng phi ng cho mt b phn ca nhm. Hiu bit v mt phn ca nhm khng cho php ti a ra pht biu dt khot no v tng th. Trong vi trng hp, c gng thc hin iu s sinh ra mt kt lun sai hin nhin.

Tng th c th cha ng b phn nhng b phn khng th cha ng tng th. C, min sao chng ta khng vt qu gii hn ca bng chng. Chng ta khng th a ra nhng kt lun chc chn nhng vn c th nu ra nhng kh nng. Ni cch khc, s vn ng phi cn trng. S phng on ca ti c ng s tht hay khng l chuyn khc. Sai lm ny d dng tr thnh mt trong nhng ngy bin yu thch ca con ngi. V ng ho Nh ni trn, mnh l mt biu thc ngn ng khng nh hoc ph nh mt ni dung no.

Theo , v ng ho l qu trnh kt ni khi nim, quy khi nim ny vo khi nim khc. Trong pht biu Loraine l tr l ch huy dn nhc, khi nim tr l ch huy dn nhc tr thnh v ng ca Loraine. Cc khi nim n vi nhau nu quan h ng php ca chng phn nh quan h thc t khch quan ca s vt. Trong pht biu Bnh si l bnh ly nhim, bnh ly nhim l v ng cho bnh si. Tng t vi pht biu Ulysses S. Grant sinh ra Ohio, sinh ra Ohio l v ng ng n cho Grant v pht biu ny phn nh ng hin thc. Ngc li, v ng ho khng ng s cho ra nhng mnh sai.

Mnh ph nh Cc mnh khng nh kt ni cc khi nim; cc mnh ph nh phn cch cc khi nim. Mt mnh ph nh ton th phn cch cc khi nim hon ton Khng trit gia no khng th sai lm ; mt mnh ph nh b phn phn cch cc khi nim khng hon ton Vi c dn vng Bc Dakota khng c cc tc phm ca Dickens.

Khi mt mnh c chp nhn hay b ph nhn ngha l n ng hoc sai. Theo , s ph nh n thun l tuyn b rng n sai. Mi mnh u c th sai d n mang tnh khng nh hay ph nh. Khi chng ta ni v cht ca mnh theo ngn ng logic tc l chng ta ang nhc n tnh khng nh hay ph nh ca n. Herman Melville cha bao gi l tng thng M l mnh ng; Moby-Dick khng phi l tc phm vit v c voi l mnh sai. Nhng mnh ph nh i khi rt lt lo nn cn cn thn khi s dng m bo rng chng truyn ti chnh xc nhng g chng ta mun ni.

Hy xem xt pht biu: Khng phi tt c nhng con ch u l ch lai. Trong pht biu trn, thng ip ph nh c din gii trong cm t khng phi tt c. Khng phi tt c hay khng phi mi khng ging vi khng c ci g; n c hiu nh vi. V ng ca pht biu trn ch lai khng tch bch hon ton khi nhm m ch ng i din ch m ch tch bch mt phn.

Do , ni dung thc s ca pht biu ny l Vi con ch khng phi l nhng con ch lai. Nu mt ni dung c th din t c dng khng nh ln ph nh, khi khng b l thuc vo mt yu t no, tt nht bn nn chn cu trc cu khng nh. Th xem hai pht biu sau: Vi sinh vin l nhng ngi chm ch v Vi sinh vin l nhng ngi khng chm ch. Theo ci nhn logic cht ch, hai pht biu trn phn tch cng mt ch ng v v ng. Nhng c s khc bit nho nh gia hai pht biu.

Pht biu khng nh nu ni dung trc tip v r rng hn. Pht biu ph nh nhn mnh vo ci khng thc t khin chng ta suy ngh nhiu v nhng iu tiu cc xung quanh tnh hung c miu t. Cc mnh ph nh c th c s dng hiu qu trong vic to nn phn ng ng n cho cc pht biu sai. Cch pht biu ph nh: Tt c ngh s u b lon thn kinh. Trong nghin cu logic, s r rng l iu quan trng nht. Chng ta ch nn a nhng thnh phn ph nh vo mt pht biu truyn ti ni dung khng nh nu chng khng gy nn s nhm ln.

Pht biu Khng p t hnh pht tin l khng cng bng ng ngha vi p t hnh pht tin l cng bng nhng kh nng truyn t trong cu th hai r rng v trc tip hn so vi cu th nht. Chng ta c th gi c quan h thn tnh gia ngi ni vi ngi nghe hn nu ni Quyt nh c l khng phi l khn ngoan nht vo lc. Nhng ng vi vng coi y l quy tc bt di bt dch. Mi tnh hung c th s quy nh thng thn trong ngn ng m chng ta s dng. Ngn t thng thn, trc tip khng nn b loi b hon ton v trong mt s trng hp chng ta vn cn n n.

Thc t, hot ng suy ngm s kh thc hin nu thiu s so snh. Qua qu trnh so snh, chng ta quan tm hn ti nhng tng ng v d bit gia cc s vt. Mt mnh l biu thc ngn ng, l sn phm ca t duy so snh cn bn khi lin h mt khi nim ch ng vi mt khi nim khc v ng.

Chng ta gi hnh ng tr tu l phn on, l s ni kt cc khi nim trong kh nng cho php a ra nhng pht biu mch lc v th gii m chng ta ang sng. V phn on l nn tng ca mnh nn nhng g chng ta ni trong cc mnh tt yu s gn cht vi cc phn on. So snh phn nh trong mnh l nn tng, l ngun gc ca nhng so snh phc tp hn gia cc mnh ci cui cng phn nh t duy ca chng ta. Nu khng nhn ra mi quan h gia v trong cc s vt da vo hot ng so snh th t duy ca chng ta s thiu mch lc. Chng ta c nhng khi nim nhng mi khi nim li tn ti c lp.

V ta khng bit cch lin kt khi nim ny vi khi nim kia phn nh mi quan h gia cc khch th tn ti bn ngoi tm tr ta. Khi so snh hai s vt, chng ta c th thy chng hoc l hon ton ging nhau hoc hon ton khng ging nhau hoc l c s kt hp c im ging v khng ging.

Ci g l cn c cho kt lun hai s vt chng ta so snh hon ton ging nhau? V d bn hy th so snh hai my pha c ph c sn xut hng lot ly ra t cng mt nh my, chng ging nhau n tng chi tit.

Cc phn on hi ging nhau, hi khc nhau gn nh khng c s cn nhc k cng nhng c im ging v khc nhau. Cc c im ging nhau nhiu hn cc c im khc nhau hoc ngc li.

Nhng d kt qu c th ra sao th phn on a ra cng phi da trn s tnh ton k lng nhng c tnh trc quan. Vy cn phn on hai s vt hon ton khc nhau th sao? Chng minh bng cch no? Nu phn on hon ton ging nhau c minh chng bng hai s vt c cng tt c nhng c im trc quan th phn on hon ton khc nhau s c minh chng bng hai s vt khng c c im trc quan no chung. Nhng liu c trng hp xy ra khng? V d thay v so snh hai my pha c ph c sn xut cng tiu chun, chng ta hy so snh mt my pha c ph v mt l nng bnh. Tt nhin chng khc nhau rt nhiu im.

Nhng chng cng c th c nhiu im tng ng thc s. Thm ch, chng c th c cng mu sc hay cn nng hay hu ht cc b phn c lm t nhng cht liu ging nhau. C mt im cn lu v phn on hon ton ging nhau: Khng c hai s vt ging nhau n ni chng khng cn l hai s vt na. Nu hai s vt ging ht nhau theo ngha en th chng ch l mt s vt m thi. Mt im na cn lu v phn on hon ton khc nhau: Khng c hai s vt no khc nhau hon ton n ni chng khng c chung s tn ti cn bn no. S lng c tnh tng t cha th quyt nh vn , bn cn cn quan tm ti tm quan trng ca nhng c tnh na.

Mt c tnh cng quan trng, nu n tit l bn cht, c tnh ring bit ca s vt. Thm ch, mt s lng ln c tnh quan trng tng ng cng khng gip chng ta c mt kt lun so snh chc chn nu mt c tnh quan trng mu cht b b qun. V d, ti ang ni chuyn vi mt ngi khng bit cht g v chut hay voi.

Ti khai sng cho ngi ny bng cch so snh hai loi ny vi nhau. Ti k rng c hai loi ng vt u c bn chn, hai mt, hai tai, mt ming, mt li, mt ui, mt qu tim, vn vn. Tt c nhng c tnh ny u quan trng. Nhng trong phn miu t ti khng ng g n kch thc tng i ca chng. Nh th l ti b st mt c tnh rt quan trng.

So snh v lp lun Khi s dng so snh trong lp lun, mc tiu ca chng ta l chng minh tc l chng minh bng lp lun rng hai s vt chng ta so snh l tng ng nhau. Ti suy xt chng tht k lng. Ti thn trng lit k mt danh sch nhng c tnh chung ca chng. Khi xy dng lp lun, kt lun ca ti s l: A v B rt ging nhau.

Cc tin trong lp lun chnh l nhng c tnh chung: V d, khi so snh nai vi vt nui trong nh, ti thy c nai ln vt nui u c mng ch, u l nhng ng vt khng n tht, vn vn. Mt trong nhng suy lun ph bin nht da trn phng php so snh c gi l php loi suy.

Loi suy l loi suy lun da trn nhng im tng ng gia hai s vt. Cu trc c bn ca dng suy lun ny l: Mc tiu lp lun ca ti l thuyt phc bn rng A v B c nhng im chung hin nhin khng phi tranh ci, do mt im khc cha r rng v vn cn ang tranh ci cng l im chung ca chng. Lp lun c phc tho li nh sau: Kt lun a ra khng tt yu ng nhng khng phi l khng c kh nng. Suy lun theo dng ny ch c s dng khi chng ta khng th trc tip xc nh liu B c s hu c tnh Z hay khng, v tt nhin s kin B cha xy ra v do vy, khng th phn tch c.

Lp lun thuyt phc Chng ta bit, mt lp lun c hai thnh phn c bn: Nu mt nh kinh t hc pht biu: Lm pht s nhanh chng gim trong vng su thng ti, ng khng cn a ra bt k thng tin no khc m vn c chp nhn l ng. Tt c ph thuc vo danh ting ca nh kinh t. Chng ta vn thng lm vy. Khng th chp nhn tnh ng n ca mt pht biu ch da vo danh ting ca ngi pht ngn l thiu tinh thn trch nhim. Nu ai thc s l mt chuyn gia, chng ta c th tm k vng nhng g ngi ny ni, min sao nm trong phm vi chuyn mn ca h. Nhng tri thc c c t cc lp lun vn chc chn hn l da vo ting ni ca uy quyn.

Bi v khi ng trc mt lp lun c c s, t chng ta xc nh c tnh ng sai ca vn v nm c cn nguyn ca nhng tri thc mnh tip nhn. Yu cu th nht c chng ta lc qua i cht. Tm quan trng ca tiu chun ny qu r rng. Tnh cn c khng phi lc no cng c th hin r rng bng ngn t, do vy, nu bn cha hnh dung c nhng g ti va ni, hy kin nhn. Trong phn sau, khi bn v cu trc ca lp lun, ci lin quan trc tip n tnh cn c, ti s minh ho thng qua cc v d.

Nhn bit c s khc nhau gia chn l v tnh cn c l iu kh quan trng. Tuy chng rt d nhm ln vi nhau nhng thc t li kh khc bit. Th nht, chn l lin quan n ni dung cc mnh , cn tnh cn c li lin quan n cu trc sp xp ca cc mnh , tc l lp lun. Th hai, mt mnh ng nu n chc chn phn nh mt thc t khch quan. Chng ta lm quen vi vi dng lp lun n gin khi bn v s vn ng t ton th sang b phn.

By gi, chng ta cng tm hiu nhng dng khc ca lp lun. Di y l ba dng lp lun: C A v B u i din cho nhng mnh hon chnh. Anne l mt sinh vin nm hai i hc Minnesota v c hc chuyn ngnh Sinh vt hc.

C -A v -B ph nh ca mnh Anne l mt sinh vin nm hai i hc Minnesota hay c hc chuyn ngnh Sinh vt l sai v chng mu thun vi ci c nu ra trong tin ca lp lun. Mt ln na, A v B i din cho nhng mnh hon chnh. K hiu v c ngha l hoc. Arden hoc i xe la n Washington ti qua hoc i my bay n. Ngha l hai thnh phn ca pht biu loi tr nhau.

Chng khng th cng ng. Nu mt thnh phn ng th ci cn li phi sai v ngc li. Nu c hai cng ng th pht biu kia l di tr v khi ni A hoc B, ngha l chng ta mun ni l mt trong hai m thi. Nu chng ta l khng phi A khng phi B th chng ta phi ni r rng. Lp lun phn tch c cn c c dng nh sau: Trong nhng biu thc trn, -A c ngha l khng A v -B c ngha l khng B. Quan st s thy dng lp lun ny nhiu hn lp lun lin kt mt bc. C th chng ta phi c thng bo rng mnh no trong hai mnh A, B l ng.

Do , trong lp lun ny, chng ta c hai tin: Logic ca nhng lp lun trn nh sau: V A v B loi tr nhau, nu mt trong hai ng th ci cn li phi sai v ngc li. V v ch c hai kh nng A v B, do nu ti bit chc chn rng Arden i xe la n Washington, th anh ta khng th i my bay; nu ti bit chc chn anh ta i my bay, th anh ta khng th i xe la.

Ngc li, nu ti bit chc chn anh ta khng i xe la, chc hn anh phi i my bay. Nu ti bit chc chn anh ta khng i my bay, anh ta phi i xe la.

Ch c hai kh nng m thi. N phn nh thi quen suy ngh ca chng ta.

Hay Nu bn lm vic chm ch th cui cng bn s t c mc tiu ca mnh thi. Dng lp lun ny c biu din di dng k hiu: Cng ging nh pht biu lin kt v phn tch, pht biu iu kin l mt cu ghp. Ni cch khc, trong trng hp ny A l mt mnh Nu i Bulldogs thng trn u v B cng l mt mnh H s bc vo trn i u trc tip. Mnh u tin c gi l tin kin; mnh th hai c gi l hu thc. Dng th ba Do , B hin nhin l kt lun ca lp lun. T do mt ln na ng vai tr ch th logic nhn din mnh kt lun. Ti thi im ni, chng ta khng bit A xy ra hay khng.

Tin ph A cho chng ta bit rng iu kin c thit lp tin chnh l tho mn. Nhng nh gi ng tnh cn c ca lp lun c iu kin, chng ta phi hiu chnh xc ni dung ca tin chnh A B.

N cho chng ta bit mi quan h gia A v B hon ton mang tnh tt yu. Ni cch khc, nu A xy ra, th B phi xy ra. Nu nh vy th hu ht nhng lp lun c iu kin chng ta s dng trong i sng hng ngy khng theo st tinh thn logic cht ch. Nu thi tit th Nm p th chng ta s i cm tri. Chng ta s thy gia tin kin thi tit th Nm p v hu thc i cm tri khng c mt quan h tt yu. Thi tit c th l tng vo th Nm nhng v nhng l do cha bit trc, s khng c bui cm tri no c t chc.

Nhng hy xem lp lun sau y: Nu Louise ang chy, th Louise ang chuyn ng. Louise thc s ang chy. Do , Louise ang chuyn ng. Khng c cch no Louise ang chy m cng lc khng chuyn ng, do kt lun ca lp lun tt yu ng. Tin chnh t ra iu kin: Nu Louise ang chy, th c ang chuyn ng.

Tin ph -B ni vi chng ta rng: Louise ang khng chuyn ng. Kt lun: Do , c y ang khng chy. Logic ca lp lun: V chy chc chn i hi phi chuyn ng v khng th c chuyn chy nhng khng chuyn ng , nu mt ngi ang khng chuyn ng th tt nhin ngi ang khng chy. Trong phn 5, Mc 1 v 2, khi tho lun v l lun ngy bin, ti s nu ra nhng dng thiu cn c ca lp lun c iu kin. D chng ta ph thuc rt nhiu vo kiu l lun nh lp lun c iu kin, nhng rt t khi chng ta s dng chng su st theo tinh thn logic.

Trong lp lun ca chng ta, him khi gia tin kin v hu thc c mi lin kt tt yu thc s. Kt lun m chng ta a ra s khng logic. Tuy nhin, ni vy khng c ngha l kt lun ca cc lp lun c iu kin khng c gi tr v cng khng phi l vic s dng lp lun ny l mt iu sai tri. Trong hu ht nhng lp lun c iu kin m chng ta s dng, kt lun thng l nhng trng hp nhiu kh nng xy ra. Mc tiu ca chng ta l xy dng nhng lp lun m cc kt lun mang tnh kh d cng cao cng tt. Tng tng mt ngi bn ni vi bn rng, Nu ti thng x s, ti s quyn gp s tin cho t thin.

Nghe thy th, bn khng hon ton hy vng rng hi t thin s sm ngp.

Tư duy thiên tài.pdf

S hoi nghi ny sinh t mt ch nu rt to xut hin trong cu, do kh nng iu kin c tho mn l rt nh. Trong mt pht biu c iu kin, mi quan h gia tin kin v hu thc cng mnh th kh nng hu thc s tr thnh s tht cng cao.

Nu i Bulldogs thng trn u, h s bc vo trn i u trc tip. Hy gi nh rng pht biu ny phn nh chn thc thc ti khch quan. Theo kt qu hin c, nu thng trn u ny, i Bulldogs chc chn s ginh c mt sut tham gia trn i u trc tip. Tuy nhin, mi quan h gia tin kin thng trn u v hu thc bc vo trn i u trc tip khng mang tnh tt yu. Thc t, cuc biu tnh t kh nng xy ra, do sau khi cn nhc mi kh nng, si dy lin kt gia tin kin v hu thc kh mnh. S l ng n khi t cc vo kh nng i Bulldogs ginh v tham d trn i u trc tip nu cho rng h s ginh chin thng trong trn u ti.

Sc mnh ca pht biu c iu kin ph thuc vo s hiu bit ca bn v hai i tng bn nhc n trong pht biu ny cng nh mi lin h gia chng. Nu mi lin h gia tin kin v hu thc mong manh, s l hp tp nu bn lp lun nh th chng l tt yu. Hy lu rng pht biu c iu kin hng ti tng lai, v do mang tnh d on tim nng. Nu ch Louis n thnh ph, bn ni, ch y s mun n qun Schmidty n khuya. Tam on lun Tam on lun l mt dng lp lun phn nh cch thc t duy thng thng ca con ngi: Hy bt u tm hiu dng lp lun ny ging nh cch chng ta lm vi nhng dng lp lun n gin khc, thng qua cc cu trc v phn tch tng thnh phn ca chng.

Di y l mt tam on lun th hin di dng k hiu: Mnh u tin l tin chnh, mnh th hai l tin ph. Mnh th ba r rng l mt kt lun.

Ba k hiu, M, P, S i din cho nhng khi nim c din t thnh ngn t to thnh ba mnh. Trung t c bit quan trng v n to ra mi lin kt gia hai mnh ; s thnh bi ca lp lun ph thuc vo kh nng lin kt ca n. Mi cu th NFL l mt vn ng vin chuyn nghip. Do , cc cu th i Minnesota Vilkings l nhng vn ng vin chuyn nghip.

Khng cn bit NFL l vit tt ca t g hay cc cu th ca i Minnesota Vilkings gm nhng ai, ch da vo cu trc chng ta cng thy lp lun ny c l. Lp lun tam on lun da trn hot ng lin h mt b phn ti ton th kt lun iu g v b phn kia.

M i din cho nhm nh hn, nm trn trong nhm P ln hn. Tip theo chng ta c th minh ho tin ph mi S l M nh sau:. Tin ph lp li c ch hot ng ca tin chnh; l nhm nh hn nm bao trn trong nhm ln hn. Vi hai hot ng hon chnh ny, ba thut ng ca lp lun c kt ni v mt kt lun c sinh ra.

Khng th c p n no khc. Chn l trong cc tin Nh chng ta thy, mt tam on lun hay bt k lp lun no c nh gi l hon thin nu n tho mn hai iu kin c bn: Chng ta d thy ni dung ch chun xc khi cc tin trong lp lun ng.

Hy nhn xem chng ta c g nu cu trc lp lun cht ch m ni dung th sai lch: Loi cli l ch.

C th v nh mt chic xe t vi tnh trng my mc hon ho lp lun c c s nhng bnh xng li cha y nc ni dung sai lch. D l phng tin tt nht cng khng a chng ta ti u nu khng c xng. Ch c cn c thi cha. Tnh xc ng ca cc tin Chn l ca tin l mt iu kin cn cho mt lp lun vng chc nhng cha phi l iu kin. Nhng tin ng s khng gip ch g cho lp lun nu chng h tr kt lun mt cch lng lo.

Mc tiu ca cc tin l h tr kt lun, mang n nhng l do thuyt phc chp nhn kt lun a ra; nhng nu tin ng m km ci cng khng th thc hin c iu ny. Mt trong nhng biu hin ca tin km l ni dung ca n khng lin quan g n kt lun. Pierre Poseur l mt cu th bng bu dc trong i All - American. Pierre Poseur ln u tin kim c tin triu khi ng ba mi tui. Pierre Poseur p trai v s hu mt n ci quyn r. Do , Pierre Poseur nn c bu chn tr thnh thng c. Gi s tt c mi thng tin v Pierre Poseur nu ra trong cc tin u ng: Tuy ng nhng chng khng thc s lin quan n vn ang ni n.

Chng khng cung cp nhng phm cht c th chng minh ng c th gnh trch nhim nng n ca mt thng c bang. Hy phn tch mt lp lun khc, lp lun ng h i th ca Poseur: John Vere lm vic bn nm ti cng ty Peace. Do , John Vere nn c bu chn tr thnh thng c. Nhng tin ca lp lun ny c quan h trc tip ti kt lun hn so vi nhng tin ca lp lun trc. Chng cha hn thuyt phc c chng ta nhng cng kh lng ph nhn s nh hng ca chng n kt lun. Mnh hin thc, mnh nh gi Cc nhc s l nhng ngi sng tc ra m nhc l mt pht biu hin thc.

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Nhc s l nhng ngi to ra m nhc. Dorothy l mt nhc s. Do , Dorothy to ra m nhc. Cn pht biu: Nhc s l nhng ngi u vit khng phi l pht biu v thc ti m v gi tr. N th hin quan im ca ngi ni.

Khng ai cm chng ta a ra nhng lp lun t mt pht biu nh gi nh: Nhc s l nhng ngi u vit. This essay wil state two main reason main reasons of this as well as how it affects society. Firstly, in mordern life, couples usually decide to give birth 1 or 2 babies nhng con s t 10 tr xung phi vit ch, b usually due to costly childcare or financial condition.

It is natural that parents want to give the most best Best l tnh t dng so snh nht ri, ko cn most na of things for their kids, so the less children they have, the higher quality of nurture they possibly do. In addition to Nu dng In addition to, th phi c Ving hoc noun , the family structure has made many big changes nowadays.

Coexisting with tradional type of family structure nuclear nuclear family khng phi l cu trc gia nh truyn thng em nh and extended family- are Ch ng trong cu ny l coexisting V chia s t single parent family and childless one that more and more the young prefers to have. There are both positive and negative impacts on society. In one side, this trend may cause a declline of population, decline in population which then may decrease burdens that society usually has to bear in relation to education, social welfare, health care and employment too dn s gim , lm gim p lc nhng vn thuc cc lnh vc nh em ni, cu ny em cha lm r , ngi c cha thy c s lin kt gia gim dn s, th gim p lc ln lnh vc gio dc th no.

Hn na, em lit k nhiu qu , lit k qu nhiu ngi c s ri, hn na cc lnh vc ny khc nhau, ngi vit cn lm r , vit s kh mt. Khi vit, cn bit cch lm sao mnh d vit v ko phi x k cc ideas qu nhiu v time ko c nhiu.

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In the other hand, On the other hand , in long term it will lead to a shortage of labour force who creats create, labor force l N tp th, V chia s nhiu physical and mental values for a society.

In conclusion, there are various reasons explaning for the smaller family size, and this also creats both benefits and disadvantages for society.

And in future, it is estimated that this tendency would continue. Kt lun tng i n. Phn trnh by cc nh hng ang hi sa , lan mn v cha gii thch c mt s , ni r phn comment.

Ngay t u bi vit, sai 1 li c bn. Trong bi cng mt im v mt s sai ng tic v d most best. Mt s cm t vit sai, thiu chnh xc V d in the other hand. Em lu! Cc nh support cho ln cha c r rng. Xem comment. Some people believe that it is the responsibility of individuals to take care of their own health and diet.

Others however believe that governments should make sure that their citizens have a healthy diet. Discuss both views and give your opinion. In recent times, modern people are increasingly risk at obesity, diabetes and heart disease caused by their diet and lifestyle which tends to ch ng ch ngi , cu mi hp l trong cch din t rely on convenient food such as fast food and canned food.

While it is argued that each individual has better take responsibility for their balanced diet and maintaining a healthy body, others think that governments have a significant role to play have a significant role in keeping a healthy diet for their residents.

Lu From my point of view, khng dng in that we need not only the contribution from individuals but also the governments. On the one hand, there are three main reasons as to why nowadays health is the most interesting Khng s dng so snh nht ch nh. Hn na tnh t interesting khng ph hp, ko ai ni l sc kho l mt vn th v c, hi ti ngha and essential issue to per person who could proactively choose their daily diet and exercise.

Firstly, balanced diet recommended eating five portions of fruit and vegetables per day, fresh and less oily foods, rich nutrition with multiple substances are been considering the best choice cn phi c mt cn c c th minh chng cho iu ny. Ch ni vy chung chung qu, kh thuyt phc c ngi chm. It is advised exercising at least three times a week for twenty minutes by doctors.

It is advised that And the last but not least, people also take care take care of themselves by doing health annual check at specialist or hospital to identify the diseases at the earlier stages if any. So that so that khng ng u cu, ch xem li cch s dng so that nh they could take the right treatments at the right time.

On the other hand, governments have an important role in protecting their inhabitants bo v iu g mnh phi ni ra, d ngi chm hiu rng ch ang ni v vn sc kho. Din t nh vy, khin cu vn kh m h They had better strictly ban any suppliers who are using or providing the illegal or harmful substances to humans health by stopping their trading, their advertisements.

All unhealthy junk foods should be prohibited from school and college menus. For instance, the President of ABC company had been gotten the highest punishment when he allowed his staffs produce contaminated milk powder for children.

In additional In addition , if the government had any programs like sporting days to encourage everyone to join join l ngoi ng t, phi c b ng ng sau b ngha cho n and do exercises, their citizens would be much more appreciated because they would know that they are taking care.

In conclusion, Im strongly sure believe , sure dung trong vn ni, t ny rt formal that the combination of individuals smart choice smart choices in their diet with active government role will make the good health for everybody. Sai cc li trong khi vit cu phc c comment trn. S dng nhiu collocation cha chnh xc, cha ph hp vi ng cnh, cch din at.

Xem comment trn. Nhng s kt ni gia cc cu v cc cha r rng. International travel is becoming cheaper, and countries are opening their doors to more andmore tourists. Do the advantages of the increased tourism outweight its disadvantages? While I tend towards the viewpoint that tourism have a positive effect on the country local cuture , I belive that they are more likely to have a harmful impact. Phn introduction em vit kh n.

To begin, it is a widely held belief there is a widely held belief that the smokeless industry plays a major role in the development of the country. Firstly, tourism can stimulate the economic growth quickly, such as increasing the foreign currency or receiving a lot of benefits of the tourism income.

Secondly, tourism has a significant effect on the quality of the regions life, especially the improvement of transportation and accommodation ny em nn ni r thm, em cha ni r nhng nhy sang khc, s b mc li: Tourism industry provides jobs to millions, the unemployed in particular, it gives them chance to survive in small and poor countries.

Em ch cn ni l create jobs for the locals l c. Traveling is a means of education and broadens the mind cu ny chuyn thnh. Only by visiting other countries can travellers discover the real experience of everything khng s dng t ny khi vit academic writing v mang tnh tuyt i, khng c khch quan than sitting in front of the television screen or relying on books reading books at home. Nowadays, lots of tourist guides tourists move abroad to satisfy their curiosity, admire cultural heritages or marvellous natural scenery which could not be found might not exist in their country.

They have more opportunities to communicate or even live with the minority people, enjoy different lifestyes and the indigenous culture.

For instance, many tourists come to India not only to seek spiritual guidance but also to learn yoga, which they might not get in their country. Thng tin ny c chnh xc khng, em phi make sure c nh. However, a the negative aspect of the growth of tourism activity activities is that some cultures are losing some of their identity, as more and more people adopt universal culture.

Furthermore, in many of such countries, this the increasing number of visitors has brought some problems such as prostitution, alcoholism and drug abuse.

In conclusion, I would argue that the benefits of cross country travel outweigh the drawbacks. But like other industries, the governments should promulgate tourism law to release some demerits.

Bi vit gii quyt kh y 2 mt ca. Tuy nhin i ch cn di dng, lan man, tha chi tit. T ni chuyn , chuyn on s dng kh hp l, chnh xc , ngi chm bi d dng nm bt c ton b mch khai trin. Tuy nhin, i vo mt s chi tit nh, bi vit cha tht s mch lc.

S dng c kh nhiu t vng hay smokeless industry, idegineous culture, adopt universal culture. Some people think museums should be enjoyable places to attract and entertain young people. Others think the purpose of museums is to educate, not to entertain. Nowday Nowadays , an increasing number of people are concerned about the role and function of museum. While another people think that museums is only for education While khng c du chm pha trc, hay ni cch khc While khng c chc nng ni 2 cu li vi nhau.

Nu dng dm chm pha trc, chn Meanwhile. In this essay, I will discuss two sides of the issue before arriving at my conclusion. There are two reasons as to why the museum should be enjoyable places to young people. It is true that museums are attractive to tourist who see a collection of interesting objects. They may become bored if only to listen to too much knowledge of education without interactive activitives dch bm t qu: Morever, museum is one of more competitive places bo tng l ni trng by cc c vt exhibit artifacts, bo tn vn ho -preserve cultural values, khng phi l ni cnh tranh, rt ti ngha.

Khi vit, din t cn suy xt cu c logic khng? For example, all y l t tuyt i ho , khng s dng c. Cc t tuyt i ho khc cng ko c s dng nh every, extremely, perfect.. On the other hand, other people argue that museums should focus on education. The aim of museum is to play an important role in teaching tourist about something such as history, culture, science and other aspects of life teach somebody something: Dy ai iu g ko dng gii t about.

Museums have many different ways to arrange and hold talks to their visitor by employing tourguides or offer headsets, and another programme. In conclusion, it seems to me that a good museum good museum, ghp t khng t nhin , em ch cn vit todays museums, nhm din t bo tng ngy nay nn tch hp cc hot ng gii tr ph hp should be able to offer an both enjoyable and educational experience dung both ri, khng c an na em nh so that people can have fun and learn something at the same time.

Nhn chung l tr li c mt s cn thit. Tuy nhin cc nh support cho ln cha thuyt phc, kh hiu v c i cht lc. Morever, museum is one of more competitive places. Xem li cc li sai c comment r rng v mt ng php trn. Tuy nhin mt s on collocation cha c tt, cn thiu t nhin, dng mt s t cn rt ph thng good, want , have fun hay cc t tuyt i ho. Mt s sp xp cn ln xn, cha ng body ca bi vit. Thy r nht l cui ca body th 2, xp vo body th nht s ph hp hn. Phin bn y hn s c b sung thm cc bi cha cc ch khc v cc dng biu khc. Flag for inappropriate content.

For Later. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Cho cc bn! Hung Hanu Nhng li sai Writing Bin son: Online sales for retail sectors in New Zealand Comment [a1]: Task response: Travel online sales decreased to the second position, Comment [a13]: Mostly khng t cui cu, thng t trc mt danh t Comment [a17]: Xem comment 15 Nhng li sai Writing Bin son: Hung Hanu account for under 30 per cent but the online sales of books went down to over 20 per cent in that year.

Overall, from the year to the year , in New Zealand, online books were sold mostly and the last belonged to clothes Overall: M t s liu ri rc, hu nh ch lit k, report s liu, ch khng so snh cc s liu S dng hu ht cc cu n Nhiu cu khng s dng t ni lin kt cc vi nhau V d cu s 2 v cu s 3 Bi vit ch yu l miu t cc s liu, hu nh khng so snh s liu Nhm , t chc cc s liu report cn ri, thiu logic, thiu chnh xc.

Lu l vi biu hnh trn v bng biu, s liu khng trong khong c chng, m l mt con s c th nn khng dung cc trng t ch c lng nh trong Line graph hay Bar Chart Task response: V d dung trng t ch c lng khi miu t s liu ca clothing Bi vit c s kt hp gia cu n v cu phc. Xem phn tch comment Nhiu cu trong bi vit di nhng thc ra ch c mt , khin bi vit b dng di, lan man, khng ng trng tm. Xem phn tch -Grammar: Ngoi ra kt lun b lp Overview Nhng li sai Writing Bin son: Hung Hanu comment -Vocabs: Comment [a30]: B cm t ny nh It is clear that the amount of car thefts in Great Britain was higher than that of the other countries over the decade.

Comment [a33]: Nearly the same , t same lun c mo t the pha trc Overall: Xem comment s 45, 47 C vn t vng tng i n, c thc paraphrase Task response: Nhng li sai Writing Bin son: Em lu l phi c that Overall: Kt lun tng i n Overall: Hung Hanu Tr li c mt s quan trng yu cu Phn trnh by cc nh hng ang hi sa , lan mn v cha gii thch c mt s , ni r phn comment Ngay t u bi vit, sai 1 li c bn.

Trong bi cng mt im v mt s sai ng tic v d most best Bi vit s dng mt s vocabs kh hay Mt s cm t vit sai, thiu chnh xc V d in the other hand. Xem comment Task response: Hung Hanu Overall: Sai cc li trong khi vit cu phc c comment trn Task response: Xem comment trn Mc d s dng cc t ni to lin kt, s lin mch cho cc , cc on.

Nhiu on din t cha c sc tch , hi di dng. V d l do th nht- body th nht Vocabs: Phn introduction em vit kh n To begin, it is a widely held belief there is a widely held belief that the smokeless industry plays a major role in the development of the country.Mt hm, ng lo tm n 1 trung tm dy Ting Anh ng k, c ny hi: Chng ta va ni rng tt c khi nim u bt ngun t th gii khch quan. Khi c hi v thi quen , anh ci gii thch rng anh lm th khng phi v anh l ngi cn thn m v anh l ngi li bing. Nhng c m cng ch l m c nu khng gp c nhng bi vit v gi ca huynh!

Tn c th gn cho sai lm ny l trung t phn b lch.