# FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY BY VIJAYARAGHAVAN PDF

Book Title: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Author(s): C.P. Kothandaraman, R. Rudramoorthy Publisher: New Age International Edition: Second Pages: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Book (PDF) By C. P. Kothandaraman, R. Rudramoorthy – This book is intended for use in undergraduate courses of civil. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | This book is written to serve the needs of undergraduate students embarking introductory course in Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. This book Cite this publication. Vijayaraghavan G.K. at Independent Researcher.

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Fluid Mechanics And Machinery by sppn.inforaghavan from Lakshmi Publications, , CE FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY, PDF · Print · E-mail Authors: Dr.G.K. VIJAYARAGHAVAN & sppn.infoAVALLI. Publisher: LAKSHMI Publications. FLUID MECHANICS PDF: A Great and largest collection of interview, job, daily/ monthly/PA/yearly income project report, annual report, or salary report, ebooks, .

Surface tension is defined as the tensile force acting on the surface of the liquid in contact with a gas or on the surface between two immiscible liquids such that the contact surface behaves like a membrane under tension.

Define Capillarity. Capillarity is defined as a phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid surface in a small tube relative to the adjacent general level of liquid when the tube is held vertically in the liquid. The rise of liquid surface is known as capillary rise while the fall of liquid surface is known as capillary depression. Define Vapour Pressure. When vaporization takes place, the molecules start accumulating over the free liquid surface exerting pressure on the liquid surface.

This pressure is known as Vapour pressure of the liquid. Define Control Volume. A control volume may be defined as an identified volume fixed in space. The boundaries around the control volume are referred to as control surfaces.

An open system is also referred to as a control volume. Write the continuity equation. The equation based on the principle of conservation of mass is called continuity equation.

List the types of fluid flow. Steady and unsteady flow b. Uniform and non-uniform flow c. Laminar and Turbulent flow d. Compressible and incompressible flow e.

Rotational and ir-rotational flow f. One, Two and Three dimensional flow Define Steady and Unsteady flow. Steady flow Fluid flow is said to be steady if at any point in the flowing fluid various characteristics such as velocity, density, pressure, etc do not change with time.

Define Uniform and Non-uniform flow.

Uniform flow PA College of Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Department ME - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the velocity of flow of fluid does not change both in direction and magnitude from point to point in the flowing fluid for any given instant of time, the flow is said to be uniform. State Newtons law of viscosity.

It states that For a steady uniform flow, the shear stress on a fluid element is layer is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity. Define Compressible and incompressible flow Compressible flow The compressible flow is that type of flow in which the density of the fluid changes from point to point i.

Liquids are generally incompressible. Define Rotational and Ir-rotational flow. Rotational flow Rotational flow is that type of flow in which the fluid particles while flowing along stream lines and also rotate about their own axis.

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Ir-rotational flow If the fluid particles are flowing along stream lines and do not rotate about their own axis that type of flow is called as ir-rotational flow State the assumptions used in deriving Bernoullis equation a. Flow is steady; b. Flow is laminar; c. Flow is ir-rotational; d. Flow is incompressible; e. Fluid is ideal. List the instruments works on the basis of Bernoullis equation. Venturi meter; b. Orifice meter; c. Pitot tube. The total force acting on fluid is equal to rate of change of momentum.

State Bernoullis equation. In a steady flow of frictionless and incompressible fluid flow system, the total energy per unit weight of flowing fluid remains constant. What is known as Eulers equation of motion? If the flow is assumed to be ideal viscous force and it is zero then the equation of motion is known as Eulers equation of motion. Mention the range of Reynoldss number for laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe. If the Reynolds number is less than , the flow is laminar.

But if the Reynoldss number is greater than , the flow is turbulent flow.

What does Haigen - Poiseuilles equation refers to? The equation refers to the value of loss of head in a pipe of length L due to viscosity in a laminar flow. What is Hagen Poiseuilles formula? Write the expression for shear stress? Write the relation between Umax and? Give the expression for the coefficient of friction in viscous flow?

What are the factors to be determined when viscous fluid flows through the circular pipe? The factors to be determined are: a. Velocity distribution across the section.

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Ratio of maximum velocity to the average velocity. Shear stress distribution. Drop of pressure for a given length. Define kinetic energy correction factor? Kinetic energy factor is defined as the ratio of the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on actual velocity across a section to the kinetic energy of the flow per sec based on average velocity across the same section.

It is denoted by. E per sec based on Average velocity Define Boundary layer. When a real fluid flow passed a solid boundary, fluid layer is adhered to the solid boundary. Due to adhesion fluid undergoes retardation thereby developing a small region in the immediate vicinity of the boundary. This region is known as boundary layer.

## FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY BY VIJAYARAGHAVAN PDF

What is mean by boundary layer growth? At subsequent points downstream of the leading edge, the boundary layer region increases because the retarded fluid is further retarded.

This is referred as growth of boundary layer. Classification of boundary layer. Laminar boundary layer, b. Transition zone, c. Turbulent boundary layer. Define Laminar sub Layer In the turbulent boundary layer zone, adjacent to the solid surface of the plate the velocity variation is influenced by viscous effects. Due to very small thickness, the velocity distribution is almost linear.

This region is known as laminar sub layer. Define Boundary layer Thickness. It is defined as the distance from the solid boundary measured in y-direction to the point, where the velocity of fluid is approximately equal to 0. List the various types of boundary layer thickness. Momentum thickness , c.

Define displacement thickness. The displacement thickness is defined as the distance by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in flow rate on account of boundary layer formation. Define momentum thickness. The momentum thickness is defined as the distance by which the boundary should be displaced to compensate for the reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account of boundary layer formation.

What is meant by energy loss in a pipe? When the fluid flows through a pipe, it loses some energy or head due to frictional resistance and other reasons.

It is called energy loss. Explain the major losses in a pipe. The major energy losses in a pipe is mainly due to the frictional resistance caused by the sheer force between the fluid particles and boundary walls of the pipe and also due to viscosity of the fluid. Explain minor losses in a pipe. The loss of energy or head due to change of velocity of the flowing fluid in magnitude or direction is called minor losses.

It includes: sudden expansion of the pipe, sudden contraction of the pipe, bend in a pipe, pipe fittings and obstruction in the pipe, etc. What are the factors influencing the frictional loss in pipe flow?

Frictional resistance for the turbulent flow is, a. Proportional to v where v varies from 1. Proportional to the density of fluid. Proportional to the area of surface in contact. Independent of pressure.

Depend on the nature of the surface in contact. For other subject notes contact our Site. Click below the link for download the notes.

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## Fluid Mechanics and Machinery - 2 Marks - All 5 Units

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Today Updates. Statics and Dynamics By R. Hibbeler Book April Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, ArunBy the introduction of draft tube, which has enlarged area in the direction of flow, the kinetic head reduces and pressure head increases.

I look for a PDF Ebook about:. This pressure is known as Vapour pressure of the liquid. Write the expression for pressure head due to acceleration in suction and delivery pipes.

List the characteristic curves of Hydraulic turbine. You have entered an incorrect email address! It is defined as the ratio of the pitch diameter D of the Pelton wheel to the diameter of the jet d.