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FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY PDF

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The developments leading to an operational fuel cell can be traced back to the early 's with Sir William Grove rec- ognized as the discoverer in 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 7/21/ sppn.info . sppn.info Renewable . A fuel cell is like a battery in that it generates electricity from an electrochemical reaction. Both batteries and fuel cells convert chemical energy into electrical.


Fuel Cell Technology Pdf

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FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM. Fuel Cells. Hydrogen is a versatile energy car- rier that can be used to power nearly every end-use energy need. An Introduction to Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Technology. 1. What is a fuel cell? Pembina Institute: sppn.info Plug Power: . Apr 1, PDF | The Department of Energy's (DOE) hydrogen and fuel cell activities are presented, focussing on key targets and progress. Recent results.

The alkaline fuel cells offer the advantage of a high power solid acid electrolyte is saturated with water so that the transport to weight ratio as compare to other types of fuel cells. This is due of ions can proceed. However, for terrestrial use, the The reaction at the cathode is: In the poisoning of an alkaline electrons are forced through an external circuit. Combining the fuel cell, the carbon dioxide reacts with the hydroxide ion in the anode and cathode reactions, the overall cell reaction is: This reduces the overall This exothermic reaction, the formation of water from hydrogen efficiency of the fuel cell.

The equation of carbon dioxide reacting and oxygen gases, has an enthalpy of kilojoules of energy per with a potassium hydroxide electrolyte is shown below: Even the small amount of CO2 in w w w.

Reaction Generally, hydrogen is considered as the preferred fuel for AFC, Alkaline fuel cells operate by using pure hydrogen which is free although some direct carbon fuel cells use different alkaline of carbon oxides.

Because of the complexity of isolating carbon The reactions at the anode are: The reactions at the cathode are: Combining the anode and cathode reactions, the overall cell reactions are: This water must be continually removed to facilitate further reaction. The electrolyte in Alkaline fuel problems cell is concentrated 85 wt.

The electrolyte is retained in a matrix usually asbestos , and a wide C. The electrolyte conducts hydroxyl developed type of fuel cell. According to Sandra Curtin [14], OH— ions from the cathode to the anode. This is opposite to currently more than PAFC fuel cell systems are installed all many other types of fuel cells that conduct hydrogen ions from the over the world, providing power and useful steam heat to hospitals, anode to the cathode.

The electrolyte can be mobile or immobile. The product plants. Future applications for PAFCs may be found in marine, water and waste heat dilute and heat the liquid electrolyte but locomotive, or space applications.

The number of PAFCs units are removed from the cell as the electrolyte circulates. Immobile built exceeds any other fuel cell technology, with over 85 MW alkaline electrolyte fuel cells use an electrolyte that consists of a of demonstrators that have been tested, are being tested, or are thick paste retained by capillary forces within a porous support being fabricated worldwide. So, PAFCs are the only commercially matrix such as asbestos. The paste itself provides gas seals at the available fuel cells today and these are made by ONSI, a subsidiary cell edges.

Product water evaporates into the source hydrogen gas of International Fuel Cell Corporation on a large scale. According stream at the anode from which it is subsequently condensed.

The to a report [15], ONSI claims that in over two million hours of waste heat is re-moved by way of a circulating coolant. But the costs are still two to three times higher approx. Therefore, but large plants of 1 MW and 5 MW have been built. Reaction Anode and cathode reactions are similar to PEMs, but operating temperatures are slightly higher making them more tolerant to reforming impurities. Phosphoric acid fuel cells react hydrogen with oxygen. The reactions at the anode are: The overall cell reaction by combining the anode and cathode reactions is: This product water must be continually removed to facilitate further reaction.

Advantages and Disadvantages The advantages of phosphoric acid fuel cells are that they: As a result, phosphoric acid fuel cells can use un-scrubbed air as oxidant, and reformate as fuel. PAFC The disadvantages are that they: PAFCs use hydrocarbon sources such as natural gas, propane or waste methane but most of the D. Pressurized boiling water is used for the relatively large size and weight of MCFC and slow start- cooling of the fuel cell stack. Conventional PAFCs cannot operate up time are not an issue.

PAFCs They produce high quality waste heat that can be used for fuel have the ability to operate at elevated pressures up to 8 atm. The waste heat is of unit operates at ambient pressures. In malls, as well as industrial applications chemical, paper, metal, comparison with other fuel cell types, the electrical efficiency of food, and plastics for onsite power generation.

This disadvantage is offset by their tolerance to fuel diagram of MCFC.

Both product water and carbon dioxide must be continually removed from the cathode to facilitate further reaction. Advantages and Disadvantages of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells The advantages of molten carbonate fuel cells are that they: MCFCs have been operated on The disadvantages are that they: MCFCs typically consist of to corrosion, are dimensionally stable, have high endurance a lithium-potassium or lithium-sodium based electrolyte. After the and lend themselves to fabrication. The anode in particular the anode side of the cell to complete the fuel oxidation.

Because cannot tolerate more than ppm of sulphur compounds of the carbon dioxide requirement at the cathode, and production primarily H2S and COS in the fuel gas without suffering a of it at the anode, carbon dioxide must be transferred from the significant performance loss.

Reaction Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFCs operate at high temperatures and Molten carbonate fuel cells operate by using pure hydrogen or have shown very good performance in combined-cycle applications.

When a hydrocarbon, such as methane, SOFCs are the best option for high-powered applications. SOFC is introduced to the anode in the presence of water, it absorbs heat technology is used on large scale in the traditional power generating and undergoes a steam reforming reaction: The SOFCs performance is very sensitive to operating temperature. Reaction Solid oxide fuel cells operate by using pure hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels, just like molten carbonate fuel cells.

This results in an inlet fuel stream comprised of hydrogen with or without carbon monoxide. SOFC monoxide to oxygen, the O2— ion is drawn through the electrolyte from the cathode to the anode, while electrons are forced through 1. Construction Materials, Cell Operation, and an external circuit from the anode to the cathode.

Since the ions Performance move from the cathode to the anode, this is the opposite of most Solid oxide fuel cells are built like computer chips through types of fuel cells, the reaction products accumulate at the anode sequential deposition of various layers of material. Conventional rather than the cathode. SOFCs exist in several design variants.

The basic variants are Combining the anode and cathode reactions, the overall cell tubular and planar cells. The tubular design is the most advanced reactions are: The SOFC uses a solid yittra-stabilized zirconia ceramic This is the carbon monoxide reaction and occurs only when using material as the electrolyte layer.

The advantage of solid phase a hydrocarbon fuel design is that it requires only two phases gas-solid for the charge Thus, the fuel cell produces water regardless of fuel and carbon transfer reactions at the electrolyte-electrode interface. The two- dioxide if using a hydrocarbon fuel. In order to facilitate further phase contact simplifies the design because it eliminates corrosion reaction both products i.

The electrolyte conducts oxide O2— ions from the cathode to the anode which is the opposite of most types 3. The Advantages of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are that of fuel cells, which conduct hydrogen ions from the anode to the they cathode. Their operation at high temperature any moving parts, thereby are quiet enough to be installed eliminates the need for precious metal catalysts and can reduce indoors.

But the disadvantage of the SOFCs high cell electricity generators currently being developed world- operating temperature is the stringent materials requirement for wide.

References

Some developers are attempting to push SOFC operation manufacture. Edition, November University, Kurukshetra, India, in He completed his M.

Conclusion Science from Annamalai University, A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu, India, in reaction.

In principle, a fuel cell operates like a battery. Unlike He is currently pursuing his Ph. It in Computer Science. There are several different types of fuel cells, and associated as a Researcher with the Department of Computer each using a different chemistry.

Introduction to Fuel Cell Technology

Fuel cells are usually classified Science, College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing by their operating temperature and the type of electrolyte they Forestry University, Nanjing, China. He has many publications in use. Others may be useful for small portable Journals.

Google Scholar 2.

Fuel cells for mobile applications

Motors Corp. Google Scholar 3.

Proceedings—Electrochemical Society, Google Scholar 4. Mobius, On the history of solid electrolyte fuel cells. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 1 2— CrossRef Google Scholar 5. Wendt, T. Brenscheidt, and M. Google Scholar 6. Ruge and F. Google Scholar 7. Nathan C. Larminie and A. CrossRef Google Scholar Singhal and K. Google Scholar A key feature of the PEM fuel cell is its electrolyte, an organic polymer that is formed into a solid membrane.

Anthony RJ. The tubular design is the most advanced reactions are: The electrolyte could be a polymer membrane. The reaction at the anode produces electricity and water as by-products.

MCFCs hold several advantages over other fuel cell technologies, including their resistance to impurities.