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4 04 - The House of Hades · 5 05 - The Blood of Olympus · 6 - The Reviews . There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to write a review. in Greece and find an old temple called the House of Hades (or Pluto, as the For the past two days they'd skirted north, hoping to find a safe pass, with no luck. views · holiday survey: An annual anal by Deloitte United S.. Description this book [ The House of Hades Riordan, Rick (Author) ] { Hardcover } [DOWNLOAD] PDF files, Read Online The House of Hades (Heroes of Easy Download Without Complicated The House of Hades (Heroes of.


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Last but certainly not least, I have to give credit to all the strong female fictional The discussion is concluded with a survey of some retellings of the myth And he found the lord Hades in his house seated upon a couch, and his shy mate . Heroes Of Olympus The House of Hades PDF Free Download - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. They have no choice. The House of Hades book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Hazel stands at a crossroads. She and the remaining crew of.

See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Nov 7, The other five demigods have to put aside their grief and follow Percy's instructions to find the mortal side of the Doors of Death. SlideShare Explore Search You.

Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this document? Why not share! Nevertheless, it is always possible to resist these ideologies, for example by introducing a new metanarrative ibid 8ff. This ideological importance, however, is not always corrected by the pre-text.

In any case, the pre-text should operate more as a platform where various textual and metanarratival processes are given the chance to cooperate, with the outcome of either going against these ideologies or reproducing them. In addition, when a new metanarrative is completely opposite e.

In this case, classical mythology most often features metanarratives that are shaped by, for example, masculinist, misogynistic, and violent ideologies ibid 9. Therefore, it is important to carefully analyze retold stories, because, on one hand, replications of old texts can further confirm and repeat notions of, for instance, sexist metanarratives, but on the other hand also have the power to uncover hidden and untold aspects of a story.

These ideas of a prevalent metanarrative will be discussed in regard to the primary literature, focusing on the representation of specific views of gender concepts e. This notion is also present in definitions of that concept found in various dictionary entries. For this thesis, a retelling is considered to be a story that is based on a source text, in this case on the Homeric Hymn, which is extended and modified, for example in terms of plot and characters.

Allen , Worton and Still to slightly abstract views e. Orr Consequently, it is impossible to give a precise definition of the term.

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The theory presented here is in general vital to formulating questions and encouraging discussions in an area of literature that, in this regard, has so far been neglected.

Young Adult Literature The following survey briefly highlights the importance of a study primarily focused on YAL, its development as a literary field, and ponders the difficult question of classification. Apart from that, the genre of fantasy, and the field of mythology, which are both used to categorize the primary literature, will be further investigated.

Authors have discovered new themes and ways of telling their stories, thus creating new trends that generate not only a lot of new young readers, but also adults who enjoy reading books of that field cf.

Trupe , Campbell , Cart The expansion of this genre is visible in the sudden incline of debut authors, new forms of narrative techniques, or more creative ways of presenting the text to the reader Wadham Indeed, some of the themes that were explored in YA fiction helped fuel its success in the literary world.

For example, J. Similarly, the Twilight saga by Stephenie Mayer helped in establishing certain themes and elements from adult literature, such as star- crossed love, love triangles, or increase the popularity of supernatural creatures like vampires, and werewolves. Although it was not well received among critics, sales figures show that it was part of the books that made the overall success of adolescent literature possible in recent years cf. Mail Online, Liz Thomas Another dominant trend in YA literature is dystopian fiction, and one of the most successful representatives of that subgenre is The Hunger Games series by Suzanne Collins, which gives the reader a bleak outlook on a post-apocalyptic world, where once a year 24 children are locked in an arena and fight to death, as a punishment for the thirteen districts that started a revolution against the government.

Most of these books were also adapted into movies, which further facilitated to the success and popularity of Young Adult Literature.

However, not only the popularity of this literary field contributes to this need for scholarly discussion, but also the notion that in a sense these novels can be responsible for shaping the future generation of readers. Hinton Some scholars cf. Cart The emergence of YA literature in the s was due to the fact that genre fiction became popular in the s and s, therefore authors, who wanted to write books for teenagers, started engaging in topics that were also relevant to the lives of teenagers.

The following two centuries focused first on the problem novel i. In the s authors focused on publishing books for the younger demographic, which resulted in the breakthrough of middle grade fiction Cart The problem of classification Classifying what counts as a young adult novel proves to be a challenge. The need to even find classifications, as Campbell argues, results in the desire to lose the stigmata that YAL is too immature Campbell establishes certain criteria that show a difference between young adult and middle grade literature.

For example, some themes are more important in middle grade fiction, like the creation and mechanics of friendship, while for young adults issues such as sex and intimate relationships, violence and profanity are fore grounded. Moreover, there is also a difference in the use of language and the structure of the plot, which are, compared to YAL, much simpler.

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Nevertheless, as Campbell emphasizes, there are always exceptions to these rules. He comes to the conclusion that even though middle school and YA fiction are not the same, the first is still struggling to find its own identity, to break out of the shadow of YAL and establish a separate canon ibid Another problem that arises is also the question of who establishes these classifications, as the motives of classifying novels as YAL differ from that of, for instance, publishers to readers or authors.

In the case of Harry Potter, for example, the publisher could argue that marketing the book to a more mature audience will bring higher profits, hence regarding them as part of Young Adult Literature, while the reader might say that, at least for the first book in the series, the protagonists are too young to fall into the YA category, therefore the novel should be considered as middle grade fiction.

For example, in Contemporary Adolescent Literature and Culture: Further, there is also a multiplicity e. Click of critical books and articles on popular YA titles such as the Twilight saga, the Harry Potter series, or the Hunger Games series. This apparent lack of critical discussion, that was previously mentioned, might also be due to the fact that a literary subgenre that has existed for twenty-five to fifty years will accrue less commentary than an older one; typically, too, critics begin by considering a subgenre within its class and only gradually detach it for separate examination.

Caroline Hunt: The aforementioned theories, from Nikolajeva to Campbell, are the first steps to forming an understanding of YAL that is more suitable to the literature produced in the s. Fantasy fiction The primary literature can be mainly assigned to the genre of fantasy, and as a subgenre also to paranormal romance In this regard, it is feasible to briefly consider the beginnings of this genre, and acknowledge some definitions of it provided by scholars.

In addition, the subgenre of paranormal romance will also be discussed. This survey will focus on fantasy fiction for children and young adults and will leave adult fantasy literature aside. Fantasy literature for children and young adults is proving to become one of the most popular genres of this literary field.

But there is also the ongoing popularity of YA novels focusing on supernatural creatures e. C and Kristin Cast, and as this thesis demonstrates a fondness for mythological stories e. Starcrossed by Jennifer L. This increase in popularity was even more explicit at the beginning of the 21st century, which saw a focus on fantasy stories that feature teenage heroes.

The world building in fantasy novels for Young Adults is more complex, and the language that is employed can be seen as more somber. As Nikolajeva Consequently, fantasy is employed as a narrative device i. Both novels analyzed in this thesis, belong to the fantasy subgenre of paranormal romance. These stories put their main focus on the erotic or romance elements of the plot. Additionally, paranormal romance often has a female protagonist at its center ibid Interestingly, Kaveney points out that these stories are set in worlds where no secret is made of the existence of the supernatural e.

However, this is not entirely the case in either Abandon or The Goddess Test. The existence of supernatural creatures, in this case Greek deities, is only apparent to some characters in the novels, like Richard Smith in Abandon. The romance in this subgenre occurs, as the term suggests, between paranormal creatures e. In brief, the genre of fantasy offers young adults a possibility of dealing with issues, like first love, death, and coming of age from a different point of departure.

Many of the Olympian gods are featured in the novel. The main character Percy or Perseus , a demigod, is constantly fighting off other mythological creatures on his heroic adventures. It can be argued that these books appeal to children, whether or not they are familiar with the original mythology. The website gives readers the chance to explore the original myths, learn more about the Underworld or other places featured in the stories, in an interactive and fun way.

In , for example, the first books of four noteworthy young adult series were published that focus on Greek mythology in general, or pick one myth as their central theme, namely Starcrossed by Josephine Angelini, which is a modern retelling of the Trojan War, focusing on the star-crossed love between Helen Hamilton i. Armentrout explores a society that is guarded by Sentinels i.

Half- Bloods , the offspring of Hematoi i. Another popular novel that deals with mythology is Sweet Venom by Tera Lynn Childs, where teenage girls, more specifically descendants of Medusa, form an alliance to fight against monsters on a daily basis.

Interestingly, Stephens poses the question of why this genre is still so popular.

More specifically, there are certain literary and social functions that mythological stories complete. There are five characteristics that prove the suitability of myths for retellings: First, myths are concerned with the story and its significance.

They are also structured in certain patterns. Although our understanding of culture has evolved, myths are still strongly influenced, for example, by imperialist, masculinist, and misogynistic worldviews ibid 63f.

Fourth, they extract psychic truths because they express in a written form the desires that are developed in the human unconscious. And lastly, myths have the power to merge different types of cultures, therefore providing a platform for intercultural communication.

A problem that Stephens observes here is that although more recently published anthologies of myths incorporate stories of various world cultures, they are still Eurocentric in character, focusing, for example, on Greek mythology. This, as he points out, might be because the target audience is mainly European ibid As Stephens observes, paratextual references, such as introductions or afterwords, are strong indicators of the significance of a myth.

Although, in this regard, Stephens refers to paratextual elements of anthologies, this is something that will be discussed in more detail in connection with the primary literature examined in this thesis. Mythology, fantasy, and gender The following chapter will focus on the representation of gender in the previously discussed genre of fantasy, and also in classical mythology as literary field. Apart from that it will also depict the importance of it in Young Adult Literature.

However, first an overview of some fundamental concepts of gender, which are employed in the analysis of the primary literature, will be given. In this regard, the term agency and its connection to gender theory will be discussed.

Although this dictionary was published in the late s, the definitions for the terms used in this thesis are still valid. The Second Sex Other social categories such as race and class, which influence the social reality of a person, can also be connected to gender issues see intersectionality.

Further definitions of the term see it, for example, as a performance cf. Judith Butler Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity In brief, it can be argued that gender is a social construction, as it is not something natural, but it is created and performed, as a result it is always changing and evolving.

These stereotypes are formed at a very early stage of human development e. Gender Kompetenz Zentrum. Whether these gender roles, more specifically these stereotypical illustrations of men and women, are further reinforced or rebutted will be one of the topics discussed in regard to the primary literature. All the mentioned concepts are part of feminist theory. It should be briefly noted that feminist theory also engages in the discussion of literature cf. Eagleton , analyzing concepts of gender in terms of literary production.

Women in fantasy literature Although the representation of women in fantasy literature is a controversial and much debated topic cf. Rosenberg , its discussion in the academic field has been somewhat neglected, which is also evident in the age of the publications that do approach this issue cf.

Attebery and , Sargent , Weedman It can be argued that women in fantasy literature are often presented as passive bystanders, letting the hero follow his quest to fight evil, and on many occasions be rescued by him.

More recently, George R. Both women, for instance, rely on the help of their male counterparts to achieve anything in the course of the novels, and are portrayed as physically weaker. Fortunately this portrayal of the passive female has changed at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century, to some extent due to the rise of female fantasy authors, such as Ursula Le Guin, Anne McCaffrey, or Marion Zimmer Bradley Sprague and Keeling Nevertheless, a strong patriarchal hierarchy and general oppression of women female characters is a common trademark of fantasy literature.

Most often this limitation of freedom is not even challenged Clute Authors who wanted to break out of this habit attended to topics that credit women with more power, such as ways of living in matriarchal cultures, especially in Celtic fantasy.

Female heroes were rarely found in fantasy literature e. These female warriors, however, were considered to further establish stereotypes. In a historic sense, the sites lived in a society of other women, where being powerful was the norm. Yet, many modern versions of these women placed them in a patriarchal society, in which strong and powerful women are outside of that norm ibid One of the themes of fantasy that grants almost equal rights to men and women is magic.

Modern fantasy features a greater amount of stories with a female magic user as main protagonist e. This prompts another popular theme of fantasy, which follows a young woman discovering a hidden talent, and consequently using that talent to aid another young man on his heroic quest, since she is not able to use her power to support herself Clute In this regard, an interesting example should be pointed out.

Some authors of fantasy literature distribute the power equally among their protagonists. For example, in an interview J. Rowling, author of the Harry Potter series, points out that physical strength is taken out of the contest in her books. Every magic user receives a wand to wield their magic, which is the same for men and for women.

Hence, equality is created and the strength of the magic that is performed is not connected to the gender of the user The Women of Harry Potter The developments in this genre are clearly noticeable. Ursula K.

Le Guin, author of the Earthsea saga which was criticized for its gender bias content, revised her work in an attempt to free her heroine from the constraints the patriarchal society put on her, consequently granting her a distinct voice Clute Regarding the representation of these issues in Young Adult Literature, it is important to note that one of the central aims of YA fantasy literature is to show that ordinary teenagers can become heroes and gain the power to defeat even the most frightful opponents, and as Pierce Consequently, they aim to appeal to a metaethic that opposes notions of post modernism, materialism, and cultural relativism.

According to Stephens, classical mythology is characterized as being essentially masculinist and antifeminist ibid This argument will be central to the discussion of the primary literature, especially in regard to gender roles.

The number of feminist writers who use classical mythology in their retellings is still very limited. For example, similarities between classical mythology and biblical literature show that both use discourse that is hieratic, and both use a similar metaethic. The prevalent gender system found in the mythological texts will be the next focal point in this chapter.

The discussion will also use the Persephone myth as an example, and considers how the system is manifested there. Generally, they mature over time, with some changes being more dramatic and apparent than others.

However, the replication of these systems and passing them down through generations is crucial for their preservation. Thus, stories such as the one about Demeter and Persephone do not lose their appeal to audiences centuries after their first introduction. In addition, people might not be aware of these systems, since they are naturalized, and wholly integrated into society and the everyday life. Based on this, it can be argued that even though these myths depict societies that are centuries old, many of the problematic representations of gender issues roles, division, inequality, etc.

Furthermore, concepts, such as dowry and marriage of young women to men significantly senior their age e. Furthermore, even the work was gender specific: While women were responsible for assignments inside the house, like cooking, or taking care of the home and children, men were in charge of everything outside the home, for instance political agendas, or military operations. Gender segregation is also a topic explored in the Homeric Hymn.

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For example, Demeter, during her stay in Eleusis, interacts exclusively with the female members of the family with the exception of Demophon who is a child. To deliver his messages to Hades he sends Hermes. However when contacting Demeter he first authorizes Iris, and later on Rhea with the task ibid Although the gender system presented in the Hymn, to a great extent, appears foreign to the Western i. Western Europe, and North America understanding, some traces of it can still be found in many societies of the 21st century.

On one hand, women are, legally and in most Western countries, no longer financially dependent on men, are allowed to hold a governmental position, can choose to get married or not, and are not discriminated against when they choose to live a childless life NB: Especially in terms of relationships and marriage, women have more freedom, compared to the ancient Greek society. As Doherty points out 30 , most marriages or long term commitments are based on friendship, and the understanding of a mutual wish among the partners.

This might be a reason why most modern adaptations of the Hymn present Persephone and Hades as equal partners, with a mutual goal, and feelings. Demeter withholding the crops. This would imply that her passive resistance was indeed effective and contributed to a beneficial outcome for her.

The principal understanding of agency can be traced back to notions that juxtapose it to the ideas of structure. Bourdieu Social sciences, for example, recognize the origins of agency in the legal and financial division between agent and principal.

Here, the agent is free to carry out certain tasks in the name of the principal Dictionary of Social Sciences The actor is, in this regard, put into central focus. Another crucial characteristic of social sciences view is the significance placed on outside recognition, in other words, whether actors are able to perform in ways that are acknowledged and responded to, and not just their bare ability to act ibid Nevertheless, no matter how limited, actions still have to be taken or not f.

As previously mentioned, a focus will be put on the female characters and the examination of their behavior. McNay , Madhok , Meyers The Persephone myth The previous summary of theoretical aspects that need to be considered in this thesis is now followed by an overview of the Persephone myth, which will be used in the intertextual analysis of the primary literature.

First, the sources of the Persephone myth will be explored.

Following this, a brief summary of the plot will be presented, which is followed by detailed descriptions of the main characters involved in the story. Next, a topic that is of great concern in this thesis, namely the representations of gender, to be specific of certain gender systems, will be touched upon. The discussion is concluded with a survey of some retellings of the myth through different genres e.

Sources This subchapter will briefly discuss the various sources of the myth in general, and subsequently focus on the origins of the Persephone myth in Greek and Latin classical literature.

Hitherto it has been pointed out that Greek mythology as a theme still enjoys great popularity in the literature of the 21st century. When tracing back to the source material, one can observe that the numerous variations of mythological texts differ greatly from each other. Also, different time periods place different emphasis on the themes of these myths, for instance, allegorical readings of the myth were popular in the Middle Ages Miles There are however some assumptions on the origins.

For example, researchers argue that the myths constituted pre-scientific ways of describing the world; that they were used to aid political campaigns, or to teach moral stories, or might even be understood as historical facts rearranged to fictional accounts of gods and monsters ibid 5.

The earliest sources of literature that incorporate mythology are the two epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer. As Miles notes, the real identity of the author, whether it was one person or an amalgamation of many, is much discussed among scholars. However, what seems to be clear is that these two poems represent the groundwork of Greek literature. In addition, it gives detailed accounts of the individual gods and goddesses, functioning as a form of encyclopedia ibid 6.

Following these epic poems is the 'lyric age', which used the song as primary literary genre.

Important pieces of literature in this period are the Homeric Hymns, which unlike their name suggests, do not derive from the previously mentioned author. The Homeric Hymns are also the source material used in the analysis part of this paper, especially the hymn devoted to Demeter. The uniqueness of these hymns is visible in the fact that they are addressed to individual gods and goddesses, most often depicting stories from their lives in great detail.

As Miles points out, while some deities are devoted more time and space in the hymns, such as Demeter, Apollo, Hermes, Aphrodite, and Dionysus, others are neglected cf. Hades ibid 7. It should be briefly mentioned that mythology also became a central theme in Latin literature. The two most influential Roman authors worth pointing out are the poets Virgil and Ovid. The Aeneid which tells the story of how Trojan prince Aeneas fled after Troy was conquered, for example, is regarded as Virgil's chef d'oeuvre.

Miles argues ibid 8 that with the Aeneid Virgil tried to establish a Latin mythological tradition and weaken the hegemony of Homer as epic writer.

The myths are placed together to create "one continuous song" ibid 9 , which is one of the reasons this piece of literature is regarded as extraordinary. Underlying these myths is the common theme of metamorphosis. Undoubtedly, Greek mythology played a central role in the tradition of English literature, as is presented by Miles, who traces the use of it from the middle ages to the twentieth century cf. While Persephone, accompanied by her mother Demeter and other goddesses, is gathering flowers on a meadow, the earth splits open and Hades appears on his chariot and takes her away.

In order to help his wife Metaneira, Celeus offers Demeter to raise his son Demophon.

However, her anger has still not vanished, thus she holds back the crops from earth, ultimately causing Zeus to interfere in that matter. Zeus sends Hermes to the Underworld, to persuade Hades to let Persephone reunite with her mother. The permanent reunion, however, can only happen on the condition that she did not drink or eat anything while in the realm of the dead. Hades agrees and sends Persephone with Hermes to meet her mother.

Their reunion is only clouded by the fact that Persephone did indeed consume pomegranate seeds while she was with Hades. This binds her to the Underworld for one third of the year. For the analysis and comparison of source material and modern retellings in this paper the Greek version, i. However, if necessary other translations or accounts of the myth will be consulted.

Roles of the god esse s After the previously depicted events, Persephone came to be known as the Queen of the Underworld, also keeping her title as goddess of spring. Grimal Persephone also had the byname Cora or Kore 'maiden' , which she lost after her marriage to Hades. The significance of this loss is discussed in more detail in, for example, Lincoln , or Larrington She is often depicted as a cruel and deceitful goddess cf.

Bell Moreover, Hades is not only her husband, but also her uncle. During her time as Queen of the Underworld she crosses paths with many other deities and captives of Hades e. In literature she is most often only depicted at the side of Hades as his Queen cf. Hades, the king of the Underworld, is known by many names, which as Miles The realm where he resides, the Underworld, is sometimes also referred to as Hades, which might cause some confusion.

Out of fear, he is rarely referred to by his real name, Hades, but rather by the aforementioned euphemisms, or titles such as 'Host of Many', 'he who has many names', and 'ruler over the departed'.

He is illustrated as a dark-haired and grimly looking god, in stark opposition to his 'bloom-like' wife Persephone. Not only is he feared among the gods, but also among the mortals. In fact he "is most hated by mortals of all gods" Homer, Iliad 9. Additionally, he is characterized as jealous, especially over his own rights, and most often oblivious to what happens on earth Graves Hesiod refers to him as "[ The mythological texts that solely focus on Hades are limited.

The most important ones are the stories surrounding the war with the Titans, the distribution of the realms, and the abduction of Persephone. There is, however, a Hymn devoted to him by Orpheus cf.

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Orphic Hymn 18 to Plouton. Hercules, Orpheus, and Theseus. The first description of the Underworld, which derives from Homer, sees it as a place that could be reached by ship e. Odysseus travels there in the west where the ghosts of the departed spend their time, roaming around the fields that are covered in asphodel, the only plant that grows there. In later descriptions the geography of the Underworld changes dramatically. It is not a place that could be reached by ship anymore, but rather is moved underneath the earth.

Nevertheless, there are still ways to enter the Underworld as a living, for example through caverns e. The Underword is separated from the living world by five rivers: Only souls that pay the fare, an Obolus i. The three judges of the Underworld, Minos, Rhadmanthys, and Aaecus decide over the fate of the new souls, in general sending them to the Asphodel Fields.

However, if one is judged to have pleased the gods in a special way, they are sent to the Elysian Fields.

On the other hand, souls that are judged to be evil are sent to Tartarus or Tartaros. The task of the Erinyes Furies or children of the night cf. Ovid Metamorphoses, 4. In addition, they are also responsible for the punishment of those kept in the Tartarus prison cf. Graves Inside, wide and extensive halls stretch across the 'fortress' cf. Hesiod Theogony The months Persephone spends in the Underworld vary from source to source, sometimes three months; at other times four months cf.

Homeric Hymn In conclusion, the following quote from Ovid sums up the general atmosphere of the Underworld, and might facilitate imagining parts of the setting in the primary literature. The Stygian city and the cruel court of swarthy Dis [Haides]. Countless broad entrances that city has and portals everywhere open As Lincoln notes, Zeus' actions cannot be clearly interpreted While some scholars argue that there is a feud between him and Demeter, others suggest that Zeus should not be labeled as the sole villain.

His right to interfere in Persephone's life is as valid as Demeter's right. Mothers were regarded as biological parents only, while fathers were seen as the "social parent". As a social parent, the fathers were also allowed to arrange marriages. However, as Larrington suggests, Zeus is willingly handing over his daughter, to become the 'Bride of Death', mainly to please his brother.

Some of the interpretations or retellings can be found as entries in encyclopedias, some in dictionaries, and some even in guidebooks to Greek mythology. In all of these entries, the central story is the same: Persephone is abducted by Hades, prompting her mother Demeter to go to great lengths to rescue her. However, the manner in which it is told, the question of guilt, the establishment of victims and villains, and the description of the characters involved, is different.

Once as an entry for Hades, and once for Persephone. The story of the abduction begins with Hades falling in love with Persephone. But while her mother refuses to let her live in the Underworld with Hades, Zeus is very outspoken about his support for Persephone.

Nevertheless, Hades is not allowed to marry Persephone, which prompts him to abduct her. Interestingly, in this interpretation Hades gives Persephone the pomegranate seeds that bind her to him ibid So these two entries retell the same story, but without perhaps fully realizing it, the first one solely credits Hades with binding Persephone to the Underworld, while in the second story an unknowing, and perhaps naive Persephone is to blame ibid It offers details on her heritage, on the different nations that worship her, and also on her abduction and marriage to the Lord of the Underworld.

The story that is told here is more elaborate and dramatic. Interestingly, the sexual aspect of their relationship is also mentioned here. The Complete and Definitive Edition republished in the entries are arranged according to the gods they are assigned to. The Persephone myth is recounted in the chapter on Demeter ibid 96 , and as expected, the latter is put into a focal position.

A rape! This is not mentioned in the other retellings or interpretations. However, there are four significant distinctions made in this guidebook, namely that between myths on gods e.

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Zeus, Demeter , nature myths e. Pandora , myths on demigods e. Perseus , and fables e. For readers who are not well versed in Greek mythology it is difficult to distinguish between the author's own interpretation and the classical story. Nonetheless, this can still serve as an introduction to that topic as it vividly depicts the adventures of the gods.

The Persephone myth is, once again, retold in the chapter on Demeter Evslin The descriptions of the goddesses are vivid, and the language is more poetic than, for example, in the dictionary entries. Here, Persephone's outer appearance is also considered. She is pictured as a girl "raised among flowers", even bearing similarities to a flower: The relationship between Demeter and Persephone is portrayed as very loving in nature ibid However, some parts of the story here are most likely freely imagined by the author.

Immediately after her questioning the birds, she turned a little boy who laughed at her for crying, into a lizard. It is the law that states that anybody who consumes food in the Underworld will be bound to it forever.

Evslin 26ff notes that although Hades abducts Persephone in a rather brutal way, he becomes kinder and gentler towards her.

Moreover, to appease her, he gifts her with jewels, dresses, and even a black pearl crown. However, her feelings towards him are secretly evolving, as she begins to develop a fondness for him and her life in the Underworld ibid For instance, on occasion she wanders the Elysian Fields, dances around, and visits the tormented souls of Sisyphus, and Tantalus ibid In this retelling, Persephone consciously eats the pomegranate seeds out of sheer hunger, and desperation.

These interpretations show that due to the extensive volume of Greek mythological texts, and the manifold ways the topic is treated in English literature, many authors are given the opportunity to change the source material to their liking.

Retellings The following main analysis of this thesis will incorporate the previously discussed concepts, and find answers to the initially established research questions.

The first part is concerned with the retelling that is closer to the original, namely The Goddess Test. The latter part discusses, in a similar manner, the version that can be considered more modern, that is Abandon. Essentially, it is a retelling of the Persephone myth that is closer to the original than, for example, Abandon, as the characters presented in this book are the deities from mythology. Before delving into the analysis, it is important to underline the fact that in The Goddess Test mythology is considered as actual history.

Methods A , 86 Lehnert, Nucl. Popp, Z. Maier-Komor, Nucl. Methods A , 65 Fabbietti, Nucl. Garabatos, Nucl. Methods A , 38 Bokemeyer, Nucl. Badura, Part. Abashian, Nucl. Aubert, Nucl. Methods A , 1 G 33, 1 Agodi, Nucl. Methods A , 14 Alvarez-Pol, Nucl. Alekseev, Nucl. Methods , Atac, Nucl. Balanda, Nucl. Simon, Progr. Berdermann, Diamond Relat. Akindinov, Nucl. Toia, Nucl. Brun, F. Methods A , 81 Agakichiev, V.That would be easier. Marc Thompson. Piper XLIV: Belief in a Mediterranean reality that Homer exaggerates is essentially the method of Strabo The darkness took on a grey- red tinge.

Why not share! Severin first gave his attention to the voyage of the Argo, constructing a Bronze Age ship in which to recreate the journey. Heubeck, op. At least now they knew that monsters could be killed in Tartarus … though she had no idea how long Arachne would remain dead. A massive dark shape, vaguely humanoid, now loomed over them, its foot raised as if to crush Percy.