HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION JENNY PREECE PDF
Interaction design: beyond human- computer interaction1 Jennifer Preece, .. Rogers is a cognitive scientist, Helen Sharp is a software engineer, and Jenny. main topics in Human Computer Interaction offering a comprehensive . The right of Jenny Preece, Yvonne Rogers and Helen Sharp to be identified as the. Book review: Human-Computer Interaction, by Jenny Preece, Yvonne Full Text: PDF strategies for effective human-computer interaction, Addison-Wesley.
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so it is important to design HCI that supports the needs, knowledge and skills of the Human Computer Interaction () by Jenny Preece. A revision of the #1 text in the Human Computer Interaction field, Interaction Design, the third edition is an by Jenny Preece, Helen Sharp, Yvonne Rogers. by Jenny Preece (Author), Helen Sharp (Author), Yvonne Rogers (Author) Product Details Paperback: pages Publisher: Wiley; 4 edition.
The system checks that the list is valid. If the list of people is invalid. The user types in a list of names. The system emails all the meeting participants informing them of them appointment Alternative courses for a shared calendar: Some alternative courses: The user chooses one of the dates.
The system searches the calendars for a date that satisfies the constraints. If no potential dates are found.
Example Use Case Diagram for a shared calendar: Example Essential Use Case for a shared calendar: Task Analysis: The user types in meeting constraints. The system prompts the user for meeting constraints. The system writes the meeting into the calendar. The system displays a list of potential dates. Interaction Design 22 of 40 http: In order to borrow a book from the library 1.
Borrowing a book from the library 0. If book not identified do 2. These are grouped as plans which specify how the tasks might be performed in practice HTA focuses on physical and observable actions.
Example HTA Graphical: Getting requirements right is crucial There are different kinds of requirements. Prototyping and Construction This chapter will cover: Visual Basic. Flow of Interaction Design: Evaluation and feedback are central to interaction design stakeholders can see. Task analysis techniques such as HTA help to investigate existing systems and practices top Chapter 8: Which interaction mode?
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How much structure does it provide? How much is relevant to the problem? Is it easy to represent? Will the audience understand it? How extensible is it? Conceptual Design: Which interaction paradigm? Is there a suitable metaphor? Two types of compromise: Interface metaphors combine familiar knowledge with new knowledge in a way that will help the user understand the product. How long will menu be? In what order?
What categories will group menu items? How will division of items be denoted? How many menus? What terminology will be used? Offer error prevention and simple error handling to err is human. What functions will the product perform? What will the product do and what will the human do? Sequential or Parallel?
How are they categorized?
What information needs to be available? What data is required to perform the task? How is this data to be transformed by the system? Using them for Conceptual Design. Be consistent 2. Offer informative feedback meaningful error messages 4.
Design dialogs to yield closure like when you complete a task 5. Support internal locus of control user feels in control 8. Nielsen's heuristics see Chapter 1 Shneiderman's eight golden rules: Interaction Design 25 of 40 http: Permit easy reversal of actions 'undo' button 7. Reduce short-term memory load less info to remember between screens style guides commercial.
Enable frequent users to use shortcuts 3. So users feel ownership: Microsoft involves users by 'activity based planning' studying users doing tasks. Describe some participative design techniques that help users take an active part in design decisions. Explain the main principles of a usercentered approach. To manage their expectations: Describe some ethnographicbased methods aimed at understanding users' work. Split screen? How much white space?
Draw attention to the focus point. Often in conceptual design some detailed issues come up in the iterations.. Different kinds of prototyping are used for different purposes and at different stages Prototypes answer questions. The important part is that in the conceptual design that we don't get tied to physical constraints early as they will inhibit creativity and limit our options. Explain some advantages of involving users in development. Distributed coordination: How is the division of labor manifested through the work of individuals and its coordination with others?
Plans and procedures: How do plans and procedures function in the workplace? Awareness of work: How does the spatial organization of the workplace facilitate interaction between workers and with the objects they use? Contextual Design: User-centered approach is based on: Early focus on users and tasks: Design is concerned with abstraction and rationalization. Ethnography Ethnography stems from anthropology. Framework for using ethnography in design: Four main principles of contextual inquiry are: Work Modeling: In interpretation sessions.
Scandinavian background emphasizes social and organizational aspects.
It is a form of interviewing. Studies of work in computer-intensive workplaces have pointed to a host of serious problems that can be caused by job design that is insensitive to the nature of the work being performed. Five models are: Work flow model: Intended to empower users to act as full participants in design Materials used are: Low-fidelity office items such as pens.
Interaction Design 28 of 40 http: Contextual Inquiry: Aspects to user involvement include: Who will represent the user community? Interaction may need to be assisted by a facilitator Shared representations Co-design using simple tools such as paper or video scenarios Designers and users communicate about proposed designs Cooperative evaluation such as assessment of prototypes Benefits of Participatory Design: Stakeholders all introduce themselves Brief tutorials about areas represented in the session optional Brainstorming of ideas for the design Walkthrough of the design and summary of decisions made CARD: Collaborative Analysis of Requirements and Design.
Interaction Design 29 of 40 http: Introducing Evaluation What. Goals of this chapter: Why and When to Evaluate. Consider a website application for booking theatre or cinema tickets online a Think about how you would design such a site. This exercise is to be done in pairs.
Shared design surface..
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Reduced time to market. An Evaluation Framework Goals of this chapter: Formative Evaluation and Summative Evaluation 1. Formative Evaluation: Summative Evaluation: Engineers code instead of debating. The beliefs and the methods associated with them are called evaluation paradigms. These beliefs are often supported by a theory. Interviews and Questionnaires Asking experts their opinions is inexpensive and quick Testing users' performance ch. Data is used to calculate performance times. Asking users their opinions ch.
Evaluation Techniques: Observing users ch. This can help to: There are four main evaluation paradigms discussed: Emphasis is on fast input to the design process rather than carefully documented findings.
Usability Testing: Interaction Design 31 of 40 http: As the users perform the tasks they are watched and recorded on video. Field Studies: Explore the specific questions to be addressed break down into subquestionse.
Need to consider reliability. Observing Users The goals of this chapter: They can help make sure the study is viable.
Practical issues. A framework to guide evaluation Determine the goals the evaluation addresses what. Observation in Usability Testing: Observation in Field Studies: Evaluators can temporarily join a group to observe.
Data collection: Observers can watch through one-way mirror or on remote TV screen. Often data collection and analysis happen simultaneously in ethnographic study. Interpreting and Presenting the Data There are three types of data: Good for immediate feedback.
This too can be very time consuming to process the data Indirect Observation: Tracking users' activities Techniques include: In controlled environments: Ethnographic study allows multiple interpretations of reality: Interaction Design 34 of 40 1. Summary it is very valuable to be able to observe users in the field to see how technology is used in context this observation can confirm ideas and offer possibilities to explore new design ideas the way that observational data is collected and analyzed depends on the paradigm in which it is used: Asking Users and Experts Interviews and Questionnaires are used in "quick and dirty" evaluation.
Interaction Design 35 of 40 http: Questionnaires can use: It is inexpensive and quick. Likert scale.
Three stages of heuristic evaluation: Nielsen's heuristics Visibility of system status Match between system and real world User control and freedom Consistency and standards Help users recognize. Closed require interviewee to choose between options.
The scenarios are presented to the group of evaluators 3. Each group of experts are asked to assume the role of typical users. Questionnaires are a cheap and easy way to reach large numbers of people. Walkthroughs walkthroughs are an alternative to heuristic evaluation and involve 'walking through' a task with the system an noting problematic usability features.
Scenarios are developed as a series of hard-copy screens representing a single path through the interface 2. Will the user notice that the correct action is available? When everyone writes down actions. Will the user associate and interpret the response from the action correctly? As the experts work through the scenario they note problems focus on users' problem in details Pluralistic Walkthroughs are where developers and usability experts work together to step through scenarios and discussing usability issues associated with dialog elements involved in the scenario steps.
Will the correct action be sufficiently evident to the user? Focus groups are a type of group interview.
Questions can be open or closed format. Two main types: Cognitive Walkthroughs and Pluralistic Walkthroughs Cognitive Walkthroughs simulate a users' problem solving process at each step in the human-computer dialog. Structured and semi-structured are designed to be replicated.
Interviews can be structured. Testing and Modeling Users A central part of Interaction design is user testing.
User testing tests typical users. Random participant allocation not always best. User Testing User testing is applied experimentation in which developers check that the system being developed is usable by the intended user population for their tasks.
User testing is a systematic approach to evaluating user performance to inform or improve usability design Usually there are few participants Can attempt to group users by expertise.
User testing and heuristic evaluation often reveal different usability problems.
Interaction Design 37 of 40 http: Selection rules. Usability testing uses a combination of techniques. User testing is of central concern. Predictive models are based on expert behavior 1.
Interaction Design 38 of 40 Design http: Same participants Eliminates individual differences between experimental conditions. It is good for evaluating efficiency between two ways of doing things. D drawing. Selection rules Card. Can never be sure that subjects are matched across variables. Can be offset to some extent by randomly assigning to groups.
P pointing. H homing. R system response time for more explanation.
Interaction design : beyond human-computer interaction
The usefulness of predictive models is limited to systems with predictable tasks answering machines. This is the most well-known predictive modeling technique See example. The goal is obtained. Predictive Models Predictive models provide a way of evaluating products or designs without directly involving users.
The predicted time is computed by describing the sequence of actions involved in the task and summing their approximate times looked up from empirical data: K keystroke. Need to counterbalance to avoid ordering effects. Individual differences between participants is a problem. M mental preparation. Matched participants Same as different participants. Fitt's law predicts that the most quickly accessed targets on any computer display are the four corners of the screen Fitt's law is useful for evaluating systems for which the time to locate an object is critical.
The further away the object. Design and Evaluation in the Real World: Communicators and Advisory Systems Key Issues: They are only useful for comparing the efficiency of different methods in completing a short.
Fitt's Law Paul Fitts. Case study: Nokia's mobile communicator. Interaction Design 40 of 40 http: The design space for new products is much greater. Design involves trade-offs that can limit choices but can also result in exciting design challenges Prototypes can be used for a variety of purposes throughout development.
Cycles of rapid prototyping and evaluation allow designers to examine alternatives in a short time Simulations are useful when evaluating systems used by large numbers of people when it is not feasible for them to work on the system directly Piecing together evidence from data from a variety of sources can provide a rich picture of usability problems.
Jennifer Preece - Interaction Design. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America. Jump to Page.
Search inside document. Jennifer Preece - Interaction Design http: How do you optimize the users' interactions with a system, environment or product, so that they match the users activities that are being supported and extended Match goals to users - get them involved Take into account what people are good and bad at Consider what might help people with the way they currently do things Thinking through what might provide quality user experiences Listening to what people might want and getting them involved in design Using tried and tested user-based techniques during the design process Interaction Design: Building interactive versions of the designs so that they can be communicated and assessed 4.
Evaluating what is being built throughout the process Evaluating what has been built is the heart of Interaction Design Three characteristics of the Interaction Design Process: Specific usability and user experience goals should be identified, documented and agreed upon at the beginning 3.
Iteration through the four activities above is inevitable The Goals of Interaction Design: User experience is what the interaction with the system feels like to the users subjectively Satisfying; enjoyable; fun; entertaining; helpful; motivating; aesthetically pleasing; support creativity; rewarding; emotionally fulfilling Usability: Tolulope Abiodun.
Sabyasachi Rout. Elsevier Research Reference Books. Jilliana Jacy. Daniel Wentzel. Parakrant Sarkar. Michael Smith. Rohit Khurana. A revision of the 1 text in the Human Computer Interaction field, Interaction Design, the third edition is an ideal resource for learning the interdisciplinary skills needed for interaction design, human-computer interaction, information design, web design and ubiquitous computing.
The authors are acknowledged leaders and educators in their field, with a strong global reputation. They bring depth of scope to the subject in this new edition, encompassing the latest technologies and devices including social networking, Web 2.
The third edition also adds, develops and updates cases, examples and questions to bring the book in line with the latest in Human Computer Interaction. Interaction Design offers a cross-disciplinary, practical and process-oriented approach to Human Computer Interaction, showing not just what principles ought to apply to Interaction Design, but crucially how they can be applied. The book focuses on how to design interactive products that enhance and extend the way people communicate, interact and work.
Motivating examples are included to illustrate both technical, but also social and ethical issues, making the book approachable and adaptable for both Computer Science and non-Computer Science users. Interviews with key HCI luminaries are included and provide an insight into current and future trends. The book has an accompanying website www. Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.Chapter 2: Cognitive aspects of Interaction Design include: Interaction Design 12 of 40 http: This is bad because there is no iteration.
However, can be any stakeholder: downloadr, testers, people receiving products from the system - primary user: directly use it - secondary user: occasionally use it or use through intermediary - tertiary user: affected by the system, or will influence its download - stakeholders: people or organizations affected by the system who influence the system requirements 2.
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