IDEA WEB AGOSTO 2015 PDF
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Sports Magazine is a professional quality and easy to use magazine template. Packed full or great original page designs. Sports magazine is ideal for any. AGOSTO loyalty towards pure players, or in other words online retailers without any up ideas that could incentivize future research. Inside site: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace 15, SEATTLE — On Monday mornings, fresh recruits line up for an orientation . run by Business Insider, a web publication in which he is an investor.
Harkins and Stephen H. Morriss as inventors. In , Sony launched the Data Discman , an electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs. One of the electronic publications that could be played on the Data Discman was called The Library of the Future. The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques, and other subjects. A notable feature was automatic tracking of the last page read so returning to the 'book' would take you to where you were last reading.
The title of this stack may have been the first instance of the term 'ebook' used in the modern context. Different e-reader devices followed different formats, most of them accepting books in only one or a few formats, thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more. Due to the exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books.
In the late s, a consortium formed to develop the Open eBook format as a way for authors and publishers to provide a single source-document which many book-reading software and hardware platforms could handle. Focused on portability, Open eBook as defined required subsets of XHTML and CSS ; a set of multimedia formats others could be used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formats , and an XML schema for a "manifest", to list the components of a given e-book, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on.
Google Books has converted many public domain works to this open format. Unofficial and occasionally unauthorized catalogs of books became available on the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books to the public. Consumer e-book publishing market are controlled by the "Big Five". Libraries began providing free e-books to the public in through their websites and associated services,  although the e-books were primarily scholarly, technical or professional in nature, and could not be downloaded.
In , libraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an E-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries. National Library of Medicine has for many years provided PubMed , a nearly-exhaustive bibliography of medical literature.
In early , NLM started PubMed Central , which provides full-text e-book versions of many medical journal articles and books, through cooperation with scholars and publishers in the field. Pubmed Central now provides archiving and access to over 4. However, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of electronic publishing , citing issues with user demand, copyright piracy and challenges with proprietary devices and systems.
This survey found significant barriers to conducting interlibrary loan for e-books. Mellon Foundation. This means the library does not own the electronic text but that they can circulate it either for a certain period of time or for a certain number of check outs, or both.
When a library downloads an e-book license, the cost is at least three times what it would be for a personal consumer. However, some studies have found the opposite effect for example, Hilton and Wikey  Archival storage[ edit ] The Internet Archive and Open Library offer more than six million fully accessible public domain e-books. Project Gutenberg has over 52, freely available public domain e-books.
Dedicated hardware readers and mobile software[ edit ] See also: Comparison of e-book readers The BEBook e-reader An e-reader , also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading e-books and digital periodicals.
An e-reader is similar in form, but more limited in purpose than a tablet. In comparison to tablets, many e-readers are better than tablets for reading because they are more portable, have better readability in sunlight and have longer battery life. Roberto Busa begins planning the Index Thomisticus.
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Hart types the US Declaration of Independence into a computer to create the first e-book available on the Internet and launches Project Gutenberg in order to create electronic copies of more books. This vast amount of data could be fit into something the size of a large paperback book, with updates received over the "Sub-Etha".
Franklin Computer released an electronic edition of the Bible that was read on a stand-alone device. It was later tested on a US aircraft carrier as replacement for paper manuals.
Eventually, by degrees, that could create a new normal, where the expectation that work will be a central feature of adult life dissipates for a significant portion of society.
After years of people crying wolf, there are now three broad reasons to take seriously the argument that the beast is at the door: the ongoing triumph of capital over labor, the quiet demise of the working man, and the impressive dexterity of information technology. One of the first things we might expect to see in a period of technological displacement is the diminishment of human labor as a driver of economic growth.
In fact, signs that this is happening have been present for quite some time. The share of U. A number of theories have been advanced to explain this phenomenon, including globalization and its accompanying loss of bargaining power for some workers. The paradox of work is that many people hate their jobs, but they are considerably more miserable doing nothing.
The share of prime-age Americans 25 to 54 years old who are working has been trending down since Among men, the decline began even earlier: the share of prime-age men who are neither working nor looking for work has doubled since the late s, and has increased as much throughout the recovery as it did during the Great Recession itself.
All in all, about one in six prime-age men today are either unemployed or out of the workforce altogether. Conventional wisdom has long held that under normal economic conditions, men in this age group—at the peak of their abilities and less likely than women to be primary caregivers for children—should almost all be working. Yet fewer and fewer are. Economists cannot say for certain why men are turning away from work, but one explanation is that technological change has helped eliminate the jobs for which many are best suited.
Since , the number of manufacturing jobs has fallen by almost 5 million, or about 30 percent. Young people just coming onto the job market are also struggling—and by many measures have been for years. More people are pursuing higher education, but the real wages of recent college graduates have fallen by 7. In the biggest picture, the job market appears to be requiring more and more preparation for a lower and lower starting wage. The distorting effect of the Great Recession should make us cautious about overinterpreting these trends, but most began before the recession, and they do not seem to speak encouragingly about the future of work.
One common objection to the idea that technology will permanently displace huge numbers of workers is that new gadgets, like self-checkout kiosks at drugstores, have failed to fully displace their human counterparts, like cashiers.
But employers typically take years to embrace new machines at the expense of workers. We know that these tasks can be done by machines rather than people. But we may not see the effect until the next recession, or the recession after that. Some observers say our humanity is a moat that machines cannot cross.
But as Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee have argued in their book The Second Machine Age, computers are so dexterous that predicting their application 10 years from now is almost impossible. Who could have guessed in , two years before the iPhone was released, that smartphones would threaten hotel jobs within the decade, by helping homeowners rent out their apartments and houses to strangers on Airbnb? Or that the company behind the most popular search engine would design a self-driving car that could soon threaten driving, the most common job occupation among American men?
In , Oxford University researchers forecast that machines might be able to perform half of all U. But to suggest how this could change, some economists have pointed to the defunct career of the second-most-important species in U.
For many centuries, people created technologies that made the horse more productive and more valuable—like plows for agriculture and swords for battle. One might have assumed that the continuing advance of complementary technologies would make the animal ever more essential to farming and fighting, historically perhaps the two most consequential human activities.
Instead came inventions that made the horse obsolete—the tractor, the car, and the tank. After tractors rolled onto American farms in the early 20th century, the population of horses and mules began to decline steeply, falling nearly 50 percent by the s and 90 percent by the s. Humans can do much more than trot, carry, and pull. But the skills required in most offices hardly elicit our full range of intelligence.
Most jobs are still boring, repetitive, and easily learned. The most-common occupations in the United States are retail salesperson, cashier, food and beverage server, and office clerk. Together, these four jobs employ Each is highly susceptible to automation, according to the Oxford study. Technology creates some jobs too, but the creative half of creative destruction is easily overstated.
The signs so far are murky and suggestive. But the possibility seems significant enough—and the consequences disruptive enough—that we owe it to ourselves to start thinking about what society could look like without universal work, in an effort to begin nudging it toward the better outcomes and away from the worse ones.
To paraphrase the science-fiction novelist William Gibson, there are, perhaps, fragments of the post-work future distributed throughout the present. I see three overlapping possibilities as formal employment opportunities decline. Some people displaced from the formal workforce will devote their freedom to simple leisure; some will seek to build productive communities outside the workplace; and others will fight, passionately and in many cases fruitlessly, to reclaim their productivity by piecing together jobs in an informal economy.
These are futures of consumption, communal creativity, and contingency. In any combination, it is almost certain that the country would have to embrace a radical new role for government. The post-workists are certainly right about some important things.
Paid labor does not always map to social good. Raising children and caring for the sick is essential work, and these jobs are compensated poorly or not at all. In a post-work society, Hunnicutt said, people might spend more time caring for their families and neighbors; pride could come from our relationships rather than from our careers.
The post-work proponents acknowledge that, even in the best post-work scenarios, pride and jealousy will persevere, because reputation will always be scarce, even in an economy of abundance. But with the right government provisions, they believe, the end of wage labor will allow for a golden age of well-being.
Hunnicutt said he thinks colleges could reemerge as cultural centers rather than job-prep institutions. Instead, they watch TV or sleep. Time-use surveys show that jobless prime-age people dedicate some of the time once spent working to cleaning and childcare. Retired seniors watch about 50 hours of television a week, according to Nielsen. That means they spend a majority of their lives either sleeping or sitting on the sofa looking at a flatscreen. The unemployed theoretically have the most time to socialize, and yet studies have shown that they feel the most social isolation; it is surprisingly hard to replace the camaraderie of the water cooler.
Most people want to work, and are miserable when they cannot. The ills of unemployment go well beyond the loss of income; people who lose their job are more likely to suffer from mental and physical ailments. Research has shown that it is harder to recover from a long bout of joblessness than from losing a loved one or suffering a life-altering injury.
The very things that help many people recover from other emotional traumas—a routine, an absorbing distraction, a daily purpose—are not readily available to the unemployed. Adam Levey The transition from labor force to leisure force would likely be particularly hard on Americans, the worker bees of the rich world: Between and , annual hours worked per worker fell significantly throughout Europe—by about 40 percent in Germany and the Netherlands—but by only 10 percent in the United States.
Richer, college-educated Americans are working more than they did 30 years ago, particularly when you count time working and answering e-mail at home. In , the psychologists Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Judith LeFevre conducted a famous study of Chicago workers that found people at work often wished they were somewhere else.
But in questionnaires, these same workers reported feeling better and less anxious in the office or at the plant than they did elsewhere. Other researchers have used the term guilty couch potato to describe people who use media to relax but often feel worthless when they reflect on their unproductive downtime.
Contentment speaks in the present tense, but something more—pride—comes only in reflection on past accomplishments. The post-workists argue that Americans work so hard because their culture has conditioned them to feel guilty when they are not being productive, and that this guilt will fade as work ceases to be the norm.
Arguably, they already are developing. The Internet, social media, and gaming offer entertainments that are as easy to slip into as is watching TV, but all are more purposeful and often less isolating.
Video games, despite the derision aimed at them, are vehicles for achievement of a sort.
Most people do need to achieve things through, yes, work to feel a lasting sense of purpose. To envision a future that offers more than minute-to-minute satisfaction, we have to imagine how millions of people might find meaningful work without formal wages. Before industrialization swept through the U.
These artisans were ground up by the machinery of mass production in the 20th century. But Lawrence Katz, a labor economist at Harvard, sees the next wave of automation returning us to an age of craftsmanship and artistry.
Each is highly susceptible to automation. In other words, it would be a future not of consumption but of creativity, as technology returns the tools of the assembly line to individuals, democratizing the means of mass production. Several hundred members pay a monthly fee to use its arsenal of machines to make gifts and jewelry; weld, finish, and paint; play with plasma cutters and work an angle grinder; or operate a lathe with a machinist.
When I arrived there on a bitterly cold afternoon in February, a chalkboard standing on an easel by the door displayed three arrows, pointing toward bathrooms, pewter casting, and zombies. Near the entrance, three men with black fingertips and grease-stained shirts took turns fixing a year-old metal-turning lathe.
Behind them, a resident artist was tutoring an older woman on how to transfer her photographs onto a large canvas, while a couple of guys fed pizza pies into a propane-fired stone oven. Elsewhere, men in protective goggles welded a sign for a local chicken restaurant, while others punched codes into a computer-controlled laser-cutting machine. The foundry is not just a gymnasium of tools.
It is a social center. Adam Levey Alex Bandar, who started the foundry after receiving a doctorate in materials science and engineering, has a theory about the rhythms of invention in American history. Over the past century, he told me, the economy has moved from hardware to software, from atoms to bits, and people have spent more time at work in front of screens.
But as computers take over more tasks previously considered the province of humans, the pendulum will swing back from bits to atoms, at least when it comes to how people spend their days. Bandar thinks that a digitally preoccupied society will come to appreciate the pure and distinct pleasure of making things you can touch.
So what do we do? Actually talk to each other again?
The Internet and the cheap availability of artistic tools have already empowered millions of people to produce culture from their living rooms. People upload more than , hours of YouTube videos and million new Facebook photos every day. The demise of the formal economy could free many would-be artists, writers, and craftspeople to dedicate their time to creative interests—to live as cultural producers.
Such activities offer virtues that many organizational psychologists consider central to satisfaction at work: independence, the chance to develop mastery, and a sense of purpose.
After touring the foundry, I sat at a long table with several members, sharing the pizza that had come out of the communal oven. I asked them what they thought of their organization as a model for a future where automation reached further into the formal economy. A mixed-media artist named Kate Morgan said that most people she knew at the foundry would quit their jobs and use the foundry to start their own business if they could.They are terms They go out looking for innovation opportunities in seven key areas: 1.
Comparable opportunities in telecommunications followed industry upheavals—in transmission with the emergence of MCI and Sprint in long-distance service and in equipment with the emergence of such companies as Rolm in the manufacturing of private branch exchanges.
Sometimes politics unfolds differently than you might expect. What may be looming is something different: an era of technological unemployment, in which computer scientists and software engineers essentially invent us out of work, and the total number of jobs declines steadily and permanently. Places like Royal Oaks are the new union halls: People go there not only to relax but also to find tradespeople for particular jobs, like auto repair.
We believe water is key to our future prosperity, and that together, we can achieve a water wise world. In , Oxford University researchers forecast that machines might be able to perform half of all U.
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