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This wikiHow teaches you how to download books using the Google Play Books app on a mobile device or using the Google Books website.. As far as the onomatopoeic interjection aargh or its variation aaargh is concerned, we can see that the translator has not always opted for the same strategy.
In some cases she has standardized it by translating it as aiuto [help]. On one occasion,12 it has been standardized to oddio [oh my God]. In these cases, the target text successfully transposes the colloquial and informal character of the source text. On one occasion,15 however, it is not translated at all. Also in this case, the translator has not always adopted the same strategy. In many cases,16 she has transposed it with the equivalent Italian onomatopoeic interjection mmm.
On other occasions, however, it has not been transposed at all. Examples of normalization can also be observed in some cases when Bridget deliberately distorts word spelling. Such words are sometimes written in italics, so to give a more precise idea of how they are pronounced or to add emphasis.
The translator, instead, has translated them with proper Italian spelling, as shown in Table Source text Target text Back translation p. Way to go! Table Normalization of spelling.
However, we should note that whenever Bridget misspells entire sentences because she is drunk, or because she is reporting utterances spoken by drunk people, the translator has not normalized the target text. Cultural and linguistic issues in the translation of chick-lit novels translation is misspelt too, managing to convey the connotative meaning implied in the original, as can be observed in Table Source text Target text Target text properly spelt p.
Basta Jude. Basta pensare a quel stupid prat. Feel sicky pensare a quel Daniel Daniel sciocchina. Ma though. Ma come mi come mi sento male. Sto per Am olapassit. Face terribile. Sto per svenire. A svenire.
Ma me la goofun tonight though. Mamela sono spassata un sono spassata un mondo, Tumbled over. Sciono stasera. Sono caduta caduta per terra. Transposition of misspellings. Last but not least, talking about normalization, in the source text Bridget very often omits subjects, auxiliaries, articles, prepositions, and possessive adjectives, as in a genuine diary. However, in the target text most of the times the translator has standardized these features, by adding the missing words, as shown in Table Consequently the ellipsis of subject is the default option, and the omission of the subject in the translated version does not convey the connotations of such an omission in the source text.
The text, then, is standardized due to the insertion of articles, copulas, and possessive adjectives. Standardization through addition of missing words. To conclude, we can confirm the presence of universal features of translation explicitation, simplification and normalization.
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Domestication vs. The scholar states that domestication is by far the strategy preferred by translators in the Western world, where the main aim seems to be making the target text smooth and fluent by trying to avoid any estrangement effect in the reader. This can be observed both on a semantic and on a syntactic level. In this paper I will only focus on the transposition of culture-specific items.
The most common translation strategies used to domesticate a text are: omission, generalization, and replacement with other elements deemed to be more familiar. Cultural and linguistic issues in the translation of chick-lit novels 4. Omissions In the section on simplification we have already analyzed many cases where the strategy of omission had been adopted presumably for the benefit of the Italian reader unfamiliar with the British culture.
Indeed, as we could note, the strategy of omission is most commonly implemented in the case of references to brands, household names and people who might be considered unfamiliar to the Italian reader. The translator most probably decided to omit all these references so as to avoid a potential estrangement effect on the Italian reader. Consequently, the strategy of omission has been used in this book in order to domesticate the text. Generalization Generalization is an activity which involves the substitution of an element in the source text with a hyperonym in the target text, usually an expression whose literal meaning is wider and less specific than the expression used in the source text.
Also in this case, the text turns out to be domesticated. Indeed, through the strategy of generalization an unfamiliar, and hence potentially disturbing element is replaced with a generic one that can be easily understood without difficulty. The strategy of generalization with the aim of domesticating the text is sometimes used in the case of references to people Table 13 : Source text Target text Back translation p.
Generalization of a reference to a fictional character. In the Italian translation, Bridget generically refers to a television character. So, besides being generalized, the reference has also shifted from the field of literature to that of television.
It is interesting to note, however, that in the book there is another reference to Martin Amis and in that case the translator has maintained it in the target text Table Nelson Mandela!
Richard Richard Gere! Richard Gere! Maintenance of reference to a British writer. Generalization is also used in the case of specific brands or household names, as can be seen in the examples reported in Table Source text Target text Back translation p. Generalization of brands and household names.
Cultural and linguistic issues in the translation of chick-lit novels The references to Princess Diana are interesting, as the translator does not show a consistent behaviour in her translational choices.
In some cases she has generalized the reference, as in the extract reported in Table Source text Target text Back translation p. Generalization of reference to Princess Diana. Here, Princess Diana has been turned into a generic reference to any crowned head testa coronata. Such translational behaviour cannot be easily ascribed to a presumable intention of making the target text more familiar to the Italian lay reader, as Princess Diana was definitely known to Italians.
In the extract in Table 17, on the other hand, the reference has been maintained: Source text Target text Back translation p. Princess Diana. Maintenance of reference to Princess Diana. Further on in the text, however, another reference to Princess Diana has been omitted, as reported in Table Elimination of reference to Princess Diana.
Though functional equivalence is achieved, with the image of a wounded puppy, it is difficult to understand why the reference to Princess Diana has been deleted. Staying Home Alone As we can see above, in the original version Bridget compares herself to the princess because of their shared status as single women, while in the translation she describes herself as an outcast una reietta.
Other interesting cases of generalization can be noticed throughout the text whenever Bridget refers to the brand of cigarettes she and her friends smoke, namely Silk Cut.
However, they are available, and there is also an Italian Silk Cut Wikipedia page. Elimination of reference to cigarettes and alteration of original meaning.
Substitution The strategy of substitution in translation involves replacing a culture- specific item or expression in the source text with a target language item that describes a similar concept in the target culture likely to have a similar impact on the target readers.
Cultural and linguistic issues in the translation of chick-lit novels reference may arouse in the target reader. Here follow some examples of the use of substitution in the Italian translation of the novel Table 21 : Source text Target text Back translation p.
Love Boat. Substitution of reference to a TV show. In the examples above to which the title of this essay refers we can note that the translator has replaced the references to EastEnders with The Love Boat. The Love Boat, instead, is an American television series set on a cruise ship. Whereas EastEnders has never aired on Italian TV channels, and consequently is unknown to most Italians, The Love Boat was broadcast in Italy from till , and is familiar to the majority of Italians who lived in that period.
This substitution domesticates the target text, avoiding any estrangement effect in the reader. Interesting cases of substitution can be observed also in case of references to food items which are thought to be unfamiliar to the Italian reader, and consequently are replaced with other items which are better known in Italy.
Throughout the book there are various references to Milk Tray, which we have already noted has been generalised due to the fact that the product is unknown in Italy. There are other cases, however, when the translator has opted for substituting the reference to this specific chocolate product, as well as to others, as can be seen in Table Source text Target text Back translation p.
Quality Street? Substitution of brands of chocolate products. Thus, by replacing an unknown food item with a familiar one, the translator has domesticated the text. Quality Street has also been used to substitute a reference to the Milky Way chocolate, which is not available in Italy.
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Diary Box chocolates also not available in Italy , instead, have been substituted by After Eight, a British confectionary product which is distributed in Italy. Finally, and oddly, references to Twix and Lion bars have been replaced with references to Fiesta and Mars respectively, even though Twix and Lion bars are also very popular in Italy.
Examples of substitution used as a strategy of domestication can also be found in the case of fashion shops. Substitution of names of fashion shops. This strategy is also used on a few occasions when Bridget refers to famous people: Source text Target text Back translation p.
Cicciolina appears of the television. TV screen. Substitution of names of people. She would never appear naked in public, which is why Bridget correlates it to an earthquake and a tidal wave. In the target text the reference to Virginia Bottomley has been replaced with a reference to Cicciolina, a porn star and former politician.
Seeing her naked on TV is by no means an extraordinary event. Cultural and linguistic issues in the translation of chick-lit novels been domesticated, as Cicciolina is definitely famous in Italy.
However, functional equivalence is not achieved. Another instance of substitution can be observed in Table Source text Target text Back translation p. In the target text both have been replaced with references to British politicians who are very well known to all Italians: Tony Blair and John Major.
An interesting case of substitution can also be observed in Table 26, in which Bridget refers to a TV programme by David Attenborough, who is surprisingly replaced by his older brother, Richard Attenborough. The former is an English broadcaster and naturalist, Richard, instead, was a famous film director e.
The strategy of substitution in this case, however, does not seem to be ascribable to domesticating purposes and the reasons underlying such a translational choice are rather obscure. Substitution of a fictional character with a TV programme. One more interesting instance of substitution of a reference to a popular person is reported in Table Source text Target text Back translation p. Substitution of a person with a fictional character. Cultural and linguistic issues in the translation of chick-lit novels confirmed the results of previous studies about translational behaviour in both cases.
However, it is worth noting that fluency of the text is not the only result of the acts of manipulation that have been observed. In fact, these translational behaviours have also affected characterization, especially that of Bridget.HD Avengers: Bypass google books limited preview found at metafilter.. Source text Target text Back translation p.
HD Killing Eve. Cultural and linguistic issues in the translation of chick-lit novels The references to Princess Diana are interesting, as the translator does not show a consistent behaviour in her translational choices.
In Table 1 we can note that in the source text there is an implicit reference to two of the most popular novels in British literature. A flywheel is a mechanical device specifically designed to efficiently store rotational energy.