sppn.info Laws Ipv6 Advanced Protocols Implementation Pdf


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IPv6 advanced protocols implementation/Qing Li, Tatuya Jinmei, Keiichi Shima. .. The first installment of this series is titled IPv6 Core Protocols Implementation . Request PDF on ResearchGate | IPv6 Advanced Protocols Implementation | This book discusses those protocols that are found in more capable IPv6 devices. IPv6 Advanced Protocols Implementation is the second installment of a two- volume series on IPv6 and the KAME implementation. This book discusses those .

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This creates a shortage of IPv4 addresses, as every device on the Internet that uses IPv4 needs a unique address.

The new Internet Protocol version 6 IPv6 standard features addresses, which is 16 bytes bits in length to resolve shortage of IPv4 addresses [4]. Although NAT is an important technique for mapping IP addresses, it does not support standard network layer security and also creates complicated barriers to VoIP, and other services.

Another problem is that IPv4 has limited security features integrated in it and additional security is implented by means of external security protocols. One example is the use of IPsec as an encrypting mechanism for IPv4 traffic [5]. IP Routing is an essential component of data network that provides the efficient real-time data delivery that VoIP requires.

Best effort networks leverage interior gateway protocol IGP technologies to determine paths for routing packets between hosts on IP networks [6]. Route convergence can be detrimental to VoIP users, as it impacts both latency and jitter [6]. The ability for a network to converge addresses the manner in which networks recover from problems and network changes. This is possible with the features embedded in dynamic network protocols [7].

It takes a robust routing protocol to provide this efficiency; one of the greatest challenge continues to be making the right choice for an efficient routing protocol for VoIP and selecting an appropriate IP technology between IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 and IPv6 One of the greatest limitations of IPv4 is the deficit in the number of IP addresses for customers and also the secured services that consumers need to access applications such as VoIP [7].

IPv6 has solved some of these problems by expanding the packet header size which increases routing efficiency and provides more IP addresses than IPv4. This might sound good, but it also has its demerit because VoIP traffic has smaller packet sizes, so the expansion of the packet header will increase the bandwidth requirement for the traffic, consequently increasing total bandwidth requirement of IPv6 network compared to IPv4.

IPv6 also provides a higher performance, particularly for real time traffic, which requires quality of service QoS , and the overall processing time is reduced [7]. However, the IPv4 to IPv6 transition is expected to last for several years due to the vast base of installed IPv4 networks and the high cost involved in the transition.

During this period, communication between many IPv6 networks will only be possible using existing IPv4 connectivity. The recommended interim measure to address this issue is 6to4 encapsulation, which embed security into IPv4.

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IPsec is encapsulated into it [9]. There is lesser impact on resources and memory, which helps to improve performance and be more efficient. The security is provided end to end by encryption, which is integrated within IPv6 [8]. This will reduce congestion. The quality of service is provided by the flow label, which is 20 bits [8]. Payload length, which is 16 bits, is used to detect the length of data and is able to transfer up to 64 KB [8].

It is one of the interior gateway routing protocols we will focus on. OSPF is a dynamic routing protocol that quickly detects topological changes in the Autonomous System AS number such as router interface failures and calculates new loop-free routes after a period of convergence [9]. It is a link state protocol which functions based on the status of links.

It divides the entire internetwork or autonomous system into areas, making a hierarchy [10]. OSPFv3 still uses the Dijkstra algorithm to calculate shortest path and lowest cost to each destination [13].

Convergence time is a critical factor in the deployment of VoIP solution. A network with a minimal convergence time is a major requirement for shortest path. Cost computation is dynamic, and it is essential to reduce every aberration so as to minimize its impact on the network. There are various formulae for calculating cost in OSPF, because each network has a unique characteristic and cost component can change.

Below is a formula for OSPFv3 cost calculation The overall link cost is computed using the formula shown below [13]. It is for this reason that convergence is indispensable when planning for any VoIP solution.

Edge and core networks are moving from average convergence times of milliseconds to 50 milliseconds, which is a standard used in SONET Networks for decades [7].

They can no longer be assigned as IPv6 addresses. It is not intended for use in complex environments. However, the specific ancestry of this protocol is within the Xerox network protocols [15]. To ensure a future for the Routing Information Protocol, a new IPv6-compatible version had to be developed. RIPng relies on the authentication mechanism of IPv6 to ensure integrity and validity.

Although it is easier to deploy RIPng, it has its limitations. One limitation is its inability to detect routing loops in more complex network topologies, which also makes it converge slowly in some situations [21]. This attribute is detrimental to the implementation of VoIP technologies, because it has one metric which is the hop count. This means voice traffic can be forwarded from one router to the other using either static routes or dynamic routing protocols or a combination of both.

In hindsight, the technique used to route voice traffic across a network has a tremendous influence on the call quality. Singh et al [23] concluded that signal quality in VoIP systems depends on several factors, including routing protocols used in a network, coding processes, speech content and error correction schemes. Their work was basically a review of factors affecting VoIP traffic and a review of modern VoIP systems and its improvement over the years. Consequently, there needs to be a critical study on how different dynamic routing protocols can affect VoIP performance in both IPv4 and IPv6 technologies in a small network.

They configured a link to fail and recover in order to evaluate how the route will converge, as well as monitor the effect on latency and jitter in call quality. They evaluated the VoIP performance of three routing protocols using three different scenarios for each protocol respectively.

The results show that during the failure and recovery process of their links, OSPF is more consistent in terms of the route convergence and route computation. They compared and analysed simulation results in terms of Database query response time, page response, object response time in HTTP, IPv6 traffic dropped, jitter, end to end delay, traffic sent in voice packet delay variation, traffic received and sent in video conference.

Basically, this research was done using IPv6 technology. They critically analysed the result as they compared the performance. Nevertheless, their results show that jitter for VoIP running in an IPv6 environment is very insignificant. Based on their research, they concluded that IPv6 is more efficient for deploying VoIP without considering any dynamic routing protocol. They focused on the flaws in using IPv6 based protocol.

They used Cisco equipment to compare these protocols and accessed the performance of each protocol when implementing some security mechanism. They had two scenarios with encryption and authentication as their security mechanism introduced to the networks. They had two situations for the failure and recovery process.

The first situation had shorter failure and recovery time while the second situation had a larger time. They also stated that OSPF was better for a very large network.

Higher bit rate CODECs, however, take up more space on the network and also allow for fewer total calls on the network [11]. JDS Uniphase corporation believe G. That is why in this paper we configured G. Therefore, all our analysis and results are based on G. The design process for this work is achieved via network simulation. A lot of study has been done about the need for simulations in computer networks. Obiniyi et al [31] described network simulation as one of the three broad techniques currently used in performance analysis and evaluation of computer networks compared to the analytical modelling and measurements technique which they carefully studied.

The simulation for this work is done with the new Riverbed Modeller Academic Edition It contains tools for all phases of study, model design, simulation, data collection and analysis [32]. All the devices are connected together with the routers connecting to each other using point to point PPP Digital Signal 3 DS3 link model and is shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. For proper comparison, we are going to have four scenarios configured with the same network model.

These scenarios will be subdivided based on the IP technology used, the first and second scenario will be configured for IPv4, and then the third and fourth will be configured on IPv6. The Application definition, profile definition and failure recovery object was configured from the object palette using similar parameter for VoIP, including the encoding technology which was PCM with G.

This is used because of its simplicity and it is considered the highest quality [26]. Figure 2. The link fails and recovers after secs 5 minutes. However, the simulation will run for 35 minutes. Table 1. These will be evaluated based on their effect on some VoIP metrics. These include Jitter, packet end to end delay, packet end to end variation and packet loss and echo [30].

All these devices require IP address for routing table is increased. In dynamic routing, it will increase communication with each other over the network.

In Internet, the convergence time over the network. It was routing protocols to minimize the convergence time and to introduced in Due to the anticipated shortage of its reduce the size of the routing table.

The future is of IPv6 [3]. It will gradually replace IPv4 throughout the world. IPv4 is This study focuses on the performance analysis and comparatively easy to configure, however, IPv6 is more comparison of optimized routing information exchange in complicated due to its nature of complex addresses [4].

There are ratio, CPU and memory utilization. Therefore, both the protocols are needed together NGN. The rest of the part of this paper is structured as for a long time. Multiple transition solutions i. Section IV gives the brief description of transition P a g e www. In section V, we display the experimental parameters like RTT, packet loss, throughput, end-to-end results. Finally, section VI concludes the paper. To the best of our knowledge, these two II.

It is Performance of routing protocols have been analyzed in strongly needed to investigate the interoperability of these two many papers [11, 12, 18, 22, 23]. The like response time, tunnel overhead, end-to-end delay, hello researchers tested the different applications based on several messages exchange and memory utilization. In [22], researchers observed and tunneling technique. However, these studies route. If the destination route is in a small network.

In [4], the researchers focused on not in the routing table, then router discards the packet. ISPs configuration analysis and compared IPv6 configuration use routing protocols per their need to keep the routing tables commands with IPv4 configuration commands and analyzed updated [18].

When IPv6 has been successfully launched as a that IPv6 configuration commands are more complex than next generation network, routing protocols have also been IPv4 configuration commands because of IPv6 addresses upgraded for next generation network. In [13, 27] studies, the A. It is said to be a hybrid routing term of convergence time in a small network with the help of protocol, which means it is a crossover between link state and multiple simulators.

These studies did not specifically evaluate distance vector routing proctors. AS is a group of similar routers exchanging 17, 19, 28, 29] in which the researchers compared and routes under the same administrative control [20]. VLSMs enable you to allocate studies [19, 28, 29, 31] focused on transition methods.

The main feature of this Researchers discussed in detail the pros and cons of different routing protocol is its unequal load balancing.

There are three tables in the EIGRPv6 routing protocol, In [16], the researchers investigated the video protocols traffic which help to routing decisions. Neighbor table, in dual-stack and tunneling IPv6to4 and IPv6in4. Dual-stack is a transition mechanism in which a may also be used as metrics.

Both neighbors after every 5 seconds on the links Ethernet and versions of IP protocol are configured and operated FDDI and after 60 seconds on the links Frame Relay and simultaneously on the device. In [17], the researchers SMDS [21]. Its administrative distance is FFA is multicast dual-stack network.

It is an open standard and the most popular routing P a g e www. IETF published a revised routing protocol through redistribution. Due to open standard, its specification is freely available [21]. It divides the network into areas to D.

Route Summarization group similar routers together for better management. Multiple areas can be consolidated during convergence between routers. It is also a There can be millions of routes in a routing table. Route classless routing protocol and supports VLSM [22]. It also summarization decreases the number of routes in the routing supports load balancing up to 16 equal paths.

IP: Architcture, Protocols, and Implementation With IPv6 and IP Security

Cost is the table. It advertises a single route that is called summary [24].

Its administrative distance is It will increase the speed of convergence, decrease the size of There are summary address through summarization. Some are normally used. It just type7 [23]. Both maintain three tables.

It of periodic [12]. If a neighbor does not reply within the industry standard [27]. EIGRPv6 usually uses a 40 seconds dead interval time then the neighbor is combination of metrics to calculate the best path while considered as dead. Neighbor can be in a different state. There OSPFv3 uses only one metric and that is cost. In multi-access BDR is used to provide redundancy in the network. Differences in these areas and Multicast LSAs are used to communicate with each other.

FF [3]. Route Redistribution given below per their configuration. Both from one routing protocol to another routing protocol [9]. OSPFv3 demands enter its router the routes cannot be advertised from one routing protocol to ID before its configuration while EIGRPv6 does not require another routing protocol without redistribution.

Static and directly connected routes may also be advertised into routing its router ID before its configuration. Route redistribution is protocols through redistribution [10]. During the redistribution configured in global configuration mode in both protocols. In process, metric is used by the routing protocol in which the OSPFv3, route summarization is configured in global routes would be advertised [26].

Redistributed routes become configuration mode while in EIGRPv6, it is configured in external routes into the routing table. In our scenario, there are interface mode. It is easy to deploy and available on OSPF external route as shown in figure 5.

It is not only a tunneling technique but an address assignment as well. It is used to assign global IPv6 address in the network [30].

It is introduced to provide Fig. IPv6 tunnel over IPv4 the configuration simplicity. It is less secure than static tunnel. In this IPv4 and IPv6 are not compatible with each other. ISPs tunnel, both ends are manually configured.


In GRE tunnel, some are in dual-stack and in future, there would be only IPv6 end-points are authenticated by a simple key. This simple key network users [28].

The primary reason for the transition is is transmitted in clear text during the setup of the tunnel. In that the user may need to access data that will only be GRE, IP protocol type 47 traffic would must be opened for available in IPv6. In this method, the traffic is Translation simply converted into destination form.

There are two A. It is a transition technique. It is the and vice versa. It is configured as statically or dynamically.

This method is like NAT function but protocol translation function is additional in it. In tunneling mechanism, IPv6 traffic is sent protocols. It allows customized NAT one end [29]. At the second end of the tunnel, node extracts traversal filters to be plugged into the gateway. Interesting part of the tunneling is that with ALG. It is said to be a burden to deployment. NAT64 the start and end nodes of the tunnel are dual-stack enabled. There are multiple tunneling approaches and some of them also originated DNS Both are configured independently.

Dynamips is an emulator 1 Configured Tunneling: It is a static and point-to-point computer program and can emulate the hardware of the tunnel. In this tunnel, both ends are manually configured. Both end nodes of the tunnel have very close to the results obtain by real routers and it can valid P a g e www. Figure 1 shows the topology of our network design. By default, serial link provides 1. By default, the fastEthernet link supports mbps bandwidth. Table-1 shows the description of devices.

Router-1 and Router-4 are dual-stack routers. We used static tunnel because studies show that it is more secure and its working is better than others. We advertised all static routes and loopback interface routes as a summary address through this tunnel and then gather results.

Whireshark tool is also used for packets capture and analysis. In this study, all experiments are repeated 5 times during different times of the day and the reported results are averaged over these runs. Route summarization decreases the 02 PC size of routing table as shown in figure 3 given below. So, we need to configure both versions of routing protocols as well as routed protocols in our scenario. Router-1 and Router-4 are dual stack routers. First, make sure IPv6 routing is enabled on these two routers then assign IP addresses on all interfaces per topology.

Now create a tunnel interfaces on edge routers and assign IP addresses per figure 1. Configure source and destination IP Fig.

Table of Contents

We configured area 0 for are total 15 static routes and 15 loopback interface routes. OSPFv2 is configured in Create all static routes in global configuration mode.

Create all global configuration mode while OSPFv3 is configured per loopback interfaces and then assign IPv6 addresses.FFA is multicast dual-stack network. He is the author of the embedded systems development book titled Real-Time Concepts for Embedded Systems published in April Although NAT is an important technique for mapping IP addresses, it does not support standard network layer security and also creates complicated barriers to VoIP, and other services.

English Copyright: Payload length, which is 16 bits, is used to detect the length of data and is able to transfer up to 64 KB [8]. Basically, this research was done using IPv6 technology. Obiniyi et al [31] described network simulation as one of the three broad techniques currently used in performance analysis and evaluation of computer networks compared to the analytical modelling and measurements technique which they carefully studied.

There are multiple tunneling approaches and some of them also originated DNS