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Networks There are poor networks around the scheme, relying on shared surfaces which are car dominated, and pavements which are too often too narrow or straddled by cars. Streets There are a few short streets.

Our observational data revealed a rather quiet scheme; ranking fifth, with lower scores than average for each of the criteria. Indeed on the warm sunny Sunday in July when we visited, children could be heard indoors, but only one was seen outside, crossing a street.

The slightly older children often ride bikes around the estate along circular routes, they played football between the features of the square, and they climbed on and sit at the picnic benches and hung off the bike stands.

They used the central space intensively for long periods of time.

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Lime Tree Square is no longer a place for playing. One of the residents was keen to tell the researchers that the behaviour of motorists has rendered the social spaces unusable. The generously sized green space is accessible on one side from dwellings with high brick walled gardens.

A road runs on two sides with cars parked close to front doors. The fourth side is a swale with high planting, obscuring the view from the pavement and houses on the other side. What could be a village green is a therefore a physically isolated space, maintaining visual amenity perhaps, but falling short of its role in fostering a space for residents to meet and play.

Cars are parked close to dwellings on the main square and in other areas, making the scheme potentially unsafe for children and older people, both for moving around and for enjoying the shared spaces. Safe pavements and footpaths connecting spaces are distinctly lacking in Lime Tree Square, with instances of planting in pavements, or pavements too narrow to use. There are some short stretches of pavement but linkages are unclear and inconsistent. The scheme relies on a shared surface layout which means people often need to walk in the centre of the roads to move around.

Staiths Location: Gateshead, Tyne and Wear No. Taylor Wimpey Architect: Ian Darby Partnership Landscape Architect: Glen Kemp Completion: The site is a redevelopment of former gasworks and includes the refurbishment of the staiths themselves; built for unloading coal they are said to be the largest wooden structures in Europe.

Taylor Wimpey employed the Hemingways and architects Ian Darby and Partners, who set out to design a homezone scheme with a choice of layouts for the new residents.

The layout of the first phase was a series of houses arranged in horse-shoe shaped blocks around shared courtyards containing barbecues and places to meet and play. The street layout further encouraged the social aspect of the scheme with informal play equipment, benches and wide pavements.

The project was underpinned by a thorough play strategy, with external spaces designed to cater for the different needs of children, teenagers and adults. The scheme sold out overnight, with new residents attracted by both a design and community point of view, a survey by the Arts Council revealed in However, the majority of downloaders did not have children, which may seem unusual given the objectives. We explain later why this may have affected our field data, but we also note that housing designed for children seems to be attractive for those without children too.

The crash of halted the next few phases, so that in it is now only just complete. Ian Darby Partnership and the Hemingways were not employed on the later phases, although the intentions were held onto in terms of masterplanning and layout. A very good distribution of shared spaces throughout the scheme Less good space around apartment buildings. Access Nearly all dwellings have direct access to shared external spaces.

Networks Good networks around the site. Streets The block arrangements mean there are fewer streets with entrances facing each other. This is initially surprising given that the scheme was designed with homezone principles around small shared courtyard gardens, accessed directly from the dwellings.

It is known that low numbers of families bought into phase 1, but this is not reflected in the ONS ward statistics. downloader statistics for recent phases are not known. The scheme demonstrates the need to gain accurate demographic data wherever possible, at least for age ranges as relying on ONS statistics may give inaccuracies. Our researchers were positioned in two locations; the first phase, on the east of the site close to the play area and the more recent phase to the west.

The data showed a marked difference between the two locations, with the first phase having far greater numbers of children playing and adults hanging out and socialising. Although the recent phase appears visually similar, using the same palette of materials as the first, the street layout is more uniform, places to stop, meet or play have not been provided.

The roads do not seem to narrow down, to create more intimate neighbourly spaces, as with the first phase. It may take time to mature, but the communal gardens should offer the social space to meet and play and certainly the low fence heights will help with this. Derwenthorpe Location: Yorkshire No. Studio Partington Landscape Architect: FIRA Completed: Derwenthorpe Derwenthorpe is the first phase in a home development, two miles east of the city of York.

It is accessed from the south, along Osbaldwick Street, from neighbouring streets of semi-detached houses with front gardens, wide pavements and grass verges. At present the site is surrounded by open space, with future phases under construction to the north. Once completed a third of the overall development will be landscaped, conserving ancient hedgerows and incorporating meadows and wetlands with sustainable. Derwent Mews provides access to future phases and also rings the development in a loop, creating a break between the homes and the open spaces.

The houses on Derwent Mews have front gardens, there are no pavements. Derwent Way runs through the development and leads to car parking courts, two of the homes are situated within the courts.

The site is designed to link into pedestrian routes and the Sustrans cycle network. A large amount of green space around the scheme that is not directly accessible from any of the dwellings Within the scheme is a small central space, mainly accessible via pavement.

Access No dwellings are able to directly access shared spaces. A small number are able to access a very small green space which is next to a dwelling. Networks All networks around the site are via shared surface streets.

Streets At the centre of the development are two streets across roads and one shared surface street. However, it has one of the lowest levels of independent use of space by children and young people. It was conceived with good intentions; easy access to a generously sized, high quality recreational space. The data shows that this space is well used and seems to be attracting people from beyond the nearby area. Derwenthorpe does not have a series of shared spaces connected by a network of safe footpaths or pavements.

The very small shared space at the centre of the site is too small and too close to an adjacent dwelling to provide space to socialise and play. The location and fencing of the playground suggests adult supervision is more likely than unaccompanied play.

Surface treatment in front of dwellings and in car courts is often unclear as whether it is for pedestrians or cars. The open space, with lake and fenced off play area, is separated from the dwellings by a road, Derwent Mews.

The road curves away from view, which is likely to reduce traffic speed, but with no pavements does not feel like a safe space to play outside. Allerton Bywater Location: West Yorkshire No. Barratt Developments Architect: HTA Design Completed: The scheme was conceived as a Design for Manufacture competition intended to promote modern methods of construction and sustainable community design by the then Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in This phase was completed in The layout is a series of brick paved shared surface streets with two and three storey brick houses, each with their own rear garden.

At the centre of the development is Lidgett Square, an open space with a raised planter. There are two open spaces to the north and south. The former across a road containing a play area and the latter overlooked and accessed from adjacent dwellings.

He saw fewer adults outside than on other schemes. Allerton Bywater: Mapping analysis Allerton Bywater ranks equal sixth Shared external space shows: Shared green spaces are on the edge or outside the development Within the scheme external spaces are shared surfaces with vehicles.

Access A small number of dwellings are able to directly access the shared external space at the perimeter. Streets The layout has a low instance of dwellings facing one another.

This is mainly down to passing through, which is high. Allerton Bywater is a shared surface scheme, with open spaces located on the outside of the residential area. Allerton Bywater performs similarly to Lime Tree Square in terms of social use of space.

Its layout is similar in that open spaces are separated from the dwellings and not easily accessible. Both schemes are rather isolated and therefore residents rely heavily on the car.

The focal point of the scheme is a car dominated open area with a central planter, Lidgett Square. It is difficult to imagine spending much time in this space and it would certainly feel unsafe to let children play outside here. Although the main play area to the north is across a road and other open space is on the perimeter of the development, these spaces seem to be fairly readily accessed.

In addition, a small cul-de-sac at the north of the site was well used by small children. Dinnington Location: South Yorkshire No. Westleigh Developments Housing association: Arches Housing Association Architect: Dinnington Dinnington is former colliery town near Rotherham in Nottinghamshire. This development at East Street is to the north of the town centre, on a site previously occupied by terraced houses and a primary school.

The scheme has a total of 75 dwellings comprising 71 two, three and four bedroom homes and four two bedroom bungalows for market sale and rent. Two side roads are cul-de-sacs, terminating in hammerheads with both pavement and shared surfaces. At the centre of the scheme is a bisecting, partially pedestrianised road with a green area, ringed by knee level fencing and two parking courts.

Development at the site, which had previously been occupied by terraced houses and a primary school, is part of the wider regeneration of the area. The planning and highways departments had set out specific requirements for the appearance of the street frontage and car parking provision, the layout is consequently front to back houses with the perimeter streets facing outwards from the site onto the surrounding roads.

A central green space, not directly accessible from most dwellings Pavement access to most dwellings. Access None of the dwellings are able to directly or indirectly access shared car-free spaces. Networks There is a good network across the site from north to south. Streets The general front to back arrangement with south facing gardens means there are few dwellings facing each other.

Most children and young people outside were seen passing through, and most of them were unaccompanied. Dinnington is representative of many schemes across England and was chosen as an example of what is commonly achieved. The scheme offers little to improve the character of the area or add to the public realm.

The central green space is neither an asset for the residents or a visual amenity for those passing through. The focus for the scheme is a central open space which appears to have no clear designation. It has knee high barriers on most sides and is not well connected to the dwellings that face it.

Improvements to this space, with resident involvement, may lead to better use by the community. To the south of the scheme are fenced play areas but these are separated by a road and therefore less accessible for young children. Although there are a number of pavements running across the scheme and car parking behaviour is relatively good, the pavements turn into shared surfaces with cross overs and there are no dwellings facing each other to create opportunities for social interaction.

Most of the homes face north to allow south facing gardens, resulting in streets lined with close boarded fencing. Lawley Village Location: Shropshire No. Phase 1B, one of five residential neighbourhoods, is the second phase of the wider 3, home development designed by HTA Design for Barratt Homes. In reality this is a surface only treatment with detached, semi-detached and terraced houses fronting onto wide streets with rear parking courts. Each house has its own private garden.

At the centre of the scheme is larger open space, with two small green areas. There is no other open space within the scheme itself. There are no car-free external spaces within the development External spaces are outside the development and overlooked by a busy road.

Access None of the dwellings are able to directly access car-free shared space. Networks There are no safe networks within the development — movement relies on shared surface streets. Streets There are a number of streets within the scheme. Lawley Village: This scheme demonstrates the need for post occupancy observational work if we are to fully understand whether new developments are meeting sustainability objectives.

The relationship of house to street is dominated by cars, which are able to park in what appears to be any arrangement. The traditional green in the centre of the development is no more than a visual amenity and navigational device as it is heavily dominated by car parking. The development is large and distances to green space are likely to be too far to be easily accessible. The shared surface homezone layout may be contributing to reducing traffic speed as it does elsewhere, however it seems to offer no opportunity for social use and play.

Statistics show that this area has high car ownership and car dependency. This will no doubt contribute to the poor level of pedestrian usage. Data analysis Data analysis is presented in this chapter from over hours of observation.

A number of findings emerge, summarised on these two pages. The analysis looks for trends and correlations across all of the schemes and highlights aspects found in a selection of the projects, particular to each subject heading. Who uses the external space? Children are more likely to spend time outside than adults and elderly people. Adults are less likely to stay longer in external spaces than children.

Elderly people are less likely to use external spaces both passing through as well as for staying longer. External spaces are social spaces In all of the schemes we found that whatever the activity, the greater proportion of people were in groups of three or more.

External spaces need to be designed for people to use together, whether it be walking along the street or finding spaces to dwell; people are more likely to be with others and we need to design spaces that support rather than prevent social use. Pedestrian and cycle movement Most people observed in external spaces are passing through from one place to another, either on foot or by bicycle.

The number of pedestrians and cyclists varies between the schemes and reflects how safe the streets are to use. Schemes with pavements, where the car is clearly separated from pedestrians, may perform as well or better than shared surface schemes. Optional and social use When people pause or stop to spend time in a space then they are enjoying the scheme for their own optional use, or for social reasons.

We know that most use is social but what we have also found is that schemes providing good optional and social use tend to be those that are better used by pedestrians and cyclists as well. How much time is spent? The amount of time spent outside varies considerably between schemes, in some spaces people were spending up to four hours outside. The more a space is used for social activity, the longer people appear to want to stay there.

Schemes that allow for this type of unsupervised play for extended periods show better use of external spaces by other age groups. Age group representation The pie charts to the right show the ratio of age groups for a selection of the schemes. Those chosen represent a range, from the most well used to the least. Looking first at which age groups spend time outside, for short or longer periods, we compare this to ONS ward demographics.

It should be noted that ward areas are typically larger than any of the schemes. Ward data ONS ward demographics from the census show who lives in the local ward as defined by the postcode for each scheme. Passing through These charts show the proportion of each age group counted as passing through the space. Staying longer These charts show the proportion of age groups staying for longer than a moment. There is a greater proportion of children seen passing through than the ward statistics and yet a greater proportion staying longer.

Generally there is a drop off in the proportion of adults using external spaces for longer periods. The proportion of elderly people seen both passing through and spending longer outside drops off in all but one of the schemes Lawley Village. In all of the schemes we found that the greater proportion of people were in groups, most of these three people or more.

This held true for both passing through and social use of space. The activities carried out are divided into categories as devised by Jan Gehl. When someone is seen briefly, for just a moment, in the space then they are recorded as Passing through. For longer periods over three minutes activities are separated into Optional or Social. These four selected graphs show the numbers of people recorded for each of the categories over the total period of observation for a selection of the schemes.

Derwenthorpe has the largest number of people passing through. It is a small scheme, with only 67 dwellings, the first phase of larger development, adjacent to an established suburban area.

The surrounding area is known for high car usage. At Derwenthorpe the high numbers of people passing through attracts our attention. Our researchers observed an organised event on both of the days, drawing visitors in from outside the development. The open spaces are offering an attractive space for recreational use, which will be beneficial for the wider area. In all schemes, the most common activity is passing through. We can speculate that a number of factors may influence the number of people passing through: The density of the scheme How safe it is to use as a pedestrian or cyclist Car ownership Whether there is a route through the scheme to another destination.

However, given the low number of dwellings on the scheme itself, the visitor numbers have proportionally inflated our figures.

We therefore do not consider the data to be reliable for reflecting how residents are using the external spaces for passing through.

It would be reasonable to expect higher density schemes to have more people passing through. The graph below therefore takes density, using dwellings per hectare dph , into account and presents a distribution of the schemes. For example, a total number of people seen passing through at Barking Riverside of is divided by the density of the scheme - 54 dph - to give a value of 9. Dinnington, with one of the highest values for passing through, lies next to a busy road with a bus route and is a cut through towards the centre of town.

Dinnington, The Americas and Market Estate are laid out with pavements and the others employ shared surface. From the distribution it is difficult to conclude which is more effective in encouraging pedestrian movement, but it suggests that pavement schemes may perform better. The So Stepney scheme was viewed from within enclosed courtyards. Main entrances to dwellings were not through these courtyards and so numbers of people passing through were low as would be expected.

Extended observation is a good method for analysing the safety of streets for pedestrians and cyclists. It is also able to reveal how well different age groups are using the streets, compared to who lives there. It is also a useful tool for analysing the performance of different street layouts such as shared surfaces and pavements.

Both Lime Tree Square and Allerton Bywater are designed to homezone standards and have performed well on previous studies Biddulph We look in more detail at this in the case studies section of the report. Barking Riverside has the greatest number of children outside.

They are mostly playing. Derwenthorpe has the greatest number of adults. Given the results, and those of passing through, it would be worth returning to Derwenthorpe to repeat the study on completion of all of the phases.

With more dwellings and residents, the data may be better at revealing how well external spaces are performing for residents as well as visitors. When we look at the data for people spending time outside, longer than three minutes, we divide their activities into six categories: Dinnington has the greatest variant between passing through and optional use on the scatter graph.

Again a relatively small scheme for numbers of dwellings, we have noted that it is likely to be used as a cut through by others, inflating the numbers of people passing through. Although some of the schemes are larger than others, we speculate that the field of view of the researchers moderates the figures for optional and social activities, giving comparable data. Once again density was taken into account; the total number of people engaging in an optional or social activity is divided by the dwellings per hectare for that scheme.

Each scheme is then given a percentage based on the highest scoring scheme in this case Derwenthorpe. In all but two of the schemes studied, Derwenthorpe and Lawley Village, children were by far the dominant users of external spaces for optional and social purposes, with play being their main activity.

Schemes that provide for good optional and social use of space tend to be better used by pedestrians and cyclists as well. The scatter graph this creates, below, compares optional and social use to passing through. It shows a degree of correlation. Derwenthorpe ranks the highest for optional and social use.

Note however, that it has the highest proportion of adults using the external spaces in proportion to other users. The number of children seen outside for longer rises over time at Barking Riverside and So Stepney. We note that there are instances where people were seen spending very long periods of time outside, for example up to four hours in Barking Riverside. This set of analysis looks at time spent outside.

We give weight to time spent outside by multiplying the number of people by the time they spend outside. From the scatter graph below we see a correlation with the social use of space and extended time spent outside. This multiplier weights against pedestrian movement and reflects the importance of social spaces as places to dwell and to be able to stay for extended periods.

Findings Some schemes show much higher proportions of children spending longer outside than others. Children tend to play outside for long periods of time, and are naturally drawn outside by other children playing too Gehl, Wheway et al. New developments should capitalise on this and make spaces that can support extended use by children.

From inspection the scatter graph shows a positive correlation for most schemes, although, once again, the number of adults seen outside at Derwenthorpe bucks the trend. The nature of the study, a snapshot over two days, means that statistically irregularities are likely. Notwithstanding this fact, we can see as well that the rate of change for children using the space for longer periods is greater than for adults.

This data on its own does not tell us whether there is a cause and effect by one age group over another. We look at this question on the next page. There is a positive relationship between the number of children using external spaces and the number of adults.

Turning to children and young people, we were able to examine the data based on their unaccompanied use of space and their independent mobility.

The scatter graph below makes comparisons between the schemes. Children passing through, unaccompanied by an adult, we see as independently mobile. The data for this section does not include pre-school age children, as they are unlikely to be unaccompanied by an adult.

The multiplier method is not used as we were focusing on the relationship between accompanied and unaccompanied use, rather than time. The categories for time spent outside are: Gehl, J. The Danish Architectural Press. On several of the schemes, the number of children outside rises the longer they spend outside, suggesting that children are attracted to places where other children are playing, as suggested by others such as Gehl. We found too that extended play is more likely to be unsupervised than supervised and that areas with high numbers of children playing outside also record children spending longer outside.

Unsupervised play is driven by children and is likely to influence their ability to come and go freely and be independently mobile. The same schemes that show extended unsupervised play show better use by adults too. By the same argument, this means children will be less attracted to places where no children are playing. Mapping analysis Data for social activities, taken from the previous section, is compared to the mapping ranks derived from each of the case studies.

In summary the rankings for each of the scheme are as follows:. The map rank is converted to a percentage and compared to the percentage value for social activities for each of the schemes. Note that the percentage for social activities is factored by the density for each scheme.

This produces the scatter graph below, which by inspection shows a good correlation between the social use of space and the mapping values. We conclude that mapping external spaces in this way gives a very good indication of how well spaces are used by the community.

We believe that this type of analysis is potentially very helpful for designers and developers. It can be used in the early masterplanning stages to test layouts by applying the principles to different options. At consultation stage it is a potentially useful tool for engaging residents; giving value to external spaces and helping to set priorities for all members of the community.

It is a post occupancy technique for new developments as well as a research method for reviewing existing estates and their development potential. Beyond this, it could be used to augment existing policy and to build a clear set of principles for designers, developers and local authorities to work with. Conclusion Knowledge and evidence about how people use space is a vital resource for design professionals, developers and users themselves.

In particular we are missing information about children, their particular needs and their use of outdoor spaces. By examining ten recently completed schemes, it presents a small snapshot of current housing design and principles in England.

None of the case studies can be seen as an exemplar, however, the data gathered sets out to unpick some of the issues, from a theoretical base, making comparisons and drawing tentative conclusions about how people use external space in residential areas.

Mapping diagrams begin to visualise these theories and redraw the external landscape from the point of view of accessibility, overlooking and connections. Conclusions This report recognises that external spaces are social spaces and values spaces that are well used. It believes that children are most likely to use these spaces and that they are most in need of safe places to play for extended periods.

We have collected evidence that highlights children can be the generators of community life but that scheme design is critical to enabling children to play this role. It should be noted that the case studies are a very small percentage of recent housebuilding in England and cannot be said to fully representative of all schemes.

The study revealed a number of anomalies and variables that are likely to have influenced the data. Most notably were the event at Derwenthorpe which appeared to attract a large number of visitors, and the field of view at So Stepney, where the researchers were unable to record residents passing through.

Demographic data was available for the local wards. However the Arts Council study of Staiths, Gateshead revealed a different demographic profile. We cannot be sure whether other schemes also diverged from the data, but we do believe that the lower number of families on the scheme will have resulted in less use of the external spaces, as our other observational data suggests.

One question that has arisen in presentations of this research is the extent to which tenure type might influence the data. However there are certainly cultural social pressures that prevent parents from allowing their children to play out. The strength of the research lies in the fact that it equals or exceeds other studies in length of time spent observing activities.

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Augmenting the studies with resident opinion and feedback would have further strengthened the study, but this was not possible with the funding available. Recommendations While the limitations of the approach need to be noted, the findings provide valuable insights where there is a currently a lack of evidence. We hope the research can be a vital first step towards re-framing the way we think about residential shared space and begins to answer the call for the built environment to take the needs of children seriously and represent them across all policy.

Research work should continue as more evidence will help reach stronger conclusions. It should include: Further investigation is needed into the specific needs of teenagers and the elderly In the case of the latter it would be advantageous to be able to look at the overs age group as it this time of life when it becomes more common to live alone, social participation decreases, but support networks become more vital.

Appropriate external spaces can bring benefits such as increasing social contact, more contact with nature and exercise. Teenagers, so often feared, are children and like playing too. They often enjoy playgrounds like play with younger children whom they know. Although they like their own spaces to gather too, they tend to congregate in busy areas in the neighbourhood.

As well as listening to their voices we should consider the benefits of young people growing up in communities where they are known to adults, contributing and participating.

High density, inner city schemes need to be studied urgently There is huge pressure on external spaces in inner city regeneration schemes. In these circumstances, understanding how to get the very best out of these spaces is essential. The architecture should be considered with respect to all shared space; from the street to the front door; looking at entrances, lobbies and circulation.

Security and play Security solutions, such as gated access to courtyards, should be reviewed if they prevent children from freely accessing spaces designed for their use. Other barriers to play, such as a blanket avoidance of a network of footpaths should also be reconsidered.

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The challenge will be to layout these spaces whilst achieving security requirements, this may mean reviewing some of the principles of Secure by Design. Guidelines New guidelines will help designers and developers understand the issues, what they should be setting out to do and ways of achieving it: These spaces should be within the development. As many dwellings as possible should overlook and have safe direct access to these spaces.

Other barriers to access such as fences, railings and informal planting should be considered too. In addition, existing guidelines should be revisited to highlight the benefits of play.

The car is the greatest hindrance to safe play yet many highways engineers are still unwilling to accept current Manual for Streets guidance on homezones, choosing to apply the outdated DB Solutions should be found that prevent car drivers from parking anti socially. This will require a significant cultural and psychological shift, as well as a change in legislation and policy.

The merits of pavements should be incorporated into guidelines, as a way of providing safe, car-free space. Pavements that allow for doorstep play are ideal.

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In medium to large size developments they should also be wide enough for more than one person to walk side by side, for an adult with two small children or a mobility scooter with a pedestrian friend. Overall, a new approach to residential urban design should be championed: The aim should be to tie together streets, pavements and open spaces as the physical fabric of community life.

Bibliography Appleyard, D. Biddulph, M School of City and Regional Planning: Cardiff University. CABE Department of the Environment and Department for Transport Residential roads and footpaths: Department for Transport Thomas Telford.

Design Council Design Council. Damian Carrington March 25 Hillier, B. Homes and Communities Agency Cabinet Office Gill, T London Play. Clark H. Ben Highmore Kozlovsky, R. Mayor of London Office for the Deputy Prime Minister Office for National Statistics Paterson, E.

Read, N. Kingston University. Social Life Social Life. Voce, A. Policy Press. Researching how residents use external spaces in new developments. Our next publication now available: Working with c See More. With support from: Methodology We are in the midst of a housing crisis.

Context Findings In the last 15 years urban design theories have been discussed and developed in the context of broader sustainability principles.

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By gathering and analysing new data the report presents a number of new findings: Executive summary Report New design guidance The report presents data about how people are using external spaces in residential areas on recently completed schemes in England.

Policy recommendations Good design guidance should be developed to support new policy objectives, including emerging best practice examples. We need to ask: Are some people more in need of external spaces than others? Communities and Local Government National Planning Policy Framework 7 8 Housing Design and Community Life Introduction This report is part observational study and part mapping analysis of external spaces in ten recently completed housing schemes across England.

Chapter 2: Methodology Chapter 3: Executive summary Chapter 4: Mapping analysis Following on from the case studies is a series of different data comparisons for all of the schemes, presented as a series of themes. Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space.

Biddulph, M. Chapter 1: Jacobs, J. Random House. Appleyard, D. Methodology Data collection The methodology for the research builds on a rich tradition of observational analysis and data gathering from William H Whyte through to Jan Gehl. Age group Pre-school under 5 Child Teenager Adult Elderly Time Time into view Time out of view Whether in a group or alone Activity carried out Passing through Hanging out Domestic chores Talking Observing others Play Supervision of children playing Way of moving On foot Bicycle Pushchair Scooter Mobility scooter Notes Permission was sought from each housing neighbourhood manager, who was able to deal with any resident concerns.

Methodology 23 24 Housing Design and Community Life Shared external space rating Three schemes are shown here showing the types of external space within each development, using the colour gradation below. Not overlooked, tends to be car dominated Open space that is overlooked but separated by a road Open space, directly accessibly from homes Least accessible Most accessible Overlooked shared surface Pavements Chapter 2: Methodology Access from dwellings These maps highlight what access is like from each of the dwellings, giving an indicator of the relationship to shared spaces across all of the development.

Green is a safe, car-free route - this could be a pavement, green space or a hard surface Orange is a shared surface street, where pedestrians and cars share the route Red is a crossing over a road, or close to a road Chapter 2: Case studies Barking Riverside Location: Case studies Barking Riverside: Mapping analysis Mapping ranking Barking Riverside achieves the highest overall score Our heat map for shared external space shows: Shared external spaces Not overlooked, tends to be car dominated Open space that is overlooked but separated by a road Open space, directly accessibly from homes Least accessible Most accessible Overlooked shared surface Pavements Shared external spaces 5 Access from dwellings 3.

Case studies Good use was made of the main playground, which seems well used by children and adults together. Case studies The Americas Location: Playground Cul-de-sac Playground Chapter 3: Case studies Existing blocks Playground Parking court Section W oo dv al e Hanb La Wo o ne ds toc kP lac e Cul-de-sac ury L ane Parking court Shared space The regeneration of the previous scheme involved demolishing the existing houses on the site, whilst retaining the apartment buildings. Case studies The Americas: Mapping analysis Mapping ranking The Americas rank third Shared external space shows: Shared external spaces Not overlooked, tends to be car dominated Open space that is overlooked but separated by a road Open space, directly accessibly from homes Least accessible Most accessible Overlooked shared surface Pavements Shared external spaces 3 Access from dwellings 2.

Case studies In terms of spending extended periods outside and for social use the external spaces perform differently. Case studies Market Estate Location: Public park Formal garden Chapter 3: Case studies Formal park oad th R Nor Playground Clock tower The scheme is laid out with four five storey blocks around a formal garden at the centre.

Case studies Market Estate: Mapping analysis Mapping ranking Market Estate ranks seventh Shared external space shows: Shared external spaces Not overlooked, tends to be car dominated Open space that is overlooked but separated by a road Open space, directly accessibly from homes Least accessible Most accessible Overlooked shared surface Pavements Shared external spaces 2 Access from dwellings 0 Networks 1.

Case studies The private road, as with other schemes, suffers from parked cars obstructing the pavements, which will make it difficult for pedestrians to use the space safely. Case studies So Stepney Location: Case studies So Stepney: Mapping analysis Mapping ranking So Stepney ranks fourth Shared external space shows: Shared external spaces Not overlooked, tends to be car dominated Open space that is overlooked but separated by a road Open space, directly accessibly from homes Least accessible Most accessible Overlooked shared surface Pavements Shared external spaces 5 Access from dwellings 1 Networks 3 Streets 2 Total 11 61 Housing Design and Community Life So Stepney: Case studies Overall the private courtyard arrangement has the advantage of being well used, in particular by children and for longer periods of time.

Case studies Lime Tree Square Location: Streets Green Chapter 3: Case studies Green space Reed planting Reed planting Lime Tree Square Phase 1 of the development was completed in , further phases are underway to the north and east of the site. The project was awarded Building for Life Awards: Case studies Lime Tree Square: No radio, no television, this was the only way.

Albers was a refugee of another war. He had been a student, then a professor in the Department of Design at the Bauhaus in the s and early s.

When the Nazi Party gained power in Albers felt the heat and fled to America. The second would not be until seven years later in Haight-Ashbury. But Victor is dismissive of the beatnik movement, calling them fantasists. There was a more seriously active, more rebellious time to come. We thought all the taboos had been broken.

Sure, it got smart, we did it to entertain of America as a world power around the world. A war that them, and the information became entertaining. Here I am questioned the American Dream, a war that brought together doing what I want to and getting paid.

Goodbye, Van Gogh a generation and divided a nation.

Victor was on a different syndrome. America was an army cartoonist before the posters, and we came up with a plan of state. We called it Zap Comix.

Griffin from school. Married couples slept in separate beds. Christ, this is fucking we had all this unbelievable iconoclastic imagery. I took over bullshit. The country that has brought you the production and Wes Wilson joined in. By now Victor was teaching publish it? By now the front line in the hooked up with music promoter Chet Helms under the title alternative war had broken ranks, Bill Graham was creaming of The Family Dog. Promoter Bill Graham was lurking, ready to money with business deals that were decidedly more selfmuscle in with his hard business ideas.

The short-lived serving than they were in the interests of the community but highly productive period in which San Francisco was that had provided the talent. The new drugs of choice—heroin to dominate as the most iconic poster art centre of the world and cocaine—had turned the hippies sour.

The war in Vietnam was about to begin. Victor saw an opportunity. For the second was now, even in the mainstream, an agreed failure. The time in his life he was the right guy in the right place at the party was over. I started my own task and one that is only just beginning to be understood as production company and went to the promoters—who initially necessary by art schools even today.

Victor recalls that the about the craft of putting opposing colours together. It had San Franciscan police were getting heavy-handed with the nothing to do with acid—how to you paint the birth and rebirth? All I did was say: It was like the Sistine Chapel, man. The trouble limestone, the texture and physical work of printing and started when the dealer Super Spade got killed—new drugs, silkscreening.

In the hurry The descent may have started in 67 but it was also the to leave I forget to get my book signed, a regret that hangs year the Big Five made it really big. Often cited as a pioneering over my head. It sounds like one Michelangelo in his time, the best in the business.

There you go, Victor. I sold it. Travel The simple act of getting around often brings you into contact with some unexpectedly inspiring graphic design. Please fasten your belts for take-off…. PURCELL met up with Vignelli in New York to discuss the finer points of map design, the inspiration for the original and how it stacks up against the version that replaced it. On the surface, this may not seem like a significant edit of the original design.

In this instance, removing the river was a step too far. The authority received many complaints, and after Boris Johnson, the Mayor of London, became aware of the omission, he called for it to be reinstated immediately.

Yet, the issues surrounding the creation of underground or subway maps present the designer with a rare set of problems. Unlike the streets above, a map of the subterranean world of the underground does not need to be geographically true. To approach it in such a way would only result in a work of enormous complexity, inscrutable to any but the most determined of passengers. Yet the map does need to make sense of the labyrinth of intersecting lines and services that criss cross the city, as well as providing a point of departure that will enable the passenger to find their destination above ground.

In short, such a map needs to be both factual and artificial, a work of imagination and reason, an act of creative cartography. What we needed was a diagram and we did a diagram, not a map. The diagram—or subway map—could not do all the things. You need a diagram about the subway, and then you need a geographical map, you know, with the streets. His own River Thames moment came when he decided to remove any reference to Central Park in his design: Yet, as the whole nomenclature had changed since he first produced the map, when first approached by the magazine Vignelli only agreed to do it if he could produce a new one.

At one point they ran out of blue ink and just added a white background. If I had seen that from the beginning, I would have eliminated the blue completely. By contrast, Manhattan is famously an island of grids. The question is: And as close as possible to reality, to a certain extent, within the boundaries of the system, within the boundaries of the grid we designed.

We started with the real thing, with a real geographical map. Then we moved these things around according to the grid.

You travel from point A to point B. We tried to be as close as possible to the cross-town lines etc, so we established a grid for all these things. There is a logic throughout. Yet what Hertz ignores is that Vignelli did try to bridge the gap between his diagrammatic map and the local area of the station.

Like a diver coming up for air, he offered a variety of maps to aid the decompression from train to street. The system map they did. The neighbourhood map they did in some stations. They never did a geographical map. This was a mistake. But if you need just information related to the lines, how to get from point A to point B, that is the system map.

The verbal map was just telling you verbally: Therefore, we were really covering all the aspects, the diagrammatic, the verbal, the geographical and the local [neighbourhood map]. And each one of these three things has a specific use. You cannot eat soup with a fork. For Waterhouse, an understanding of the problem passengers experience with the current map shaped his work on the redesign. And the way they do this is not by looking at the map, but by reading it.

The current design attempts to be all things to all people. As such, of necessity it presents an excess of textual information street names, parks, tunnels, cemeteries, bridges, ferry routes.

It is in many ways a classic example of design by committee. For Vignelli, this is a committee primarily made up of verbal, not visual people. Ultimately, to accept the drawing as a diagram and not a geographical map required a level of altruism that just was not there. It is my. There is no respect for the other.

It is typical New York mentality, which is not rigorous enough. And it wants to have everything. Do you need helicopter routes on the map when you are underground? Maybe with the development of augmented reality apps such as Nearest Tube or the ability to tag specific places and routes on Google Earth, some kind of personal geography is challenging the traditional role of official maps.

Vignelli is aware of these developments and has plans to make his own subway map available as an iPhone application. To journey across Manhattan with such a guide would at least make for a more visually enjoyable trip. Who knows, maybe a new London Underground map application, minus the River Thames, will also make an appearance in the future? Pro Motion In the bicycling world, visual coding rules and often the finishing touch is having the right head badge on your frame.

Design and cycling have a relationship characterised by extremes: In a sense, for all frame-builders, the frame is the distinguishing mark, a logo in itself. Yet bicycle logo heritage runs rich and deep, its early course, for the large part, outside the design establishment.

Traditionally, top road bikes were built by hand in oneman workshops, by artisans producing a few hundred bicycles a year for local riders. A few engaged with logo design as a branding discipline, but one feels that many would much rather have been building frames.

A traditional frame is made of steel tubes one inch in diameter — there is only so much usable surface area. Long waterslide decals on the down tube and a badge on the head tube are the norm.

Despite, or because of, these factors, there is a common aesthetic and an iconography, inspired by the spirit of competitive cycling, technological innovation and notions of craft and heritage. What follows only scratches the surface, but explores five themes through some outstanding designs. Logo for Ugo de Rosa, one of the most revered framebuilders. One of several Italian logos that use playing-card imagery. Traditionally, Italian builders signed their frames on the top tube, calling attention to the act of creation, the frame as art.

Many companies have used cursive script, or a fancy bold serif or gothic font, conforming to certain ideas of elegance or craft. Japanese companies have often used the Roman alphabet, perhaps inherited from the Italian master builders with whom several of the Japanese frame-builders learnt their trade. Keirin, state-sanctioned bicycle racing, was established in by the departing US troops — another possible source.

Level, by contrast, has taken the incomprehensible lettering and made it modern and graphically pure, in perfect symmetry along a vertical axis. Racing and Bicycles The bicycle head tube affords space enough for a crest, often made out of zinc or brass, and predates the car bonnet as a branding opportunity.

He founded Eddy Merckx Cycles in , after he retired, although he also competed on bikes bearing his name. This logo dates from the later period. Through it together with his portrait, which adorns many Eddy Merckx bikes and has aged as he has , the champion figuratively embodies the bicycle, promising a transmigration of his legendary power into those who ride his frames.

Other firms deconstructed the bicycle for their logo. Consequently, the quick release is central. Once quite ornate, a simplified version can be seen engraved on Campagnolo alloy parts.

Head Badges and Heraldry The bicycle is a great leveller, formerly a symbol of working-class mobility and emancipation, so the heraldic escutcheons favoured by many brands are less explicable than racingrelated logos.

There is no aristocratic aspiration, simply a patriotic or regional, even tribal, pride — much like football club crests. Plus a certain combativeness: Many of these crests would have been designed or suggested by the badge-makers themselves, using a common stock of emblems. When Hyman Hetchins, a Russian immigrant, began building bikes in Tottenham in , he took on the shield of the City of London, his adopted home, and the totemic lions of England.

After a Hetchins ridden by the German Toni Merkins won the m sprint in the Olympics, the Olympic colours were displayed in the background. Cino Cinelli, a racer from Tuscany, started building bicycles in Milan in His badge displays the biscione a snake eating or giving birth to an infant and the fleurde-lys, the traditional heraldic symbols of Milan and Florence respectively.

Thanks to the explosion of interest in track bikes, this classic coat of arms has been appropriated for a new generation. Designed by Benny Gold, the revised head badge adorns the Mash SF Cinelli bike, made by the San Francisco collective known for aggressive street riding.

Birds and Wings Birds and wings are ubiquitous features of bicycle logos, worldwide and spanning all eras. Bicycles and birds: A bicycle gives freedom, speed and command of landscape; riding one downhill may be the closest we ever come to the sensation of flying.

Columbus, a specialist tubing company, also made steel-tubed furniture — elegantly cantilevered desks and chairs — in Mussolini-era Italy. He immediately set about reworking the Cinelli coat of arms, and the winged C, designed by Italo Lupi, endures to this day. While the Columbus dove plays on the family name, Flying Pigeon, from the other side of the world, seems predicated on a misunderstanding. Who would want a bike named after sky rats? Advertising has always been visually savvy and, in Europe especially, early cycle racing and commerce are closely intertwined.

In the early Tour de France, riders would descend like locusts on the villages they passed through, raiding bars for as much food and drink as possible. Some bar owners sent the Tour de France a bill; others shut up shop for the day. Good enough for the yellow jersey: The artist, A. Cassandre, later designed the Yves Saint Laurent logo. No sponsor has been as closely associated with the romance of cycling than Molteni.

The company — which made sausages — sponsored a pro team from to , a team that included the rampant Eddy Merckx. Thanks to Merckx wearing its kit, Molteni has virtually trademarked a certain shade of burnt orange. Logo for Rollapaluza, a race club where riders compete on bikes bolted to a stand, with no front wheel. The logo by Wayne Peach, shows two bicycles in head-to-head combat.

High Life The glamour of international air travel, at its zenith in the late s, was invented by Braniff, the airline that transformed dreary plane fuselages into colourful brand statements and made buttoned-up stewardesses into sexy hostesses. When you got it, flaunt it. Until then, its history reads like that of many other airlines.

Based in Dallas and founded by brothers Paul and Tom Braniff in , it initially served the Midwest and eventually expanded. Troy hired his brother-inlaw Harding L. The stylish think Don Draper Lawrence was at that time the vice-president of Continental Airlines — one of the most forward-thinking companies in the industry — and had been regularly courted by other airlines to come and work for them. His vision was to somehow turn Braniff, then the eleventh largest US aviation company, into the market leader.

As part of his summary exit from Continental with whom he would experience fierce competition until the bitter end , Lawrence took with him marketing agency Jack Tinker Associates. Wells was modern and smart and cultured: Married to different people at the time, Lawrence and Wells would eventually divorce and marry each other. Fares were incredibly expensive and regulated — the core thinking here was that in order to ensure the safe running of planes, the government needed to limit competition between airlines that might eventually involve lower fares and therefore, it was assumed, standards.

More, this meant that the government undertook to ensure that these airlines never went bust. It also meant that while the airlines did plenty to make their customers comfortable, they did little to differenti01 The End of the Plain Plane advertising, ate themselves from each other on a mass level, doing as much as they could to please the government regu02 Braniff logotype, designed lators and their wealthy passengers.

Going against common beliefs, he felt the future of air travel lay in giving the market a broader customer base — in he kicked this off by introducing economy fares to some of his routes.

Planes were either white, with a strip running along the side of their livery, a visual gesture towards aerodynamics, or the dull grey of their steel shell. Turning Braniff Airlines into a unique brand provided a creative template that still has currency today.

The goal was to formulate a brand differentiation seemingly out of nowhere. What they did was recruit a crack creative team, all of whom brought something different to the party.

In her biography, Mary Wells Lawrence explains: I saw Braniff in a wash of beautiful color. The goal was to capture the glamour and colour of the Sixties and the postwar optimism of the Fifties and inject it into air travel — creating relevance and a kind of appeal beyond its immediate audience and in doing so taking ownership of the period; modern air travel WAS Braniff International.

These designs turned the servile, stuffy air stewardess into a strong, independent, young, available woman — not too far away from ideas found within the fashion magazines of the time, except that their sole purpose was to travel, have a good time and serve the needs of their passengers most of whom were men. Further, Braniff made space agestyle helmets for its air hostesses, to protect their hairstyles while cutting through busy airports, and bikinis in which Pucci ensured they were photographed for press purposes at any given opportunity.

Then, in an inspired move, the Braniff team recruited Alexander Girard. Braniff was the kind of branding gig designers usually only ever dream of: Later, in , Alexander Calder took over the gig that Girard had initiated.

So radical was the idea of adding colour to the body of the planes that it immediately acquired press all over the world.

The initial response from other airlines was shock. Some even argued that painting the livery added a dangerous amount of extra weight to a plane, but, as with most of the Braniff innovations of the time, the idea was soon copied throughout the industry. In Continental Airlines, taking a leaf out of the Braniff look-book, hired graphics guru Saul Bass to redesign its logo.

The tale of Braniff and Harding Lawrence is a case study not only in the power of marketing and image but also its weaknesses. In fact, it became less and less about the experience of flying and more about the power of advertising and the sweet smell of success. Sonny Liston sitting next to Andy Warhol on a plane. Andy Warhol: They like our girls, they like our food, they like our style and they like to be on time.

Thanks for flying Braniff, fellas. Braniff International. And so it was that the Lawrence era ended in The notion of glamour has all but disappeared — in fact, the current thinking is: Thanks to Victor Constantini for his expert consultation and invaluable industry insight. Chain of custody - FSC certification. Plain and printed samples - mock up dummies service within 24 hours to establish appropriate paper, finish and grammage for your publication.

Independent merchanting and thinking — paper is our passion, the lifeblood of good communication! Next Month in Grafik pages of the best graphic design work, new talent, events and exhibitions, reviews, opinion and inspiration. Art Director and Photographer Rachel Thomas and Dan Tobin Smith in conversation about their complex and constructive relationship as image-makers.

In this two-part look at the paper industry and how designers can make better decisions about sourcing and downloading paper, inconvenient truths. Illustration by Richard. For many people, the most obvious introduction to environmental issues is paper. It is a common item that nearly everyone, especially in our near-fully literate Western societies, uses and disposes of on an everyday basis. So the need to reduce, reuse and recycle paper is easily understood and people know to put that pile of Sunday supplements in the recycling bin or to download recycled paper for their printer.

But the production and consumption of paper is a bigger story than you might suppose. Not quite big enough to fill the kg of paper products consumed by each person in the UK every year, but certainly enough to fill at least two of these pages.

Wood revolutionised the papermaking industry by making paper much cheaper and more efficient to produce. With the aid of other popular inventions of the time such as practical fountain pens and improved printing processes, a massive demand for paper was created. Two hundred years later this demand has left us with one more environmental problem that has yet to be satisfactorily solved.

In her excellent book Paper Trails, Mandy Haggith describes the process of modern industrial paper production and its environmental impact. The first stage is the felling of trees: It is common practice in the timber industry to replace native trees with a fast-growing variety such as acacia trees, whose growth rate is so aggressive it can suck all the water from surrounding land, as well as releasing toxic chemicals that deter other plants from growing near them. One Indonesian tribal elder interviewed by Haggith said: We cannot hunt here any more.

We lost the animals. We lost our medicine trees. We lost everything. After logging, the wood is transported to the processing plant, and naturally this transport has its own environmental impact. It was a surprise to discover that the wood they use comes not from the nearby surrounding Highland forest, but from South America.

Once it reaches the processing plant, the wood is chopped and then pulped in order to separate out the individual cellulose fibres, either by a mechanical process of grinding the wood chips or chemically, by stewing them in strong alkali solutions at high temperatures. At this stage the pulp is generally bleached or treated with other chemicals to create the different aspects of a finished sheet of paper, such as colour, smoothness and ink absorption.

These chemicals carry a high risk of pollution and our preference for crisp, white paper is one of the more damaging demands of the papermaking process. The third stage involves spreading the pulp into sheets and extracting the water using enormous presses.

It is then dried through heated rollers before being wound onto a reel for cutting and shaping. The whole process is so energy-intensive that a single sheet of A4 paper causes the same greenhouse gas emissions as burning a light bulb for an hour, as well as using a mug of water. Up to 90 per cent of the carbon footprint of a piece of print is already incurred during the paper manufacture.

The papermaking industry is the third largest emitter of global-warming pollution in industrialised nations, and is the largest industrial consumer and polluter of water in European countries. More positively, the industry is now the biggest producer and user of renewable energy sources. The Tullis Russell mill is currently building its own onsite power plant and some producers are using the by-products of pulp production as bio-fuel, thereby drastically reducing their carbon dioxide emissions.

While waste treatment, especially in Europe, has improved in recent years, many mills still release a variety of pollutants, especially chemicals from the treatment process.

Also, papermaking generates large amounts of solid waste, such as the sludge from the wood fibres, coatings and fillers, and this is generally sent to landfill or incinerated. So that is how paper is made.

It is possible that most of the paper you come into contact with today will have been through the wasteful, largescale, industrial process described above. Hopefully it has come from a more sustainable, well-managed source.

This magazine is printed on FSC-approved paper, which is a step in the right direction. Next month we will be discussing the more environmentally friendly ways of papermaking, including recycled and FSC-approved paper. That this logo survived the twentieth century is alone close to a miracle, amidst the flurry of modernisation, particularly in the world of camera makers. In attempting to research this logo, I stumbled across a black hole of information.

Was it the signage from the front of its first lens shop? Did it even have a first lens shop? My guess is that some nameless printer or signwriter made this lettering, perhaps in a popular style of the day. Whatever its history, though, the lettering itself is a heady mix of swashed calligraphy and moments of blackletter that seems as though it was last popular in the s. The thinking behind a piece of lettering like this has a lot more to do with the semantics of a trademark, or the original cattle-branding meaning of brand.

To choose one character from a typeface is like choosing one colour plane from a Mondrian painting, or a single flower in an Arcimboldo. Type design is not about single glyphs. It is about creating elements to form a whole, about creating or anticipating a modular landscape with a purpose. Pretty details are a by-product. Admittedly, the details CAN be unbelievably pretty.

But too much attention to detail can make a font fall apart. So apparently we need coherence for a typeface to function as a reading tool—and maybe restraint in applying detail. Functionalism tried to convince us that responsible form-giving is about the elimination of any arbitrary detail; that functionality is best helped by objectivity; and that objectivity equals predictabilty, modularity, uniformity.

You get an army. And a pretty boring one at that. So we want to find a different kind of coherence. Maybe we do need the details after all. Typography is not merely about communicating content.

Let me rephrase that: Type is more than a channel to convey language. A typographic design a page that does this successfully is not about uniformity, it is about diversity. It may also be about attitude, dignity, history, humour, resistance, confusion, even illegibility. They are expressive and personal. They refer to tradition in a number of ways: While many of his alphabets abound with unexpected details and unusual changes of direction, the overall impression is harmonious: I used it for years as a typeface for headlines and intros in the bi-annual cultural listings of the City of Ghent.

It was eminently functional: At this festive time of year I have a tendency to cast my mind back to those who have sacrificed or have been sacrificed in our name. After all, the yuletide season is such a sentimental time of year, and as such is a perfect time for reflection on just where our cultural gifts come from and who has paid for them. I like to do my bit to acknowledge all that. In the book trade, Christmas is given over to near-hysterical positivity in a desperate attempt to maximise emotional customer spend and see us through another year.

Which is right and necessary in the contemporary battlefield of retail survival. But in all this frenzy I feel personally compelled to offer up at least one sobering note among all the cheerful tomes. This year my selection comes from Editions Hazan in Paris and its remarkable series, Pocket Archives.

Our volume is The French Resistance. The introductory essay is written with great clarity and simple grace by Raymond Aubrac, a Resistance fighter, and the book is filled with excellent archival pictures from numerous Resistance archives.

The book both substantiates and dispels our film noir views of the Resistance: The text and pictures resonate with sacrifice and righteousness, with fighting what is wrong and fighting those who would make an accommodation with evil rather than stand up to it. Those who stand up to malign power often pay dearly for their beliefs. The moral core in me wants desperately to believe that right always wins in the end—not without arduous struggle, but that it does always win.

In our time, I think of people like the Tibetans. They face seemingly impossible odds, with little hope of their struggle ever freeing them from a tyrant as rich, ruthless and powerful as the colossus that is modern China. In June of the same thing could have been said for part of the population of France, which had been defeated by perhaps the most efficiently well-oiled monster of militarism the world had ever seen, Nazi Germany.

And until D-Day in June of , the French—or rather those French people who opposed the collaborationist Vichy regime—had to fight this beast as best they could, by clandestine and underground methods, locally or regionally organised, rarely facing the enemy directly for lack of equipment, and suffering torture and execution when caught or betrayed. Ordinary citizens did this because of beliefs stronger than personal safety or advantage.

They did it because, most fundamentally, they believed it is right to fight wrong. This was the essence of the Resistance. Why this subject and this book for you now? Because in this struggle it was writers, graphic designers, printers and publishers who were instrumental in the fight. As much as their compatriots in the armed struggle, they put their lives on the line to do right, using the skills they had to help fight the fight. They kept the lines of communication and information flowing to others in the Resistance, which was vital to its survival and eventual victory.

They informed the general citizenry for whom they fought, who were otherwise force-fed a diet of outrageous propaganda. They faced huge obstacles and dreadful consequences —execution being the very predictable consequence of being caught, after torture.

They stole paper where they could, and with great difficulty hid enormous printing presses. They printed by night in cold dark cellars, and distributed their work secretly and at great risk by day. They wrote and designed and printed underground newspapers, leaflets and posters to assist and inspire people they might never know, to help in a cause they often could not see but only believe in. Much of this work was paid for out of their own pockets, from what little they had.

Their work was utterly compelling and meant something vital to life itself. You could say they had no choice. That would be true. But it would follow, then, that we do have choice in our beliefs and how we act on them today.

Be it with words, graphics, posters or the web. Those are skills vital to life and they should be used to promote right and good. I hope you have a cause. Some cause. We have it comparatively easy these days, struggling with things like bills and budgets, deadlines and competition.

Others before us, before us in the past and standing before us now, have, and do struggle with much more. They often suffer horribly, or die trying, to redress wrongs. You have choice, which is something best utilised before a time comes when you may not.

But before the world comes to that, put some of your time and skills into the causes of our times, and we might just escape that most unforgiving season.

Memorable and nostalgic were the Lange family holidays in the Renault Espace in the mids. Consisting of four excited siblings, two parents and a twenty-hour drive from Cheltenham to Zakopane in Poland. Stopping off in Belgium and Germany on the way, I wish I had taken more pictures.

My most memorable journey was my first trip to the Milan Design Week. My girlfriend is a design journalist, so she has access to all the places. She knows what to watch for, what not to miss. We were running all day long, from one stand to another, from one hall to another.

During these four days, all we did was run, scanning the environment quickly. Such a density of stimuli I had never experienced before, and it was such a visual shock that these four days inspired me for months afterwards. During a trip to Paris, me and my girlfriend rented bikes after sharing a bottle of wine in the spring sun. We rode off with no set destination, crisscrossing our way through the city. The ride was shaky to say the least and we nearly got arrested for going in the wrong direction on a one-way street.

The fact that it was our first time in Paris and neither of us spoke French made the situation even more crazy. I have been on many journeys but this blurry moment still remains one of my fondest travel memories. Driving through the Texan desert, the empty road cuts straight into the horizon.

The destination does not matter as you feel frozen between the blue sky and red desert. It is like moving in slow motion and fast-forward at the same time.

It was a particularly rainy day but as the bus set off the sun broke through the clouds. It was good. When walking around an exhibition, one can undergo innumerable impressions. They may be inconsequential, bizarre, fleeting or trivial. Often, such thoughts are instantly forgotten, but occasionally an image can endure.

More specifically, I recalled the scene in which the parents of the main character, a young boy named Kevin, are sitting down to dinner. While the mother is making fruit juice in a blender, we see behind her a large array of white electronic kitchen utensils and gadgets mixers, electric knives and coffeemakers. While preparing the food, the mother recounts the story of a friend whose own electronic utensils were all destroyed because of a blown fuse. The father retorts smugly: Set in the early s, the scene captures a time when these newly fashioned electric consumables still had the aura of something unique.

Not yet gathering dust under the kitchen sink, they sit proudly on the shelf, bestowing a level of distinction and status on their owner. Unfairly or not, this scene came to mind when I was walking around the Rams exhibition.

Seeing people standing reverentially before a Braun Multipractic Kitchen machine or the Braun Blow Dryer P , I was struck by the corresponding encounter albeit in a less rarefied environment many people would have had with these items in their homes throughout the s and s.

Yet such simplicity is notoriously hard to achieve. It is a discreet and unassuming approach that does not clamour for attention. Their design should always be neutral, they must not be seen, they must underline their usefulness.

They are one of the highlights of this show. The overall effect was one of understated elegance.New York: Random House. Fears associated with childbirth among nulliparous women in Turkey.

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