NCERT 10TH PHYSICS BOOK
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Download NCERT Science book for Class 10 in PDF. Also download the chapter -wise NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science. NCERT Books for Class 10 all subjects is provided here for free. Register now at BYJU'S to download the latest Class 10 NCERT Book PDF for free. NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science - Click To Check All Class 10 Science and smooth understanding of concepts related to physics, chemistry and biology.
Some read to pass the examination, for some it is a passion and hobby while some read to spend their time. Different schools prefer different books according to the syllabus. While other students who prepare for some entrance or competitive exams choose books which will help them prepare properly and score well in the examination. These books cost less. The language and style of the book is easy and simple. So, anyone who reads this will be able to understand all the matter and concepts of the book easily.
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For example iodine is non-metal but has lustrous appearance as metal. Mercury is metal but liquid at room temperature. There are more such exceptions. Therefore, classification of metals and non-metals, are based on chemical properties. Chemical reactions of metals with oxygen gas, water, acids and other metal salts are discussed here. The reactions and their condition depends upon the reactivity series.
The metals on top of reactivity series are sodium and Potassium.
They perform vigorous reactions. Nature of metallic oxides is discussed. Generally Metal oxides are basic in nature. But, some of them like aluminum oxide and zinc oxide can be both acidic and basic and hence known as amphoteric oxides. After that how such reactions takes place is discussed. Ionic bond formation is discussed. Such bond formation can be represented in two forms. Electrons are loosed by metals and gained by non-metals.
One get positively charged and another get negatively charged. They get attracted and a strong bond is formed. The first one is electronic configuration. The bond formation is discussed through Bohr model. Another method is Lewis structure or electron-dot structure.
The metals and non-metals are written with their symbol and dots. Number of dots represents number of outermost electron. The properties of ionic bond are discussed which are based on strong ionic bond formation.
Extraction of metal is taught. Metals are extracted from minerals, from their ores. Ores are minerals from which extraction of metal is profitable. Impurities are removed and after that processing take place according to reactivity of metals. Higher reactive metals are extracted by electrolysis. Middle reactive metals are first converted into oxides and then reduced to metal.
Metals lower in reactivity series such as gold, silver, platinum etc are found in native state and they need not be processed. After this refining of metal is done which is another level of purification. The extracted metals are needed to be protected from corrosion. Lot of money is spent on this.
Many methods such as oiling, greasing, electroplating, galavanisation are discussed. Another method is alloying. It is the process of mixing metals with another metals or non-metals. It makes metal corrosion-free and enhances the strength. Steel is an alloy of metal Iron and Non-metal Carbon, used for construction. Other such alloys are stainless steel, brass, bronze, duralumin etc. Chapter 4 - Carbon and its compounds Carbon is versatile element found in many organic and inorganic compounds.
The reason of this is its tetravalency and catenation which has been discussed.
Carbon form bond by sharing its electrons with other elements. Such bond formations of elements formed by sharing of electron is called covalent- bond formation. Covalent Bond formation is explained for other covalent bond formed compounds such as in oxygen gas, nitrogen gas, and covalent formed compounds. Structure of different carbon compounds is explained. For example, Organic compounds is formed in straight chains, or branched chains or cyclic chains.
Organic compounds are also categorised on the basis of saturated and Unsaturated compound. Saturated compounds are compounds with only single bond. Unsaturated carbon compounds are compounds with double or triple bond. Organic compounds are basically chain of carbon-Hydrogen. Functional groups can be atom or group of atoms attached to the chain of hydrogen-Carbon.
A system of naming that large number of atoms nomenclature is also taught. Soaps and detergents are studied with their chemical structure and properties. Their difference is also discussed. The detergents are used for cleaning purpose in hard water. Chapter 5 - Periodic Classification of Elements There are known elements found till date.
It is better to study each elements in proper way. For this we need to classify them in an order. If categorized in order, we can easily predict some trends in physical and chemical properties of elements. Therefore scientists worked to arrange all elements such that alike elements can be placed in certain rows and column. But, this methodology did not worked for every element.
Only three triads can be detected. In , John Newlands, tried to arrange elements. Newlands Octave was another method to classify elements. In this every eighth element will show property of first element if placed in order of atomic mass.
It was similar to musical notes where first node is similar to eighth. It also failed as it was not able to work for more than 56 elements.
Another method was adopted by Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev arranged the elements based on their atomic masses. He observed that when the elements were arranged in increasing order of their atomic masses, there was a periodic recurrence in their physical and chemical properties.
It was much accurate than previous models. It also had some demerits. Finally, modern periodic came into existence. Atomic number was considered to be criteria for classification.
Elements with same group have same number of outermost electron. Elements in same period have same number of outermost shell. A particular increase to decrease in certain pattern can be predicted. Many such trends are studied in this chapter. Chapter 6 - Life Process Life processes are various activities performed by living beings for sustaining the life.
Such processes are digestive system, respiration system, circulation system etc. All these things are important to leave. The thing is to consume food through digestive system, perform oxidation of food which involves the process of respiration, and transportation of food and water which is done through circulation. This chapter starts with process of nutrition. The process in which an organism takes in food, utilizes it to get energy, for growth, repair and maintenance, etc.
Other modes of nutrition are autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition which are discussed in chapter. Autotrophic nutrition is done by plants by photosynthesis. Heterotrophic nutrition is done by animals. Different types of Heterotrophic nutrition are discussed. Parasitic Nutrition, saprophytic Nutrition and Holozonic Nutrition are different types of heterotrophic nutrition.
Cellular nutrition is done by unicellular organisms which has been discussed in this chapter. Next topic is nutrition by human beings. It starts with mouths which include salivary glands, tongue and teeth.
The food goes to stomach through oesophagus. The food goes to stomach. Liver secretes greenish yellow liquid called bile juice.
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Pancreas lies behind the lower portion of stomach. It secretes pancreatic juice which contains many digestive enzymes.
All such processes are discussed in this digestive system. Next is respiration.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10th Science
The process of respiration involves: a Gaseous exchange i. Breathing: Intake of oxygen from the atmosphere and release of CO2. And b Cellular respiration: Breakdown of simple food in order to release energy inside the cell. Both are discussed. The human respiration system is discussed with some special attention. Pharynx ,bronchio lungs, diaphragm are different elements of human respiratory system. Mechanisam of process involves inhale and exhale.
Both are explained. Circulation involves the process of transportation of food and other materials from one place to another. The blood is pumped through heart and transported through veins. So, all of them are discussed. Different components of blood are discussed-Red blood cells and White blood cells. Four chambers of heart are discussed. In plants, We have discussed earlier how plants take in simple compounds such as CO2 and photosynthesise energy stored in their chlorophyll-containing organs, namely leaves.
The other kinds of raw materials needed for building plant bodies will also have to be taken up separately. For plants, the soil is the nearest and richest source of raw materials like nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals. The absorption of these substances therefore occurs through the part in contact with the soil, namely roots. It has been discussed in details.
The biological process involved in the removal of these harmful metabolic wastes from the body is called excretion. Different organisms use varied strategies to do this. It is discussed in details for human beings. Chapter 7 - Control and Coordination System Earlier, we had started with a notion we all have, that if we see something moving, it is alive.
Some of these movements are in fact the result of growth, as in plants. A seed germinates and grows, and we can see that the seedling moves over the course of a few days, Control and coordination are the functions of the nervous system and hormones in our bodies.
The responses of the nervous system can be classified as reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit messages.
The nervous system gets information from our sense organs and acts through our muscles. Chemical coordination is seen in both plants and animals. Hormones produced in one part of an organism move to another part to achieve the desired effect. A feedback mechanism regulates the action of the hormones.
Chapter 8 - How do organisms reproduce? Reproduction, unlike other life processes, is not essential to maintain the life of an individual organism. It involves creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process. Various organisms use different modes of reproduction depending on their body design such as fission, fragmentation, regeneration, budding, spore formation and vegetative propagation. Sexual reproduction involves two individuals for the creation of a new individual.
Modes of sexual reproduction allow for greater variation to be generated. Reproduction in flowering plants involves transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma which is referred to as pollination followed by fertilisation. The male reproductive system in human beings consists of testes which produce sperms, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and penis.
The female reproductive system in human beings consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. Sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm in the vagina of the female. Fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube. Chapter 9 - Heredity and Evolution We have seen that reproductive processes give rise to new individuals that are similar, but subtly different. We have discussed how some amount of variation is produced even during asexual reproduction. Heredity and evolution deals with the fact — the long-term consequences of the accumulation of variations.
The fact of sex determination in newborn individual is completely solved. Evolution can be worked out by the study of not just living species, but also fossils. Complex organs may have evolved because of the survival advantage of even the intermediate stages.
Changes in the non-reproductive tissues caused by environmental factors are not inheritable indicates about different traits like Acquired and Inherited. Speciation may take place when variation is combined with geographical isolation. Evolutionary relationships are traced in the classification of organisms. Study of the evolution of human beings indicates that all of us belong to a single species that evolved in Africa and spread across the world in stages.
Chapter 10 - Light: Reflection and Refraction Light is source of energy which generates sensation of vision in human beings. In this chapter first reflection of light is discussed. Reflection is governed by its laws. The chapter is concerned with laws of reflection. Here we are basically concerned with the spherical mirrors.
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After that image formation by spherical mirrors are discussed. The different types of spherical mirror, convex and concave are taught. The various terms related with spherical mirrors like centre of curvature, radius of curvature etc, focus, pole etc are discussed with ray diagrams. Uses of spherical mirror has been discussed in chapter. Mirror formula is the way to relate object distance, image distance and focal length of mirror. Magnification is the ratio of size of image by size of object.
This is related to ratio of image distance and object distance. Distances are majored from pole of mirror. Sign convention is kept in mind to find relative distances of image and object. Refraction is the phenomena of bending of light when light travels from one medium to another.
The phenomena of refraction can be understood easily by the concepts of refractive index and optical density. This is better explained by an example of rectangular glass slab. This example is dealt. After that concept of Lens is explained.
It is transparent medium bounded by refractive index. Types of Lens —converging and diverging is discussed. Example of converging lens double convex lens and diverging double concave lens. Image formation and terminology is discussed for both convex and concave lens. Lens formula relates focal length of lens with image distance and object distance.Next is respiration. Rest of the questions are of short answer type questions.
Heredity and Evolution In this chapter, you will learn how passing on of genes from one generation to another takes place. Learn the concepts of eco-systems, food chain, and waste management. Particularly for history and topography.
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