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RADIOLOGY MCQ PDF

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MCQs for Oral Radiology Principles and Interpretation ().pdf subject and to prepare for exams is to practice using Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs). ().pdf. Ayko Nyush. MCQs in Oral Medicine and Oral Radiology MCQs in Oral Medicine and Oral Radiology Kamala G Pillai MDS Faculty of the School of. Single best answer MCQs: a new format for the FRCR part 2a exam. Article (PDF Available) in Clinical Radiology 63(5) · June

Apoptosis is particularly common in which type of tissue? Ring formation. High mitotic rate. Dicentric formation. Which organ demonstrates the MOST radiosensitivity? Optic lens. Bone marrow. Salivary glands. Which characteristic is associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues?

Exposure to a nuclear accident. A latent period lasting minutes, days, or weeks. Large amounts of radiation absorbed within a short period of time. Small amounts of radiation absorbed repeatedly over a long period of time. Which is a result of loss of parenchymal cells associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation?

Acute radiation syndrome. Cells that rarely or never divide. Reduction of number of tissue cells. Replacement of tissue with fibrous connective tissue.

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Which is the amount of radiation below which no adverse effects are seen? Dose rate. Clinical threshold dose. Clinical radioresistance. Which reason BEST justifies the same radiation dose administered at a lower dose rate compared to a higher dose rate?

Allows for tissue repair.

Results in more net damage. Sanctions higher linear energy transfer LET. Formation of fewer hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxyl free radicals. The purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy during radiation therapy is to a. Greater tumor destruction. Enhanced oxygen diffusion distance.

Increased cellular repair of normal tissues. Increased mean oxygen tension in an irradiated tumor. Which is a complication often associated with radiotherapy of the oral mucous membrane?

Irreversible taste loss. Difficulty with food intake. Need for topical anesthetics. Herpetic secondary infection. Which salivary glands are MOST sensitive to radiotherapy? Which is a characteristic of saliva post-radiation therapy? Strong viscosity. Higher pH level. Increased volume. Enhanced buffering ability. Which is NOT a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal tissue response? Progressive fibrosis. Increased fine vasculature.

Concomitant parenchymal degeneration. Which tooth process is relatively resistant to radiation therapy? Bud formation. Root formation. Radiation caries may occur in radiation therapy patients because of a. The primary radiation-induced damage to mature bone results from which factor? Reduction in degree of mineralization.

Destruction of the osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Replacement of bone marrow with fatty marrow. Damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone. The death of bone following irradiation is called a. Which is the recommended time frame to wait before taking radiographic images after radiotherapy of the jaw? Which is the recommended treatment to regain function of the muscles of mastication after radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis? Exercise program. Cessation of radiotherapy.

Restriction in mouth opening. In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 1 to 2 Gy may manifest as which symptoms? Mild hematopoietic. Which is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome?

Hemorrhaging into intestines. Efficient intestinal absorption. Collapse of circulatory system. Plasma and electrolyte balance. Which is the threshold dose of radiation from a full-mouth imaging survey when a leaded apron is used?

Which is NOT a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations? Shortened life span. Formation of cataracts.

Severe mental retardation. Impaired growth and development. Which organ is MOST susceptible to radiation-induced cancer? The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of a. In radiation genetics, as the time between exposure and conception increases, which is reduced? Rate of mutations. Severity of mutations. Incidence of mutations. Frequency of spontaneous mutations. Which is a basic finding of radiation-induced genetic effects?

The majority of mutations are beneficial to an organism. Females are more susceptible to effects of radiation exposure. At low dose rates the frequency of induced mutation is greatly increased. Radiation causes increased frequency of spontaneous mutations rather than inducing new mutations.

Radiology is the science or study of radiation used in medicine. Radiobiology is the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on living systems. Radioimmunity refers to the decreased sensitivity to radiation that may occur after repeated radiation therapy.

MCQs in Radiology with Explanatory Answers

Radiochemistry is the branch of chemistry involving radioactive occurrences. The action of radiation on water is an indirect effect of radiation. In a direct effect of radiation, biologic molecules form unstable free radicals, which are extremely reactive and play a dominant role in molecular changes. The severity of the loss of cells depends upon the radiation dose. The radiosensitivity of a tissue is measured by its response to both direct and indirect effects of radiation.

The interaction of hydrogen and hydroxyl free radicals with organic molecules is an indirect effect of radiation. Approximately one-third 1 3 , not 1 4 , of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects. Approximately one-third 1 3 , not 1 2 , of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects.

Approximately one-third 1 3 of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects. Approximately one-third 1 3 , not 2 3 , of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects.

Direct effects of the interaction of radiation with molecules are the most common outcome for particulate, not coherent, radiation. Direct effects of the interaction of radiation with molecules are the most common outcome for particulate, not characteristic, radiation.

Direct effects of the interaction of radiation with molecules are the most common outcome for particulate, not bremsstrahlung, radiation. Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant molecule in biologic systems, not because it attracts radiation. Free radicals can be formed when radiation interacts with any matter. Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant mol- ecule in biologic systems.

Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant molecule in biologic systems, not because it possesses a high atomic number.

Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant molecule in biologic systems. Chemical change that occurs in water after exposure to ionizing radiation is called radiolysis.

Ionization is the process of the formation of an ion pair. Direct effects of radiation occur when biologic molecules absorb radiation energy and form unstable free radicals. The formation of free radicals by biologic molecules is a direct effect of radiation. Approximately one-third of the biologic effect of radiation is contributed by direct effect. An indirect effect of radiation involves hydrogen and hydroxyl free radicals interacting with organic molecules.

In a direct effect of radiation, biologic molecules form unstable free radicals which are extremely reactive and play a dominant role in molecular changes.

A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location, not a change or loss of a base, is the most damaging, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects. A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location, not a cross-linking of DNA strands, is the most damaging, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects. A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location inhibits proper repair, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects.

A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location, not a disruption of hydrogen bonds, is the most damaging, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects. Tumor induction is an example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Cataract formation is an example of a deterministic effect of radiation. Genetic mutation is an example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Radiation-induced cancer is an example of a stochastic effect of radiation. With deterministic effects of radiation, the severity of clinical effects is propor- tional to dose.

With stochastic effects of radiation, the severity of clinical effects is independent of dose. With stochastic effects of radiation, the severity of clinical effects is an all-or-none response. Stochastic effects of radiation are caused by sublethal damage to DNA. Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division, not cell repair.

Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division, not cellular differentiation. Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division. Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division, not chromosome translocation. It is the rate of cell replication that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues. It is the rate of cell replication, not cellular differentiation, that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues.

It is the rate of cell replication, not the repair and recovery rate, that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues. It is the rate of cell replication, not the location of chromosomes, that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues. Apoptosis or programmed cell death occurs during normal embryogenesis.

DNA damage can result in cell death. Cells damaged by radiation release molecules that can kill nearby cells; this is called the bystander effect.

Chromosome aberrations do not necessarily cause death of cells; cell damage may result or no biologic processes may be recognized. Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues, rather than muscular tissues. Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues.

Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues, rather than con- nective tissues. Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues, rather than subcutaneous tissues. Translocation of chromosomes is an aberration that can result due to exposure to radiation. Ring formation of chromosomes is an aberration that can result due to exposure to radiation. The mitotic rate of a cell is not a chromosome aberration; however, cells with a higher mitotic rate are more susceptible to aberration development.

Dicentric formation of chromosomes is an aberration that can result due to exposure to radiation. The liver demonstrates an intermediate degree of radiosensitivity. The optic lens demonstrates a low degree of radiosensitivity. Bone marrow demonstrates a high degree of radiosensitivity.

Salivary glands demonstrate an intermediate degree of radiosensitivity. Exposure to a nuclear accident is an example of a short-term effect of radiation on tissues. The short-term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues have a latent period lasting minutes, days, or weeks.

Large amounts of radiation within a short period of time are associated with the short- term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues. Small amounts of radiation absorbed repeatedly over a long period of time are associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues. Acute radiation syndrome is a short-term effect that includes symptoms of nausea, vomit- ing, diarrhea, hair loss, and hemorrhage.

Cells that rarely or never divide are termed radioresistant, and are not a result associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation. A reduction in the number of mature tissue cells can become evident quickly due to short-term effects of radiation.

Replacement of tissue with fibrous connective tissue is a result of loss of paren- chymal cells associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation. Dose refers to the amount of radiation received.

Dose rate refers to the rate of exposure. The clinical threshold dose refers to the amount of radiation below which no adverse effects are seen. Radioresistance refers to biologic systems that are resistant to change caused by exposure to radiation. The same dose of radiation administered at a lower dose rate allows for the opportunity for tissue repair, thereby resulting in less net damage. The same dose of radiation administered at a lower dose rate allows for the opportunity for tissue repair, thereby resulting in less, not more, net damage.

Formation of fewer hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxyl free radicals is associated with indirect effects of radiation, rather than dose rate.

Linear energy transfer LET refers to the sublethal damage to cells that results in cancer formation or heritable mutations. LET does not explain the purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Stochastic radiation effects include sublethal damage to cells that results in cancer forma- tion or heritable mutations.

It does not explain the purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy during radiation therapy of tumors having hypoxic cells is to reduce the amount of hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxyl free radical formation. Benefits of the fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors include greater tumor destruction. Fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors does not include enhancing the distance that oxygen must diffuse from the fine vasculature through the tumor to reach the remaining tumor cells; it reduces the distance.

Benefits of the fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors include increased cellular repair of normal tissues. Benefits of the fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors include increasing the mean oxygen tension in an irradiated tumor. Taste buds are sensitive to radiation and taste loss is reversible.

One complication often associated with radiotherapy of the oral mucous mem- brane includes difficulty with food intake due to discomfort associated with mucositis. Use of topical anesthetics to facilitate comfort is a palliative treatment, not a complication associated with radiotherapy.

Secondary yeast infection by Candida albicans, not herpes, is a common complication associated with radiotherapy. The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than minor glands. The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than other glands.

The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than sublingual glands. The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than submandibular glands. The residual saliva after radiation therapy is more viscous than usual. The residual saliva after radiation therapy has a lower pH than usual; it contributes to decalcification of normal enamel. During and after radiation therapy, patients typically report xerostomia, the reduced volume of saliva.

The residual saliva after radiation therapy has a diminished buffering capacity. Adiposis is a response to chronic oral mucosal tissue inflammation. Progressive fibrosis is a response to chronic oral mucosal tissue inflammation.

A chronic inflammatory mucosal tissue response includes a decrease, not an increase, in the fine vasculature. Concomitant parenchymal degeneration is a response to chronic oral mucosal tissue inflammation. The tooth eruption process is relatively resistant to radiation therapy. The tooth bud formation process is sensitive to radiation therapy; irradiation may destroy the tooth bud.

The tooth root formation process is sensitive to radiation therapy; irradiation may retard or abort root formation. Tooth bud cellular differentiation is sensitive to radiation therapy; inhibited cellular differentiation may cause malformations and arrested growth.

Radiation caries may occur because of changes in microflora, including the increased presence of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus, and Candida. Radiation therapy for adults does not alter tooth solubility. Radiation caries is not related to the presence of pulpal fibroatrophy associated with radiation therapy for adults. Radiation therapy for adults does not alter the crystalline structures of teeth.

Damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone can result in a reduction in the degree of mineralization. While osteoblasts and osteoclasts are destroyed by radiation, the primary damage is to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone. After irradiation, normal marrow may be replaced with fatty marrow and fibrous connective tissue; the primary radiation-induced damage to mature bone results from damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone.

The primary radiation-induced damage to mature bone results from damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone. Radiotherapy is the treatment of disease by particle application.

The death of bone following irradiation is called osteoradionecrosis. The death of bone following irradiation is called osteoradionecrosis, not rampant bone loss. Acute radiation syndrome is a reaction of a person after acute whole-body radiation exposure.

Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months, not one month, before taking radio- graphic images after completion of radiotherapy. Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months, not 4 months, before taking radio- graphic images after completion of radiotherapy. Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months before taking radiographic images after completion of radiotherapy.

Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months, not 12 months, before taking radio- graphic images after completion of radiotherapy. An exercise program, not antibiotics, may help regain function of the muscles of mastica- tion after radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis.

An exercise program may help regain function of the muscles of mastication after radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis. Restriction in mouth opening usually starts 2 months after radiotherapy is completed; an exercise program may help regain function of the muscles of mastication after radia- tion-caused inflammation and fibrosis.

Restriction in mouth opening is the result of radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis; an exercise program may help regain function of the muscles of mastication. In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 1 to 2 Gy may manifest as prodromal symptoms. In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 50 Gy may manifest as cardiovascular symptoms.

In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 7 to 15 Gy may manifest as gastrointestinal symptoms. In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 2 to 4 Gy may manifest as mild hematopoietic symptoms. Hemorrhaging into intestines is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome.

Inefficient intestinal absorption is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome. Collapse of the circulatory system occurs in individuals exposed to over 50 Gy of radia- tion, well above the level that causes gastrointestinal syndrome.

Loss of plasma and electrolyte balance is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome. The threshold dose of radiation from a full-mouth survey when a leaded apron is used is about 0. A shortened life span is a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The formation of cataracts is a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. One of the common abnormalities among Japanese children exposed early in gestation includes mental retardation. It is not a late deterministic effect. Impaired growth and development is a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The stomach is more susceptible than the brain to radiation-induced cancer. The stomach is more susceptible than the liver to radiation-induced cancer. The stomach is more susceptible than the thyroid to radiation-induced cancer. The stomach is more susceptible to radiation-induced cancer. The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia, not cataracts. The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia.

The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia, not solid tumors.

The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia, not thyroid cancers. The rate of mutations is reduced as the time between exposure and conception increases. The rate, not the severity, of mutations is reduced as the time between exposure and conception increases. The rate, not the incidence, of mutations is reduced as the time between exposure and conception increases. The rate, not the frequency, of mutations is reduced as the time between exposure and conception increases.

The majority of mutations are damaging to the organism. Males are more susceptible to effects of radiation exposure than females. At low dose rates the frequency of induced mutation is greatly reduced. Sun photons. Subatomic particles. Interaction with earth atmosphere atoms. The MOST exposure to cosmic radiation occurs during which activity? CT scan. Airline travel. Deep sea fishing. Smoking tobacco. Terrestrial sources of radiation do NOT include which one? Dental radiation.

Ingested radionuclides. Basement radon. Top 20 cm of soil. Ingestion of uranium. Domestic water supply. Radon is a decay product in which series? Dust particles. Which statement is NOT true about radon? It is the largest single contributor to natural radiation.

Direct inhalation of radon affects the respiratory tract. Exposure to radon decay contributes to lung cancer deaths, especially in smokers.

Which is the largest contributor to medical radiation? Dental x-rays. Nuclear medicine. Radiation therapy. Diagnostic medical exposure. Which is the allowed whole-body radiation exposure for occupationally exposed workers?

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The occupational dose limit is set lower for which body part? Lenses of the eyes. Global warming trends. Occurrence of nuclear reactor accidents. Recognition of potential harmful effects. Increased potential for nuclear weapons use. Which is the average dose for dental professionals who are occupationally exposed to radiation? Which is NOT a guiding principle of radiation protection? Dose limitation. Quality assurance.

Which BEST describes the principle of justification? Design radiation protection programs. The benefit from diagnostic exposure exceeds the risk of harm. Limit exposure to unacceptably high doses. Patient selection criteria for dental radiographs do NOT include which entity? Preset intervals.

Clinical assessment. Health history review. Evaluation of susceptibility to dental disease. Which is a rare earth element found in contemporary, extraoral intensifying screens? Calcium tungstate. Which reason BEST explains why a greater source-to-skin distance reduces patient exposure? Use of a less divergent beam. Depletion of beam intensity. Increased collimation and filtration. Generation of more primary radiation. Which reason BEST explains why rectangular collimation is recommended over round col- limation of the x-ray beam?

Filters out more secondary radiation. Allows for increased source-to-skin distance. Aligns with the shape of image receptor, film or sensor. Federal regulations limit collimation of the radiation field to a circle with a diameter of not more than a. Which is a disadvantage of a rectangular position-indicating device PID? Reduces beam size. Enlarges the resulting image.

Decreases source-to-skin distance. Increases difficulty in aiming the beam. Which is the purpose of filtration? Lessen beam intensity. Decrease size of x-ray beam.

Remove low-energy x-ray photons. Restore high-energy x-ray photons. Which is the function of the leaded apron and thyroid collar?

Diminish formation of secondary radiation. Reduce gonad and thyroid gland exposure. Compensate for not following NCRP recommendations. Balance primary and secondary effects of radiation. Use of lead apron. Fast image receptors. Rectangular collimator. Patient selection criteria. Which is the advantage of a film or sensor holder? Increases source-to-skin distance. Compensates for use of a round collimator. Counterbalances a round collimator and rectangular receptor.

Which occurs as the operating kVp is lowered? The image density increases.

The energy of the beam decreases. Exposure time is extended. Electron production is reduced. If the operating kVp is decreased and the exposure time is increased, the resulting image demonstrates a. Requires a lower kVp. Improved image quality. Decreased exposure time. Reduction in patient exposure. Which is the MOST critical factor influencing diagnostic image quality?

Self-rectifying unit. Which is the main disadvantage of radiographs of nondiagnostic density? Inconvenience to the dentist. Inconvenience to the patient. Interference with time management. Needless additional patient exposure. If the dental x-ray machine has a variable milliampere mA control, which is the optimal setting?

Which is an acceptable film processing best practice? Sight processing. Time-temperature processing. Overexposing and underdeveloping. Which is NOT an appropriate condition for analysis of radiographs? Extraneous light. Magnification of images. A semidarkened room. Variable-intensity transmitted light.

Which is the MOST effective way to limit occupational exposure? Use a leaded apron and thyroid collar. Convert from film to digital imaging. Follow established radiation safety procedures. Maintain a barrier and distance from radiation sources.

Which is the position-and-distance rule? Stand at least 4 feet from the patient, at a degree angle to the central ray. Stand at least 5 feet from the patient, at a degree angle to the central ray. Stand at least 6 feet from the patient, at a degree angle to the central ray. Operator holding films in place. Monitoring personnel activity with film badges. Practicing the barrier- or position-distance rule.

Patient holding tube housing to prevent movement. A planned activity to ensure consistent production of superior images with minimum patient and personnel exposure is called a. Which best practice ensures that the practitioner remains informed about radiation safety and improves the diagnostic quality of radiographs? Following state laws. Monitoring office personnel. Obtaining continuing education. Writing an office protocol manual. The gas radon is a contributor to natural radiation.

Cosmic sources of radiation include photons from the sun and supernovas. Cosmic sources of radiation include photons from energetic subatomic particles. CT scanning is a source of man-made radiation, not cosmic radiation. The MOST exposure to cosmic radiation occurs during airline travel. Tobacco, a consumer product, contributes a small portion to the average annual man- made exposure.

Terrestrial sources of radiation include soil. Terrestrial sources of radiation include radon. Terrestrial sources of radiation do NOT include dental, man-made radiation. Terrestrial sources of radiation include ingested radionuclides. The domestic water supply is a source of man-made radiation, not a terrestrial source. Radon is a decay product in the uranium, not thorium, series. Radon is a decay product in the uranium series.

Radon is a decay product in the uranium, not potassium, series. Radon, a decay product in the uranium series, can attach to dust particles that can be inhaled into the respiratory tract.

Radon is the largest single contributor to natural radiation. Radon is a gas and by itself does little harm; radon decay products attached to dust particles can enter the respiratory tract, contributing to lung cancer.

Diagnostic medical exposure is the largest contributor to medical radiation. Diagnostic medical exposure, not nuclear medicine, is the largest contributor to medical radiation. Diagnostic medical exposure, not radiation therapy, is the largest contributor to medical radiation. Occupationally exposed workers are allowed to receive up to 50 mSv of whole-body radiation exposure per year; not 1 mSv annual effective dose.

Occupationally exposed workers are allowed to receive up to 50 mSv of whole- body radiation exposure per year. Occupationally exposed workers are allowed to receive up to 50 mSv of whole-body radiation exposure per year; not mSv in a 5-year cumulative effect. Occupationally exposed workers are allowed to receive up to 50 mSv of whole-body radiation exposure per year; not mSv lifelong.

The occupational dose limit is set lower for the lenses of the eyes, not the skin. The occupational dose limit is set lower for the lenses of the eyes, not the hands.

The occupational dose limit is set lower for the lenses of the eyes, not the feet. The occupational dose limit is set lower for the lenses of the eyes. Recognition of the potential harmful effects of radiation, not global warming trends, led the NCRP and the ICRP to establish guidelines for radiation exposure for occupationally exposed individuals and the public.

Recognition of the potential harmful effects of radiation, not the occurrence of nuclear reactor accidents, led the NCRP and the ICRP to establish guidelines for radiation exposure for occupationally exposed individuals and the public. Recognition of the potential harmful effects of radiation led the NCRP and the ICRP to establish guidelines for radiation exposure for occupationally exposed indi- viduals and the public.

Recognition of the potential harmful effects of radiation, not the increased potential for nuclear weapons use, led the NCRP and the ICRP to establish guidelines for radiation exposure for occupationally exposed individuals and the public. The average dose for dental professionals who are occupationally exposed to radiation is about 0.

A patient who receives posterior bitewings with F-speed film and rectangular collimation receives the equivalent of 0. A patient who receives an FMX with F-speed film and rectangular collimation receives the equivalent of 4 days of background exposure. A patient who receives an FMX with D-speed film and round collimation receives the equivalent of 47 days of background exposure.

The principle of justification obligates the dental professional to do more good than harm. The principle of optimization specifies that every means to reduce unnecessary exposure should be implemented. The principle of dose limitation serves to ensure that no individual is exposed to unac- ceptably high doses. Quality assurance is planned actions to ensure the consistent production of high-quality images with minimum exposure to patients and personnel.

It is a part of all 3 principles of radiation protection. The ALARA principle holds that exposures to radiation should be kept as low as reason- ably achievable, and is part of the principle of optimization. The designing and conducting of radiation protection programs is an example of utiliza- tion of all 3 principles of radiation protection.

The principle of justification obligates the dental professional to identify those situations where the benefit to a patient from the diagnostic exposure exceeds the risk of harm.

The dose limitation principle serves to ensure that no individuals are exposed to unac- ceptably high doses. Patient selection criteria for dental radiographs do NOT include taking radio- graphs at preset intervals. Patient selection criteria for dental radiographs do include a clinical assessment. Patient selection criteria for dental radiographs do include a health history review.

Uranium is a radioactive element; its decay products are an external terrestrial source of radiation. X-ray machine filters are made of aluminum. Gadolinium is a rare earth element found in contemporary, extraoral intensify- ing screens. Older extraoral screens were made with calcium tungstate; contemporary intensifying screens are made of the rare earth elements gadolinium and lanthanum.

An increase in the source-to-skin distance, from 20 cm to 41 cm, results in a reduction in patient exposure because of a less divergent beam. To compensate for an increase in the source-to-skin distance, the beam intensity must be increased.

Collimation and filtration of the x-ray beam are not affected by the source-to-skin distance. The source-to-skin distance does not generate more primary radiation.

A rectangular collimator reduces the size of the primary x-ray beam, resulting in the reduced production of secondary radiation. Source-to-skin distance is not related to the type of collimator. While the shape of image receptors is similar to the shape of the rectangular collimator, shape is not the reason a rectangular collimator is used. A rectangular collimator decreases the patient radiation dose 5 times more than a circular collimator.

Federal regulations limit collimation of the radiation field to a circle with a diameter of not more than 7 cm, not 5 cm. Federal regulations limit collimation of the radiation field to a circle with a diameter of not more than 7 cm. Federal regulations limit collimation of the radiation field to a circle with a diameter of not more than 7 cm, not 10 cm. Federal regulations limit collimation of the radiation field to a circle with a diameter of not more than 7 cm, not 12 cm.

A decrease in the generation of scatter radiation results in an improved image quality, not a smaller beam area. A decrease in the generation of scatter radiation results in an improved image quality with decreased image fog. A decrease in the generation of scatter radiation results in an improved image quality. It does not affect the intensity of the beam. Reduction in beam size and thus reduction in patient exposure is an advantage to the use of a rectangular PID.

The shape of the PID does not affect image size. A disadvantage of using a rectangular position-indicating device PID is that it increases the difficulty in aiming the beam, allowing for cone-cuts. Filtration does not lessen the beam intensity, but it does remove low-energy x-ray photons. Filtration does not decrease the size of the x-ray beam; collimation does.

The purpose of x-ray machine filtration is to remove low-energy x-ray photons that do not contribute to image quality. Filtration does not restore high-energy x-ray photons. The leaded apron and thyroid collar do not diminish the formation of secondary radiation. The function of the leaded apron and thyroid collar is to reduce gonad and thyroid gland exposure to radiation.

Use of the leaded apron and thyroid collar do not compensate for not following NCRP recommendations. Use of the leaded apron and thyroid collar do not balance primary and secondary effects of radiation.

According to the NCRP and ADA, use of fast image receptors, rectangular collimators, and patient selection criteria are more important than use of lead aprons.

Use of a film or sensor holder does not affect the source-to-skin distance. Use of a film or sensor holder does not compensate for use of a round collimator. Use of a film or sensor holder does not counterbalance use of a round collimator and a rectangular receptor.

A beam partially missing the image receptor results in a cone-cut. A beam partially missing the image receptor results in a cone-cut, not an image distortion. A beam partially missing the image receptor results in a cone-cut, not a magnified image. A beam partially missing the image receptor results in a cone-cut, not a darker image density. The result of lowering the operating kVp is that the energy of the beam decreases, causing an image with lighter density.

The result of lowering the operating kVp is that the energy of the beam decreases. If the kVp is decreased, the exposure time, or mA, would have to be increased in order to obtain a similar image density. The extended exposure time is not a result of lowering the kVp but rather a predetermined option. The production of electrons is controlled by the mA, not the kVp. If the operating kVp is decreased and the exposure time is increased, the result- ing image demonstrates greater contrast.

If the operating kVp is decreased and the exposure time is increased, the resulting image demonstrates greater, not reduced, contrast. If the operating kVp is decreased and the exposure time is increased, the resulting image demonstrates greater contrast, not increased density. If the operating kVp is decreased and the exposure time is increased, the resulting image demonstrates greater contrast, not decreased density.

Constant-potential dental x-ray machines utilize a lower kVp. With all operating factors being equal, the constant-potential dental x-ray machine produces images with the same quality as self-rectified units.

Constant-potential dental x-ray machines utilize a decreased exposure time resulting in a reduction in patient exposure. Constant-potential dental x-ray machines operate utilizing decreased exposure time resulting in a reduction in patient exposure. Exposure time is the MOST critical factor influencing diagnostic image quality. The MOST critical factor influencing diagnostic image quality is the exposure time. The main disadvantage of radiographs of nondiagnostic density is that they result in needless additional patient exposure.

If the dental x-ray machine has a variable milliampere mA control, the optimal setting is the highest choice. If the dental x-ray machine has a variable milliampere mA control, the optimal setting is the highest, not the lowest, choice.

Sight processing is not an acceptable film processing best practice. The practice of overexposing and then underdeveloping the film is not an acceptable film processing best practice. Extraneous light should be eliminated. Magnification aids in the analysis of radiographs. A semidarkened room aids in the analysis of radiographs. Use of variable-intensity transmitted light aids in the analysis of radiographs. The MOST effective way to limit occupational exposure is to understand and follow established radiation safety procedures.

The position-and-distance rule maintains that the operator stand at least 6 feet from the patient, at a degree angle to the central ray. The operator should never hold films in place. Personnel activity should be monitored with film badges. The operator should practice either standing behind a barrier or observing the position- distance rule. Neither the operator nor the patient should hold the tube housing to prevent movement or drift; the suspension arms should adequately maintain stability.

A planned activity to ensure consistent production of superior images with minimum patient and personnel exposure is called quality assurance. Quality assurance includes the principles of justification and optimization.

While following state laws is important, it does not ensure that practitioners remain informed about radiation safety and best practices. While monitoring of office personnel is important, it does not ensure that practitioners remain informed about radiation safety and best practices.

[P.D.F] Clinical Anatomy MCQs *Full Books* By Roger Dalton

Practitioners remain informed about radiation safety and improve the diagnostic quality of radiographs through the obtainment of continuing education. The act of writing an office protocol manual is insufficient and does not ensure that a practitioner remains informed about radiation safety and best practices. Eliminates hazardous wastes. Enriches chemical processing. Electronically transferable.

Film requires more radiation than digital receptors. Production of a digital image requires a process called a. Which is the significant clinical feature of solid-state detectors? Much of the subject matter contained in existing books, whilst still relevant to a large extent, does not encompass the more modern imaging techniques that are now commonplace. This new MCQ book aims to redress the balance. The general layout of the book is good, with 12 individual chapters organized with a systems based approach—particularly relevant to the new modular style FRCR examination.

The number of questions in each chapter is not vast, up to a maximum of 40, but the book covers a very broad range of subjects, with whole chapters dedicated to head and neck, paediatric, breast and interventional radiology along with the core subspecialties such as thoracic and musculoskeletal imaging, etc. There is also a chapter covering nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography PET , a title that may be a little misleading, as close inspection reveals that only two of the 40 questions actually relate to PET.

That said, the remainder of the nuclear medicine questions are well thought out to cover the main areas of this subspecialty. The questions themselves are up-to-date in their content, and there has obviously been a great effort made to include more material relating to MRI and CT.

Some of the questions have clearly been extracted from recent key review articles. References are not included, but might have been useful to direct further reading. The answers come at the end of each chapter, a format that is user-friendly, preventing endless flicking of pages.Causes gastritis C. Post-herpetic neuralgia C.

The basis of the analysis of X-ray shadow image number, size, shape, intensity, structure contours lying rating: This is a revision or in some cases a vision for those working to attain a certain standard of radiological anatomical knowledge. Biopsy the lesion D. Circumvallate papillae C.

Clinical evidence of metastasis to 'the jaw include the following except: