RED MARTIN ENGLISH GRAMMAR BOOK
Page iii PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION Wren and Martin's monumental work High School English Grammar Page iv CONTENTS BOOK I. Learn English Grammar from your favorite Wren & Martin book anywhere without carrying the book. * Easy to use app * Easy navigation to different chapters. How do we download a PDF file of “Wren & Martin”? How can I download the answer keys of Middle School English Grammar and Composition by Wren and Martin? How will I download the key of high school English grammar and composition Wren and Martin?.
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If you are looking for Wren and Martin English Grammar pdf download, This book is gonna will help you to improve your English Grammar. High School English Grammar and Composition [P.C. Wren, H. Martin, The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: An Easy-to-Use Guide with. Total price: . Wren & Martin refers to a single book High School English Grammar and Composition or collectively, a series of English grammar textbooks written jointly by.
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Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before that of Ancient Rome:.
An authentic and useful solution of this book entitled. Written primarily for the children of British officers residing in India, these books were widely adopted by. Anonymous Student. Wren and martin grammar book solution and like. This answer book gives a detailed solution to. To wren and martin filetype pdf english. Kya wren and martin book hindi.
CHAND 2. OXON and H. OXON , O. Revised By N. Many of our best selling titles have been unlawfully printed by unscrupulous persons. Your sincere effort in this direction may stop piracy and save intellectuals' rights. For the genuine book check the 3-D hologram which gives a rainbow effect. One is a de luxe edition, illustrated in full-colour, and the other is an ordinary edition without illustrations.
The material in the book has been further updated where called for. It has been felt necessary in particular to revise some material in the chapters dealing with adjectives, active and passive voice, articles and prepositions.
Appendix I, which deals with American English, has been expanded. Appendix II has been replaced with a newer set of tests covering the important areas of grammar.
It was in the year that the shrewd visionary Mr. Shyam Lai Gupta obtained the permission of Manecji Cooper Education Trust for the revision of this book and commissioned me to revise it thoroughly. The revised edition came out in and was well received.
One of the main features of the revised edition was the addition of a great deal of new material such as the three chapters on structures based on the new developments in the study of English structure and usage. Subsequently the book was revised every four or five years and most extensively in Unlike many traditional grammar books, the book in the present form helps the student to use the language as well as giving detailed information about the language. It provides ample guidance and practice in sentence building, correct usage, comprehension, written composition and other allied areas so as to equip the student with the ability to communicate effectively in English.
It is gratifying to learn that this classic work, though primarily intended for use in the Indian subcontinent, is also used in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, etc.
It is hoped that the book will be found useful in many more countries where English is used as a second or foreign language. Publishers 4. CASE -- 15 9. MOOD -- 75 Page v 2. Page vi Interchange of one Part of Speech for another -- Exercise 70 -- Exercises -- Page vii Exercise -- Specimens -- Exercise -- Specimens -- Exercises -- Specimens -- Exercises -- Notes of Invitations -- Specimens -- Business Letters -- Specimens -- Exercise -- Letters of Application -- Specimens -- Exercise -- Official Letters -- Specimens -- Exercise -- Letters to Newspapers -- Specimens -- Exercise -- Specimens -- Exercise -- Page viii Introductory Remarks -- Specimens -- Exercise -- When we speak or write we use words.
We generally use these words in groups; as, Little Jack Homer sat in a corner. A group of words like this, which makes complete sense, is called a Sentence. Kinds of Sentences 2. Sentences are of four kinds: Have mercy upon us. What a shame! A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called a Declarative or Assertive sentence. A sentence that asks a question is called an Interrogative sentence.
A sentence that expresses a command or an entreaty is called an Imperative sentence. A sentence that expresses strong feeling is called an Exclamatory sentence.
When we make a sentence: Page 2 In other words, we must have a subject to speak about and we must say or predicate something about that subject. Hence every sentence has two parts: This is called the Subject of the sentence.
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This is called the Predicate of the sentence. The Subject of a sentence usually comes first, but occasionally it is put after the Predicate; as, Here comes the bus. Sweet are the uses of adversity. In Imperative sentences the Subject is left out; as, Sit down. Thank him. The cackling of geese saved Rome.
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The boy stood on the burning deck. Tubal Cain was a man of might. Stone walls do not make a prison. The singing of the birds delights us. Miss Kitty was rude at the table one day 7. He has a good memory. Bad habits grow unconsciously. The earth revolves round the sun. Nature is the best physician. Edison invented the phonograph. The sea hath many thousand sands. We cannot pump the ocean dry. Borrowed garments never fit well. The early bird catches the worm. All matter is indestructible.
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. We should profit by experience. All roads lead to Rome. A guilty conscience needs no excuse. The beautiful rainbow soon faded away. No man can serve two masters.
A sick room should be well aired. The dewdrops glitter in the sunshine. I shot an arrow into the air. A barking sound the shepherd hears.
On the top of the hill lives a hermit. It makes sense, but not complete sense. Such a group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase. In the following sentences, the groups of words in italics are Phrases: The sun rises in the east.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. There came a giant to my door. Page 3 It was a sunset of great beauty. The tops of the mountains were covered with snow. Show me how to do it. Examine the groups of words in italics in the following sentences: He has a chain of gold. He has a chain which is made of gold. We recognize the first group of words as a Phrase. The second group of words, unlike the Phrase of gold, contains a Subject which and a Predicate is made of gold.
Such a group of words which forms part of a sentence, and contains a Subject and a Predicate, is called a Clause. In the following sentences, the groups of words in italics are Clauses: People who pay their debts are trusted. We cannot start while it is raining. I think that, you have made a mistake. Words are divided into different kinds or classes, called Parts of Speech, according to their use; that is, according to the work they do in a sentence.
The parts of speech are eight in number: A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing; as, Akbar was a great King. Kolkata is on the Hooghly.
The rose smells sweet. The sun shines bright. His courage won him honour. The word thing includes i all objects that we can see, hear, taste, touch, or smell; and ii something that we can think of, but cannot perceive by the senses.
An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun; as, He is a brave boy. There are twenty boys in this class. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun; as, John is absent, because he is ill.
The book are where you left them Page 4 A Verb is a word used lo express an action or state; as The girl wrote a letter to her cousin. Kolkata is a big city. Iron and copper are useful metals.
An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as, He worked the sum quickly. This flower is very beautiful. She pronounced the word quite correctly. A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else; as, There is a cow in the garden.
The girl is fond of music. A fair little girl sat under a tree. A Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences; as, Rama and Hari are cousins. Two and two make four. I ran fast, but missed the train. An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feel ing; as, Hurrah!
We have won the game. She is dead. Some modern grammars include determiners among the parts of speech. Determiners are words like a, an, the, this, that, these, those, every, each, some, any, my, his, one, two, etc.
In this book, as in many traditional grammars, all determiners except a, an and the are classed among adjectives. As words are divided into different classes according to the work they do in sentences, it is clear that we cannot say to which part of speech a word belongs unless we see it used in a sentence.
They arrived soon after. Adverb They arrived after us. Preposition They arrived after we had left. Conjunction From the above examples we see that the same word can be used as different parts of speech.
Exercise in Grammar 2 Name the part of speech of each italicized word in the following sentences, giving in each case your reason for the classification: Still waters run deep.
He still lives in that house 3. After the storm comes the calm 4. The after effects of the drug are bad. The up train is late. It weights about a pound. Page 5 7. He told us all about the battle. He was only a yard off me. Suddenly one of the wheels came off. Mohammedans fast in the month of Ramzan. He kept the fast for a week.
He is on the committee.
Let us move on. Sit down and rest a while. I will watch while you sleep. They while away their evenings with books and games. A work from S. A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing. The word thing is used to mean anything that we can think of. Look at the following sentence: Asoka was a wise king. The noun Asoka refers to a particular king, but the noun king might be applied to any other king as well as to Asoka.
Sita is a Proper Noun, while girl is a Common Noun. Hart is a Proper Noun, while boy is a Common Noun. Kolkata is a Proper Noun, while city is a Common Noun. India is a Proper Noun, while country is a Common Noun. The word girl is a Common Noun, because it is a name common to all girls, while Sita is a Proper Noun because it is the name of a particular girl.
Hence a Proper Name is a person's own name. Note 2 - Proper Nouns are sometimes used as Common Nouns; as, 1. Page 6 A Collective Noun is the name of a number or collection of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole; as, Crowd, mob, team, flock, herd, army, fleet, jury, family, nation, parliament, committee. The police dispersed the crowd. The French army was defeated at Waterloo. The jury found the prisoner guilty. A herd of cattle is passing. An Abstract Noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs; as.
Quality - Goodness, kindness, whiteness, darkness, hardness, brightness, honesty, wisdom, bravery. Action - Laughter, theft, movement, judgment, hatred. State - Childhood, boyhood, youth, slavery, sleep, sickness, death, poverty.
The names of the Arts and Science e. But we can also think of these qualities apart from any particular person or thing, and speak of bravery, strength, beauty by themselves. So also we can speak of what persons do or feel apart from the persons themselves, and give it a name.
The word abstract means drawn off. Abstract Nouns are formed: Countable nouns or countables are the names of objects, people, etc. Uncountable nouns or uncountables are the names of things which we cannot count, e. They mainly denote substances and abstract things.
Countable nouns have plural forms while uncountable nouns do not. Page 7 1. The crowd was very big. Always speak the truth. We all love honesty.
Our class consists of twenty pupils. The elephant has great strength. Solomon was famous for his wisdom. Cleanliness is next to godliness. We saw a fleet of ships in the harbour. The class is studying grammar. The Godavary overflows its banks every year.
A committee of five was appointed. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery. Without health there is no happiness.
He gave me a bunch of grapes. I recognized your voice at once. Our team is better than theirs.
Never tell a lie. Wisdom is better than strength. He sets a high value on his time. I believe in his innocence. This room is thirty feet in length. I often think of the happy days of childhood. The streets of some of our cities are noted for their crookedness. What is your verdict, gentlemen of the jury?
Write the qualities that belong to boys who are 1 Lazy; 2 Cruel; 3 Brave; 4 Foolish. Long, young, humble, decent, Form Abstract Nouns from the following Verbs: Laugh, obey, live, expect, excel, know, steal. Form Abstract Nouns from the following Common Nouns: King, man, thief, woman, bankrupt, infant, owner, rogue, regent, author, mother, agent, hero, beggar, coward, priest, boy, bond, pirate, pilgrim, friend, caption, rascal, patriot, glutton.
You know that living beings are of either the male or the female sex. Now compare the words in the following pairs: The first word of each pair is the name of a male animal. The second word of each pair is the name of a female animal. A noun that denotes a male animal is said to be of the Masculine Gender.
A noun that denotes either a male or a female is said to be of the Common Gender; as Parent, child, friend, pupil, servant, thief, relation, enemy, cousin, person, orphan, student, baby, monarch, neighbour, infant.
A noun that denotes a thing that is neither male nor female i. It has nothing to do with the form of a noun, which determines its gender in many other languages, e. Objects without life are often personified, that is, spoken of as if they were living beings. We then regard them as males or females. The Masculine Gender is often applied to objects remarkable for strength and violence; as, The Sun, Summer, Winter, Time, Death, The sun sheds his beams on rich and poor alike. The moon has hidden her face behind a cloud.
Spring has spread her mantle of green over the earth. Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war. This use is most common in poetry but certain nouns are personified in nrose too. A shin is often spoken of as she; as, The ship lost her boats in the storm. Page 9 Ways of Forming the Feminine of Nouns There are three ways of forming the Feminine of Nouns: Heir -- heiress Host -- hostess Jew -- Jewess Lion -- lioness Manager -- manageress Mayor -- mayoress Patron -- patroness Peer -- peeress Poet -- poetess Priest -- priestess Prophet -- prophetess Shepherd -- shepherdess Steward -- stewardess Viscount -- viscountess [Note that in the following -ess is added after dropping the vowel of the masculine ending] Masculine -- Feminine Actor -- actress Benefactor -- benefactress Conductor -- conductress Enchanter -- enchantress Founder -- foundress Hunter -- huntress Instructor -- instructress Negro -- negress Abbot -- abbess Duke -- duchess Emperor -- empress Preceptor -- preceptress Prince -- princess Songster -- songstress Tempter -- temptress Seamster -- seamstress Tiger -- tigress Traitor -- traitress Waiter -- waitress Master -- mistress Murderer -- murderess Sorcerer -- sorceress Note: Notice the change of form in the second word of each pair: A Noun that denotes one person or thing, is said to be in the Singular Number; as, Boy, girl, cow, bird, tree, book, pen.
A Noun that denotes more than one person or thing, is said to be in the Plural Number; as, Boys, girls, cows, birds, trees, books, pens. Thus there are two Numbers in English-the Singular and the Plural.
How Plurals are Formed Page 11 dynamo, dynamos; solo, solos; ratio, ratios; canto, cantos; memento, mementos; quarto, quartos; piano, pianos; photo, photos; stereo, siereos. The nouns dwarf, hoof, scarf and wharf take either -s or -ves in the plural. A few nouns form their plural by changing the inside vowel of the singlar; as, man, men; woman, women; foot, feet; tooth, teeth; goose, geese; mouse, mice; louse, lice.
There are a few nouns that form their plural by adding -en to the singular; as, ox, oxen; child, children.
The plural offish is fish or fishes. The form fishes is less usual. Some nouns have the singular and the plural alike; as, Swine, sheep, deer; cod, trout, salmon; aircraft, spacecraft, series, species. Pair, dozen, score, gross, hundred, thousand when used after numerals , I bought three dozen oranges. Some people reach the age of three score and ten. The sari cost me five thousand rupees. Stone, hundredweight. He weighs above nine stone.
Twenty hundredweight make one ton. Some nouns are used only in the plural. Page 12 2 Names of certain articles of dress; as, Trousers, drawers, breeches, jeans, tights, shorts, pyjamas.
Some nouns originally singular are now generally used in the plural; as, Alms, riches, eaves. Riches do many things. The following nouns look plural but are in fact singular: No news is good news.
High School English Grammar and Composition By Wren & Martin [With Key]
India won by an innings and three runs. Measles is infectious. Billiards is my favourite game. His means are small, but he has incurred no debt. Certain Collective Nouns, though singular in form, are always used as plurals; as, Poultry, cattle, vermin, people, gentry. These poultry are mine. Whose are these cattle?
Vermin destroy our property and carry disease. There are few gentry in this town. The Japanese are a hard-working people. There are many different peoples in Europe. A Compound Noun generally forms its plural by adding -s to the principal word; as, Singular -- Plural Commander-in-chief -- commanders-in-chief Coat-of-mail -- coats-of-mail Son-in-Law -- sons-in-law Page 13 Daughter-in-law -- daughters-in-law Step-son -- step-sons Step-daughter -- step-daughters Maid-servant -- maid-servants but man-servant, plural men-servants Passer-by -- passers-by Looker-on -- lookers-on Man-of-war -- men-of-war.
We say spoonfuls and handfuls, because spoonful and handful are regarded as one word. Note that the Proper Nouns Brahman and Mussulman are not compounds of man; therefore their plurals are Brahmans and Mussulmans. Many nouns taken from foreign languages keep their original plural form; as, Form Latin- Erratum, errata; -- formula, formulae or formulas: From Greek- Axis, axes; -- parenthesis, parentheses; crisis, crises; -- hypothesis, hypotheses; basis, bases; -- phenomenon, phenomena; analysis, analyses; -- criterion, criteria.
From Italian- Bandit, banditti, or bandits From French- Madame madam , mesdames; monsieur, messieurs. From Hebrew- Cherub, cherubim or cherubs ; seraph, seraphim or seraphs. Some nouns have two forms for the plural, each with a some what different meaning. Singular -- Plural Brother -- brothers, sons of the same parent. Cloth -- cloths, kinds or pieces of cloth, clothes, garments. Die -- dies, stamps for coining, dice, small cubes used in games.
Index -- indexes, tables of contents to books, indices, signs used in algebra. Page 14 Penny pennies, number of coins, pence, amount in value. Some nouns have two meanings in the singular but only one in the plural.
Singular -- Plural Light: Some nouns have one meaning in the singular, two in the plural. Singular -- Plural Colour: Some nouns have different meanings in the singular and the plural. Singular -- Plural Advice: Page 15 Physic: Letters, figures and other symbols are made plural by adding an apostrophe and s; as, There are more e's than a's in this page. Dot your i's and cross your t's.
Add two 5's and four 2's. It is usual to say- The Miss Smiths. Singular, Miss Smith. Abstract Nouns have no plural. They are uncountable. Hope, charity, love, kindness. Names of substances are also uncountables and are not therefore used in the plural. Copper, iron, tin, wood. CASE Examine these sentences: John threw a stone. The horse kicked the boy. In sentence 1, the noun John is the Subject. The Predicate contains the verb threw. What did John throw?
Stone is the object which John threw. The noun stone is therefore called the Object. In sentence 2, the noun horse is the Subject. It is the answer to the question, 'Who kicked the boy? It is the answer to the question, 'Whom did the horse kick? When a noun or pronoun is used as the Subject of a verb, it is said to be in the Nominative Case. Page 16 When a noun or pronoun is used as the Object of a verb, it is said to be in the Objective or Accusative Case. Note-To find the Nominative, put Who?
To find the Accusative put, Whom? A noun which comes after a preposition is also said to be in the Accusative Case; as, The book is in the desk. The noun desk is in the Accusative Case, governed by the preposition in. Read the following sentences: Object The window was broken. Subject It will be seen that Nouns in English have the same form for the Nominative and the Accusative. The Nominative generally comes before the verb, and the Accusative after the verb.
Hence they are distinguished by the order of words, or by the sense. Rama gave a ball. Rama gave Hari a ball. In each of these sentences the noun ball is the Object of gave. In the second sentence we are told that Hari was the person to whom Rama gave a ball. The noun Hari is called the Indirect Object of the verb gave. The noun ball, the ordinary Object, is called the Direct Object. It will be noticed that the position of the Indirect Object is immediately after the verb and before the Direct Object.
Will you do me a favour? We see that the Indirect Object of a verb denotes the person to whom something is given, or for whom something is done.
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It has been felt necessary in particular to revise some material in the chapters dealing with adjectives, active and passive voice, articles and prepositions.