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Translation-Problems of translation, cultural, social and idiomatic-Methods of translation-Approaches to translation-Literary and other kinds of translation-various uses of translation. Nannaya Period-Historical and literary background of Andhra Mahabharata.
Saiva poets and their contribution-Dwipada, Sataka, Ragada, Udaharana. Tikkana and his place in Telugu literature. Errana and his literary works-Nachana Somana and his new approach to poetry.
Srinatha and Potana-Their woks and contribution. Evolution of prabandhas-Kavya and prabandha. Southern school of Telugu literature-Raghunatha Nayaka, Chemakura Vankatakavi and women poets-Literary forms like yakshagana, prose and padakavita.
Digambarakavulu, Feminist and Dalit Literature.
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Main divisions of folk literature-Performing folk arts. Sociological, Historical, Ideological, Psychological approaches. This was the be- social reformation by the Bhakti writers.
The social praxis of ginning of the suppression of the language and art forms of the saint — poets like Potuluri Veerabrahmam, Siddaiah and Yogi Ve- Dravidians, the lowest of whom were ostracised and assigned the mana of the 17th century is credited with the reformation of the most menial jobs. The remnant forms of the original Telugu lan- dalits and the sudras. Incidentally all three of them were non- guage that might have existed during the non-Hindu religious brahmin writers: Veerabrahmam, a social reformer was a gold- periods like the Buddhist and Jaini periods were not allowed to smith; Vemana was a Reddy and Siddaiah was a Dudekula, a surface.
The language of the sons of the soil was successfully sup- backward caste. During their respective historical periods, they pressed, and Sanskrit-centric Telugu was institutionalised under actively took part in moving through the dalit and sudra wadas the patronage of Telugu kings like Rajaraja Narendra of the 11th educating them in social equality and against untouchability. This process continued from the 11th to the 16th century.
They became popular because of their social mission. In the sub- The poets who actively involved themselves with translations sequent period, their writings as well as their lives had been rel- were not creative writers but simply transliterated the Sanskrit egated to the margins or even ignored completely.
For example, texts into the Telugu script. They simply affixed the morphemes Veerabrahmam, who was on the way to becoming a cult figure, of du, mu, vu to Telugu words. Those involved in the translations was said to have committed sajiva samadhi burying oneself included Nannaya 11th century , the first of the trio who trans- alive. The brahminical order was dubbed mad.
Besides their lives, their translations of various Sanskrit texts could not be understood by writings and preachings were either pushed into oblivion or mis- the sudras due to the predominance of Sanskrit elements.
It was Brown, who edited and recorded for posterity, C P Brown , an English officer, who had learnt the the lost verses of Vemana. Even after the emergence works. In the process, the brahmin scribes, who worked for of Telugu prose as the medium of literature, many writers contin- wages, had either suppressed or misinterpreted most of the ued using the pedantic and Sanskritised Telugu. Chinnaya Suri Bhakti writings.
What is available of the Bhakti tradition today is , for instance wrote Nitichandrika , the Telugu in spite of their best efforts to annihilate the dalit tradition — both counterpart of Panchatantra in pedantic and plodding Telugu the oral and the written forms.
And the Telugu short literature. The saint poets undertook reformation around the story too has suffered. The main tory of the dalits. Sudra saints led a movement against the retro- preoccupation of the brahmin writers lay in either extolling the gressive elements of Hinduism in the direction of religious refor- kings or preserving the Vedic cult in lieu of the patronage they mation.
Since Hinduism as a religion has been averse to reforma- had received in the form of agraharams gift-villages. The tradi- tion and modernisation, the movement assumed the form of so- tion of competitive extolling of the patron kings and preserving cial reformation, instead.
The reformers questioned the basis of of the religious cult continued through the 14th and 15th centu- social inequality and discrimination. It had a bearing on the ries. The poets of this generation were vociferous in attacking Social Reformation the brahminical order. Thus, following the Bhakti tradition and After a protracted hiatus of about years, an attempt at social the limited appeal of the social reformation movement, dalit in- reformation was made in the late 19th century.
The first of such tellectuals played a vital role in radicalising dalit thought and writers was Gurajada.
As a part of the movement, Gurajada and polity. What were the forerunners of the contemporary dalit literary and cul- signifies the reformation movement is that it expanded its scope tural movements in the state.
Gurajada used especially the Congress suppressed dalit struggles in the name of the short story to propagate reforms in the society. He deviated the independence movement. This too needs to be understood as from his predecessors in choosing both his themes and language. The dalit movement The themes of his stories were didactic; and the language he pre- suffered a setback with the death of Bhagyareddy Verma in ferred was the spoken mode.
Gurajada and Kandukuri question. Gurajada is con- and other upper castes. The beginnings of the nationalist move- sidered the harbinger of modernity in Telugu literature. The reformers did not question the socio-religious privileged the translation literature at the cost of Telugu. The lan- bases that sanctified the evil practices.
It respect of liberating the upper caste women. They did not at- was written off as the language of the sudras, a phenomenon tempt to question and negate the caste system.
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Thus, the social comparable to English which had been considered the language reformers of modern Andhra did not continue the medieval of the poor by the Latin and Greek scholars during the formative Bhakti tradition. There was a break. The social reformation must years of that language. The nationalistic literature failed to reflect the problem of the dalit questioning of caste and the concomitant evils like the untouch- masses. It was generally believed that national liberation would ability, discrimination and oppression were absent in the most solve the dalit problems too.
Thus, the nationalistic writings of the s failed to explore dalit issues. The Dalit Challenge Similarly, the progressive literature of the s too sought to The third challenge of dalit subordination was the one waged in sideline the sociocultural specificities like the caste, gender and the name of the Adi-Andhra movement in the form of political ethnicity.
The Marxists failed to understand the caste-specific mobilisation. The first conference having taken place in , a character of Indian society.
In the subsequent period the or the leftists. It is in this context that Gail Omvedt explains why movement took different forms in the names of Adi-Andhra and the Phule-Ambedkar movement was overshadowed by the dis- Adi-Dravida movements.
Bhagyareddy Verma played a pivotal courses of the left and the right. The nationalist movement was role in radicalising and organising dalits. Boyi Bhimanna Regionalisation called for unity between the Mala and the Madiga, whom he Telugu produced a galaxy of short story writers including termed the ma-ma castes and claimed that the highest order of Sripada Subramanya Shastry, Chinta Dikshitulu, Vishwanatha the dalits were descendants of Arundhati and Vasistha.
The volumes, each one R S Sudarshnam among others and whose names are synony- containing about 28 stories, are classified into as many sub- mous with short stories in Telugu. A characteristic feature of themes. Hardly one-fifth of the stories in each of the volumes are these writers was that they belonged to the upper castes and to by dalits and the rest are by brahmin and upper caste writers.
Their writings overshadowed the writers of the lower about dalits. But they lack the essential dalit aspects of self- castes and the writings from the Telangana and Rayalaseema respect, assertion and protest.
The most noteworthy non-dalit regions, which have a distinct language. These two regions are writers writing on the dalit themes include Sripada Subrahman- known for their different ethos because of the backwardness and yasastry, Banda Kanakalingeswar Rao, Veluri Sivarama Sastri, poverty they suffer from. The rise in liter- ichand. Their stories are confined to the description of the inhu- acy and awarenesshas led to a shift in the genre.
Ranga Rao manity of untouchability and exploitation. These stories were written against the back- other two regions. Therefore, dialect and depiction of the struggles of the people for socio- there is a view that holds that these stories cannot be considered economic equality. Their themes include the failure of like Allam Rajaiah, B S Ramulu, Boya Jangaiah, Thummeti the State in transforming the lives of dalits and exploitation by Ragotham Reddy, Jukanti Jagannatham and others wrote differ- the upper castes.
What is characteristic of the non-dalit writers ently from their counterparts in the coastal region by using the and their writing is that the dalits were written about with sym- respective dialects of their regions. In the subsequent period, pathy. The general anthologies that have come out in the recent ation of the s, the Digambara Kavulu Naked Poets of the past gave adequate representation to the dalit short story s, and the Viplava Rachayithala Sangham Revolutionary writers, including women writers.
The de-centring and regionalisation of the genre thus containing aspects like search for self-respect, the angst and legitimised the use of dialects and sociolects thus paving the way language of dalits. This phase is indicative mins. But what is noteworthy is that quite a few of them wrote of the emergence of the dalit middle classes.
The beginning of the Telugu calise the dalit masses. Instead, their objective has been to strug- dalit short story has to be traced to the writings of the brahmins.
As against this kind of writing, there tation, caste, agrarian relations, bonded labour and so on. It is has emerged a group of writers that produces writing in raw and against this background that the first ever anthology of Telugu unrefined forms in defiance of the canonical literary forms. Their dalit short stories, entitled Dalita Kathalu Dalit Stories ,19 target readers are not the middle classes and their objective is not jointly edited by R Chandrasekhar Reddy and Laxminarayana in- acceptability, but the ascertainment of their marginalised, subor- cluded the stories of non-dalit writers.
Of the 25 authors, only dinated and othered self. They have been able to accomplish four — Kolakaluri Enoch, Chilukuri Devaputra, Boya Jangaiah the assertion of the dalit self by writing in the oral tradition and and Shanti Narayana — are dalits, while the rest are mostly making use of diction which could be described as obscurantist brahmins or from the upper castes.
Besides this anthology, and obscene. A host Yugamu and Bhavakavithva Yugamu strengthened the elements of contemporary dalit writers have been producing poetry, novels of Sanskrit. The subsequent literary periods — Abhyudaya and short stories in this category.
In one of his under the influence of the left too did not attempt to free Telugu. Their mudhouse subordination of the native elements of the Telugu of the sudras counterparts in Telugu have been producing remarkable writings and the dalits continued to be brushed aside as the language of in the new millennium, especially expressing themselves in short illiterates and the uncivilised. Over the ages, this process had stories.
The present anthology consists of the short However, what is noteworthy is that the ancient and original stories representing the most experienced dalit short story writer forms of Telugu have been preserved in a different form. This like Kolakaluri Enoch to the youngest, Nallala Laxmirajam.
These aspect of preservation remained unnoticed till the consolidation stories represent the dalit ethos in the dalit language; retain links of dalit literature. In other words, there has been a continuity in with their identity and the past. The dalit identity, representation the native Telugu in use during and after the period of Sanskri- and authenticity are some of the common themes of the stories tised Telugu.
The continuity of the ancient Telugu was latent in indicating how closely they are grounded in dalit reality. There are three primary experiences and achieve visibility, when compared to his Mala reasons for this. The curing of cattle hide, sewing cheppulu and known as writers. This is certainly a shortcoming on the part of other leather items required in agricultural work and transporta- the Telugu dalit writing, and the state is to be held responsible for tion; eating cattle meat; preserving the leftover cattle meat; and keeping them away from literacy even 60 years after independence.
But these practices were also the source itself. The Madiga forms of they represent the contemporary dalit movement. What anthologies and authors to its lists year after year. Untouchability as a plished the uncommon feat of recording dalit lives in the dialects form of social ostracisation is a characteristic feature of Hindu of the regions concerned.
They include Vemula Yellaiah, Jupaka society. The homo- ugu which were unaffected by the influence of Sanskrit. The lan- geneous nature of the dalit groups thus helped preserve the an- guage used by them is the culmination of the privileging of two cient forms of the Telugu language. The second reason is the spatial ostracisation of the dalits in The first one is related to the privileging of the dialects of the the village which had been a kind of cementing of the social corresponding regions and the sociolect of the dalits.
The latter, ostracisation. The topography and the demography of every vil- especially, would have been detested if used in literature in the lage had been structured in such a way that the clusters of the earlier times.
The translated literary works brought into the houses were and still are separated by caste lines. The houses of Telugu language the use of Sanskrit words which got legitimised.
Therefore, this shift are situated far outside the village. The dependent castes like the from the written mode to the spoken mode was very limited for Dakkalis, who are themselves untouchable to the untouchable it ignored the language of the masses; the language of the dalits Madigas, are not a part of any village.
The dependent castes are and sudras. Telugu dalit litera- unaffected. The extent of Sanskrit words used in Telugu is simi- ture itself underwent a drastic transition from Gurram Jashuva, lar to the demographic division of the population in the village its forerunner who authored Gabbilam ; to the mod- and the caste hierarchy: while the Telugu of the brahmins is most ern phase.
The former used the classical form padyam rhymed affected, the Telugu of the Madigas is least affected by the verse of metrical feet to portray the dalit suffering, angst and process of import of the Sanskrit words.
The spurt in dalit writing from onwards heralded a The third reason is the illiteracy of the dalits. Literacy, educa- new era. In fact, the literacy and education of the savarnas upper Pradesh. The form and technique of the writing is, in fact, shaped castes legitimised the elements of Sanskrit in the Telugu lan- by the content. By subordinating the form to the content; by priv- guage while the illiteracy of the Madigas and the other most ileging the subject matter over technique, dalit writers unveiled backward sudras prevented the Sanskrit words from entering dalit ethos in literature, an unimaginable feature as far as con- into their language.
The socio-spatial and academic ostracisation ventional writing is concerned. The ancient Telugu. To gather more authentic forms of the unpolluted great tradition is made great through the sociological process of or ancient forms of Telugu, an empirical data of the Telugu spo- assimilation by subordinating the native traditions.How to Read these books in online.
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For instance, the works of Dunna Iddak, said to be a con- the main supporting caste to certain other dependent castes. For instance, the dalits worship Ellamma, Maisamma and ing under economic backwardness and social oppression. Ghanshyam Shah ed. The Madiga forms of they represent the contemporary dalit movement.