THE BOOK ON 3D PRINTING PDF
chapter of my book 3D Printing: The Next The complete book is available from most site to see scores of functioning 3D printers, as well as a plethora. 20 Free eBooks on 3D Printing - Follow 3D Printing news on the The Fix Your Files for 3D Printing Ebook is a comprehensive PDF that. Book:3D printing The Book Creator software has significant limitations. For Help with downloading a Wikipedia page as a PDF, see Help:Download as PDF.
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This document is structured into 6 chapters, (a) Introduction of 3D printing (b) History think3D is India's largest 3D printing platform covering all aspects of 3D . 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, was developed in the 's as a process used to make three- dimensional objects. Additive manufacturing. 3D printing: limits. •any 3D printed object is an approximation, . HOW TO print an object? practical 3D-printing for beginners .. sppn.info
To an extent, 3D printers today do accomplish that feat. But 3D printing presents a kind of perfect storm of misunderstanding that many fall victim to. Its a technology that is very new to consumers, its complex, and its still fairly experimental. Its somewhat reminiscent of the early days of the internet, when most people still didnt quite know what to make of it.
There are some real-world drawbacks which keep them from being the miracle devices envisioned in popular science fiction and media. Materials You Can Use Probably the most common of these misconceptions concerns materials. But, for consumer printers at least, all of these materials are still some type of plastic. Printing metal is out of the question for a consumer printer. Metals, ceramics, and other more exotic materials are possible on extremely expensive professional 3D printers, but dont expect to be printing them at home anytime soon.
This is primarily because the technology needed to print in metal or ceramics is far more complex than what is needed for a consumer 3D printer. But to print in metal, for example, an expensive and complex process like selective laser sintering SLS is required.
SLS 3D printers use high-powered lasers to actually melt metal powder, and, as you can imagine, those arent cheap. So for now, consumer printers are relegated to just printing plastic. A Replicator in Every Home A popular theme in news articles about 3D printing is the idea of a replicator in every home. Its the picturesque future from the popular culture of the 60s and 70s: a device that instantly produces anything you need at the touch of a button. The idea is so similar to 3D printing that a popular line of 3D printers made by MakerBot even uses the replicator name for some of their models.
The setup is simple: there you are in your kitchen cooking dinner, when suddenly your spatula breaks.
Your dinner is starting to burn, and you dont have time to drive up to the store and download a new spatula. Not to worry though, you have your trusty 3D printer!
You run over, push a button or two, and in a matter of minutes you have a new spatula. Problem solved! This is the kind of thing imagined by the media and those unfamiliar with the realities of 3D printing.
Unfortunately, reality doesnt quite meet the expectations set by these kinds of stories. Your dinner fiasco would be quite a bit different in real life today: your spatula breaks, and dinner is about to start burning.
You turn to your 3D printer for help.
But before you can start printing that new spatula, youve first got to find a 3D file to print from. After searching for a few minutes online, youre lucky and find one saving yourself from having to 3D model one.
Now all you have to do is load the file, heat up the printer, start it printing, and wait an hour or two for it to print. Of course, by that point, your dinner is already burned. As you can see, as amazing and versatile as 3D printers are, they do have their limits of which there are many. Eventually, you may have that sci-fi replicator in your house, but were not quite there yet.
The Time It Takes The time involved to print something is also a highly misunderstood topic. But its important to note that thats only in relation to traditional manufacturing methods. Even the smallest prints are going to take a few minutes at best. Larger prints on consumer 3D printers can take the better part of a day, and its possible for a single print to take days even on an average-size consumer printer. So dont expect to be printing out parts instantly; its usually a fairly long wait.
Only leave a 3D printer unattended at your own risk, and be sure to follow appropriate fire safety precautions when printing with it. What It Can Print 3D printers carry with them the promise of being able to print anything. But there are some caveats when it comes to what geometry you can actually print.
Make: Design for 3D Printing - PDF
Overhangs are the biggest enemy here. Overhangs are geometry which have no supporting material directly underneath, which is troublesome for obvious reasons.
This can be overcome with support material, which Ill go over in more depth in later chapters, but you should be aware of the fact that 3D printing does have design challenges of its own. Another area where 3D printers especially consumer 3D printers have difficulty is with printing small features with fine details. Theyre limited by the size of the filament being extruded or pushed out from the nozzle, and fine detail tends to get washed out when common nozzle sizes are used.
Professional 3D printers that use more expensive technology are capable of astounding detail, but consumer 3D printers are still pretty limited. Finishing The finish of the printed object is one of the most glaring limitations of 3D printing. Because of the nature of the process essentially stacking layers of plastic , the surface finish of vertical surfaces is usually quite poor. Even on the highest-quality settings, youll still be left with a series of small ridges.
Its virtually impossible to get a truly smooth finish straight from a consumer 3D printer. People expend a great deal of effort trying to minimize this and improve surface finish, and there are some postprint techniques you can use to smooth it out. But dont expect to get a nice, smooth part hot off the printer. Even with high-quality settings, layer ridges are evident on this owl model. You shouldnt be too disheartened by all of this, though.
These are all fairly minor limitations, and are just part of 3D printing. There are ways to deal with most of them, and a lot of work is being done to overcome these challenges. Its important to keep your expectations for 3D printing realistic, but dont let these downsides trouble you too much.
The Least You Need to Know 3D printers initially gained popularity for rapid prototyping, which remains their most common use today. Manufacturing with 3D printers is a viable option for small-scale production but is still impractical for mass production. The maker culture has been fueled by 3D printing and the creative outlet it provides.
Being able to produce anything in your own home is an exciting idea, but its far from being a reality. Itd be difficult to truly understand how a car works, for example, if you didnt know how the internal combustion engine was developed. In this chapter, I take you through the history of 3D printing and the effects of its evolution on you now and in the future.
But 3D printing has actually been around for decades in the industrial world. So how was 3D printing actually developed? Who invented it and why? His patent was for a 3D printing process called stereolithography SLA , which used UV light to cure photopolymer resin in a vat to form parts.
Hull, an engineer specializing in materials science at the time, came up with the idea for SLA while working on resin coatings for tabletops. Photopolymer resin is a type of liquid resin that solidifies into plastic when exposed to light usually in the ultraviolet spectrum.
Manufacturers can produce the resin in many varieties, with different mechanical and chemical properties.
These coatings were a liquid resin that reacted with UV light to become solid plastic. While working with this resin, Hull started imagining a device which could cure this resin in successive layers to form a three-dimensional object.
Hull took his idea to UVP and was granted permission to work on a prototype device on nights and weekends, while continuing his normal duties during the day.
The development process was not without its hurdles, one of the biggest being how to translate a 3D computer model into printing instructions for his SLA printer.
Make: Design for 3D Printing (PDF)
At the time, in the early 80s, computer-aided design CAD was still in its infancy. Hull knew he needed 3D models in a file format that could be used to create instructions for his printer, but no suitable file format existed. These days, because the STL file format is used in a wide range of manufacturing processes, STL is often considered an abbreviation for standard tessellation language.
The beauty of the STL format is that the number of triangles determines the detail of the resulting surface mesh, making it scalable.
Make: 3D Printing Projects - PDF
With this file format in hand, Hull was able to create software to translate the 3D model into a series of instructions for his printer to follow. In , Hull successfully printed his first 3D model: a basic cup. Knowing he had a viable and useful new method of rapidly creating prototypes, he filed his patent for SLA in In , his patent was granted, and in the same year he created his company 3D Systems to develop and sell SLA printers.
This has allowed STL files to be used by other 3D printer manufacturers and even in other types of machines, like computer numerical control CNC mills. Crump, along with FDM printing itself, also developed some of the necessary associated technologies such as ABS filament, which Ill discuss more in Chapter 4.
Carl Deckard and Dr. Z Corp. On January 3, , Z Corp. Due to the expiration of key patents, many of these technologies are starting to enter the consumer market or will be soon. But it was FDM printing that jump-started consumer 3D printing. This was mostly thanks to the RepRap project. But for many years, 3D printers remained expensive and complex tools. The high learning curve to use them meant that most users needed special training, and their high cost meant they were out of reach for an individual person.
That remained true until the RepRap project was launched in by Dr. Adrian Bowyer, an engineering lecturer at a university in the United Kingdom. Initial Intentions When Dr. Bowyer first founded the RepRap project, his intentions were simple: to develop an inexpensive open-source 3D printer, with a long-term goal of self-replication.
This file format is supported by many other software packages. STL basically describes an object with triangles using an x,y,z coordinate system. Repair the STL file and if necessary make simple changes to size, position, etc. Either use a specific STL editor or some integrated 3D printing tool that offers this functionality.
Translate STL to machine code with a slicer , typically into so-called G-code As you can see, there are several paths that lead from a design idea to a printed object.
Absolute beginners can start simply by downloading STL files from a repository such as Thingiverse , positioning it, maybe re-sizing and then printing it. Intermediate users can merge existing objects together at any level, e.
For instance, 1. Why would anyone choose a larger filament, then? This entire discussion over filament diameters brings up thermodynamics, the history of the RepRap project, and material science.
Would you like to talk about motion platforms? This is the problem any book on 3D printing has to contend with.
Never mind actually explaining all of these ideas and techniques in sufficient depth. Left with that observation, how exactly do you write a book on 3D printing? A book on 3D printing can simply list the different types of 3D printing technologies and their capabilities.
Any book on 3D printing will necessarily be incomplete because of the extensive depth and breadth of constantly changing information available on the Internet.
On the other hand, it must be possible to approach writing a book on 3D printing that lives up to the expectations of the most jaded reviewer, provides a guide for anyone being introduced to 3D printing, and those of us who actually know something about this technology. This is what anyone should expect from a book introducing anyone to 3D printing.
The 3D Printing Handbook is filled with excellent, minimalist schematics of printing processes and problems.The Maker Culture The idea of making stuff for fun and self-fulfillment has gained tremendous popularity recently, but the basic motivation is an inseparable part of human nature.
Theyre limited by the size of the filament being extruded or pushed out from the nozzle, and fine detail tends to get washed out when common nozzle sizes are used. There are Kindest.
This means you can manufacture in low quantities without incurring huge tooling costs. Photo courtesy of Aleph Objects Of course, 3D printing in a manufacturing setting does have its downsides, which have kept it from gaining widespread adoption.
Manufacturers were forced to either repurpose parts used in other industries which may not be well suited to 3D printing or make them themselves in which case, quality and cost became a problem. Additive Manufacturing File Format. Examples of objects that will not be produced include, but are not limited to: Objects that are illegal or harmful to minors. Many kits are sold at a very low price. Items will be held for 7 days before becoming property of the Library.