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THE CHEMISTRY BETWEEN US PDF

Wednesday, July 31, 2019


All that mystery, all that poetry, all those complex behaviors sur­rounding human bonding leading to the most life-changing decisions we'll ever make, are unconsciously driven by a few molecules in our brains. How can a man say he loves his wife, yet still cheat on her?. This books (The Chemistry Between Us: Love, Sex, and the Science of Attraction [PDF]) Made by Larry Young Phd About Books none To. Print Get a PDF version of this webpage PDF. 'The Chemistry Between Us: Love, Sex, and the Science of Attraction'. 'The Chemistry Between.


The Chemistry Between Us Pdf

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chemicals that make us go When sparks fly between two people, we're quick to cells, dopamine makes us feel good and norepinephrine. The Chemistry Between Us: Love, Sex, and the Science of Attraction pdf -. Larry Young PhD. Some people I can't get through sexual lives as a man appears. The Chemistry Between Us: Love, Sex, and the Science of Attraction by Larry. Young PhD pdf eBook. Just push you just happen this well as in the william how.

But while women may be unconscious of how their ovulatory cycle influences their behavior, men certainly seem to be picking up on it.

Indeed—in addition to shelling out more money to strippers that are ovulating—it has been found that men are both more possessive and jealous, and also more loving towards their partners when they are in estrus: But some mate-guarding behavior is positive. This makes sense in evolutionary terms, of course, because estrus is the one and only time that a woman can get pregnant, so it is also the one and only time that a man can get his genes into the next generation. This means that there is adaptive value for men to have a vested interest in getting romantic with their partner or any woman around this time, and also in ensuring that their partner is not getting romantic with anyone else.

And again, none of this altered behavior need be picked up on by the man doing the behaving since it will ultimately produce its intended effect whether he is aware of it or not. Now, a significant part of sexual behaviour and gender identity is sexual orientation, and indeed, most who have one set of sexual equipment gender-identify with the sex whose equipment they have, and are sexually attracted to the opposite sex. These phenomena, then, present a bit of a mystery.

Indeed, both homosexual behavior and gender flip-flopping show up in many other animals. They ejaculate and make happy noises when they do. Dominant silverback gorillas have boyfriends. Gender transitioning, too, shows up in other species: They change, typically from female to male… Other fish are cross-dressing transvestites. And scientists have been able to shed light on just how this happens. In broad terms, the phenomena can be explained by the fact that the hormones that are responsible for the development of sexual organs, gender identity, and sexual orientation are all active at different times during development loc.

The hormonal influences that shape our brain happen later in a pregnancy. Likewise, within the realm of behavior itself, the parts of the brain that shape gender-identity and sexual orientation also develop at different times, and can also become separated loc. The fact that hormonal activity in development is responsible for the mixing and matching that we see is reflected by the fact that the brains of heterosexuals, homosexuals, and transgendered individuals are all different from one another, and in key areas of the brain that are associated with sexual excitation and sexual behavior including the sexually dimorphic nucleus [SDN], the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis [BNST], and the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus [INAH] loc.

The following is a very good documentary about the influence of hormones on gender and sexual orientation: Brain Sex Part I. In short, then, it is clear that sexual orientation is neither a result of environmental influences nor choice; rather, it is a function of nothing other than hormonal exposure during development.

While the broad brushstrokes of sexual orientation may be painted by biology, the finer details thereof are apparently capable of being modified by experience. This occurs mainly through simple association. For instance, if we experience sexual arousal and consummation in the presence of a particular object or experience, we naturally come to associate the two.

The more often the two are paired together the stronger the association becomes, not only psychologically, but chemically, in our brains. Soon enough, the paired object or experience itself will trigger sexual desire.

The more often we receive the consummatory reward, the stronger the associations become. What was he wearing? What did she look like? What music was playing? Where was I? The end result is a sexual preference, or even a fetish.

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Interestingly, the pairing process here can be set in motion not only through direct experience, but through fantasy as well. When it comes to the formation of a sexual preference or fetish, we appear to be particularly susceptible to this during our formative years, or even before. For example, many fetishists can recall specific experiences from their youth that first set their fetish into motion.

And, of course, we are capable of forming a strong preference for things that are not only out of the ordinary, but for very ordinary things as well.

Or, put another way, we all, to one degree or another, develop strong preferences.

The Chemistry Between Us

Interestingly, scientists have even induced fetishes in animals by way of manipulating the pairing process. For instance, the neuroscientist Jim Pfaus took young male rodents and outfitted them in custom-made leather jackets: Pfaus then gave his leather-clad rats their first sexual experience.

Later, though, Pfaus introduced his newly de-virginized rats into a cage with a female in heat, but without their leather jackets on. The ones that did copulate took far longer than normal, and the female really had to work for it. As impressive as this is, Pfaus was able to take his experiment even one step further, as he managed to engender a fetish in his rats of something that is not only neutral to them as the jackets are , but of something that is downright objectionable to them: The smell took some getting used to on the part of the males as rats have an innate disgust of the smell of death [loc ] , but eventually they overcame their reservations and copulated with their gothic girlfriends on a regular basis loc.

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The next part of the experiment involved looking at how the experience had affected the males. The males preferred the death-scented over the naturally sweet-smelling to a rat, that is females.

He even tried scenting some females with lemon, but the males who had their first matings with the deathly females still preferred the nasty odor. Some would mate only with females that smelled like death. However, this is not always and ever the case. Indeed, until women have children of their own, many of them are very much averse to the idea of children and mothering.

However, as many a new mother has discovered, these reservations are often overcome with pregnancy and the arrival of a new baby—even when the pregnancy was not necessarily planned or wanted loc. And, of course, this welling up of feelings towards baby has a host of behavioral effects in the mother as well. We are not the only species wherein the females exhibit maternal behavior, of course.

Indeed, as Young points out, maternal behavior, and the mother-child bond, has a long evolutionary history: Its evolutionary antecedents are ancient and shared, to one degree or another, among widely diverse species, even some fish. The reason behind the evolution of maternal behavior is simple: According to this argument, it may be the case that other species have the maternal instinct, but in our own species all instincts have been wiped out and replaced by culture.

Now, just as in all other animals, the maternal extinct in women is driven by hormones. Specifically, oxytocin, estrogen and prolactin. These hormones begin to be activated in the middle of pregnancy, to help prepare the woman for both the birthing process and, subsequently, childcare. It in conjunction with dopamine [loc. Importantly, since the surge of oxytocin that a mother receives from the birthing process is triggered by cervical dilation, it occurs only with a vaginal birth, and not with a cesarean section loc.

As we might expect, then, the birthing method can have an effect on how a new mother regards her child immediately following birth. When breastfeeding does not occur, then, this can compromise the mother-child bond. Indeed, it has been shown that the bond between mother and child is strongest where breastfeeding does occur. Now, the importance of exhibiting a high amount of attention and affection for a baby simply cannot be overstated.

Indeed, people who experience neglect in infancy, or who simply have low-affection mothers, have been shown to carry a range of difficulties into later life.

Fortunately, we are not slaves to our biology, and low-affection mothers can learn techniques to help them improve the care of their infants loc. Over and above this, early indications are that the administration of hormones such as oxytocin may be able to help mothers that are having difficulty forming a strong attachment with their newborns loc.

While all female mammals and the females of many other species display the instinct to bond with their offspring, few also display the inclination to pair-bond with a sexual partner.

However, the phenomenon is not unheard of elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Now, it is important to point out that the monogamy being referred to here is social and not sexual monogamy. The two can, of course, be separated. In any event, the point is that pair-bonding and social monogamy is not unheard of in the animal kingdom, and it is certainly an important aspect of our own species—which, when we do speak of it, we more commonly refer to as L. Again, some have argued that romantic love is but a cultural construct, but the evidence indicates that it does indeed have a biological backing.

Interestingly, this biological backing appears to have been borrowed from the very biology responsible for the mother-child bond that we have just finished discussing in women, at least.

There are several bits of evidence that lead the author to this conclusion. To begin with, the hormone responsible for the mother-child bond oxytocin is also at the heart of romantic love in women and men, to some degree.

Specifically, oxytocin has been shown to play a role in encouraging positive social communication loc. Perhaps not surprisingly, then, it has been found that oxytocin levels can actually be used to predict relationship success. How can two strangers come to the conclusion that it would not only be pleasant to share their lives, but that they must share them?

How can a man say he loves his wife, yet still cheat on her? How is it possible to fall in love with the "wrong" person? How do people come to have a "type"? Physical attraction, jealousy, infidelity, mother-infant bonding—all the behaviors that so often leave us befuddled—are now being teased out of the fog of mystery thanks to today's social neuroscience.

Larry Young, one of the world's leading experts in the field, and journalist Brian Alexander explain how those findings apply to you. Drawing on real human stories and research from labs around the world, The Chemistry Between Us is a bold attempt to create a "grand unified theory" of love.

Some of the mind-blowing insights include: Love can get such a grip on us because it is, literally, an addiction. Where was I? The end result is a sexual preference, or even a fetish.

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Interestingly, the pairing process here can be set in motion not only through direct experience, but through fantasy as well. When it comes to the formation of a sexual preference or fetish, we appear to be particularly susceptible to this during our formative years, or even before.

For example, many fetishists can recall specific experiences from their youth that first set their fetish into motion. And, of course, we are capable of forming a strong preference for things that are not only out of the ordinary, but for very ordinary things as well. Or, put another way, we all, to one degree or another, develop strong preferences. Interestingly, scientists have even induced fetishes in animals by way of manipulating the pairing process. Pfaus then gave his leather-clad rats their first sexual experience.

Later, though, Pfaus introduced his newly de-virginized rats into a cage with a female in heat, but without their leather jackets on. The ones that did copulate took far longer than normal, and the female really had to work for it. As impressive as this is, Pfaus was able to take his experiment even one step further, as he managed to engender a fetish in his rats of something that is not only neutral to them as the jackets are , but of something that is downright objectionable to them: the smell of death.

The smell took some getting used to on the part of the males as rats have an innate disgust of the smell of death [loc ] , but eventually they overcame their reservations and copulated with their gothic girlfriends on a regular basis loc. The next part of the experiment involved looking at how the experience had affected the males.

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The males preferred the death-scented over the naturally sweet-smelling to a rat, that is females. He even tried scenting some females with lemon, but the males who had their first matings with the deathly females still preferred the nasty odor. Some would mate only with females that smelled like death. However, this is not always and ever the case.

Indeed, until women have children of their own, many of them are very much averse to the idea of children and mothering.

However, as many a new mother has discovered, these reservations are often overcome with pregnancy and the arrival of a new baby—even when the pregnancy was not necessarily planned or wanted loc. And, of course, this welling up of feelings towards baby has a host of behavioral effects in the mother as well.

We are not the only species wherein the females exhibit maternal behavior, of course. Its evolutionary antecedents are ancient and shared, to one degree or another, among widely diverse species, even some fish. The reason behind the evolution of maternal behavior is simple: those mothers that possessed a genetic mutation that led to them to care for their offspring more had offspring that stood a better chance of surviving and reproducing and hence proliferating their maternal genes loc.

According to this argument, it may be the case that other species have the maternal instinct, but in our own species all instincts have been wiped out and replaced by culture. Now, just as in all other animals, the maternal extinct in women is driven by hormones. Specifically, oxytocin, estrogen and prolactin.

These hormones begin to be activated in the middle of pregnancy, to help prepare the woman for both the birthing process and, subsequently, childcare. It in conjunction with dopamine [loc. Importantly, since the surge of oxytocin that a mother receives from the birthing process is triggered by cervical dilation, it occurs only with a vaginal birth, and not with a cesarean section loc. As we might expect, then, the birthing method can have an effect on how a new mother regards her child immediately following birth.

When breastfeeding does not occur, then, this can compromise the mother-child bond. Indeed, it has been shown that the bond between mother and child is strongest where breastfeeding does occur.

Now, the importance of exhibiting a high amount of attention and affection for a baby simply cannot be overstated. Indeed, people who experience neglect in infancy, or who simply have low-affection mothers, have been shown to carry a range of difficulties into later life. Fortunately, we are not slaves to our biology, and low-affection mothers can learn techniques to help them improve the care of their infants loc.

Over and above this, early indications are that the administration of hormones such as oxytocin may be able to help mothers that are having difficulty forming a strong attachment with their newborns loc. Women in Love While all female mammals and the females of many other species display the instinct to bond with their offspring, few also display the inclination to pair-bond with a sexual partner. However, the phenomenon is not unheard of elsewhere in the animal kingdom.

Now, it is important to point out that the monogamy being referred to here is social and not sexual monogamy. The two can, of course, be separated. In any event, the point is that pair-bonding and social monogamy is not unheard of in the animal kingdom, and it is certainly an important aspect of our own species—which, when we do speak of it, we more commonly refer to as L.

Again, some have argued that romantic love is but a cultural construct, but the evidence indicates that it does indeed have a biological backing.

Interestingly, this biological backing appears to have been borrowed from the very biology responsible for the mother-child bond that we have just finished discussing in women, at least. There are several bits of evidence that lead the author to this conclusion. To begin with, the hormone responsible for the mother-child bond oxytocin is also at the heart of romantic love in women and men, to some degree.

Specifically, oxytocin has been shown to play a role in encouraging positive social communication loc. Perhaps not surprisingly, then, it has been found that oxytocin levels can actually be used to predict relationship success. Interestingly, while it is vaginal birth and breastfeeding that is primarily responsible for triggering the oxytocin that works to bond a mother to her baby, it would appear to be sex that is primarily responsible for triggering the oxytocin that bonds a woman to a romantic partner.

And while intercourse may have nothing to do with either vaginal birth or breastfeeding in terms of function, it would appear that both somewhat creepily trigger the flow of oxytocin according to the same basic mechanics. Interestingly, this may also help explain a long-standing mystery no pun intended as to why the male penis is so large.

We have the biggest penises of any primate.Importantly, since the surge of oxytocin that a mother receives from the birthing process is triggered by cervical dilation, it occurs only with a vaginal birth, and not with a cesarean section loc.

Rather, it simply allows us to understand ourselves better, and should help us make better decisions and actions in our lives. They change, typically from female to male… Other fish are cross-dressing transvestites. The table of standard reduction potentials Appendix E would be more difficult to use than most other textbooks as the potentials are listed alphabetically by symbol.

Some would mate only with females that smelled like death.