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PDF | We examine a set of implicit and explicit claims about the concept of eye dominance that have been made over the years and note that the new literature. PDF | The culturally-dominant view of the popularization of science rests on a two -stage model: first, scientists develop genuine knowledge; second. PDF | On Jan 1, , Héctor O. Rocha and others published Dominant Development Paradigms: A Review and Integration.
Ideology in religion Religions have lost political potency in many parts of the world, but retained influence at least locally in some other places. In the political context, religions are equivalent to ideologies, and often compete with them while retaining other, more personal functions as well.
Christianity has been broadly in retreat since the Reformation. In South Korea fiercely competing sects of Christianity have plastered every town with churches and neon crosses. After seven years of living in South Korea I can report that its dominant values, regardless of professed religions, are still neo-Confucian, hierarchical, class obsessed, and not notably compassionate. I interpret the Christian attachment there as a sign of deep psychological insecurity.
Islamic ideology In recent decades the most virulent religious attachment to political ideology has come from factions of Islam. There are a variety of reasons for this, too complex to go into here in detail.
My own sense is that this fever is likely to subside in coming decades. The Iranian theocratic attachment to political ideology seems to have already passed its peak. The Salafist infiltration of otherwise more or less peaceful Muslim populations worldwide has been driven by Saudi Arabian dollars.
The Saudi engine itself seems to be an unholy alliance of a deeply corrupted Saudi ruling elite in a warped contract with Wahabi religious fundamentalists, the whole underwritten by an American oil company investment in energy extraction.
It is an unstable mix, particularly given the restlessness of increasingly educated Arab populations themselves, but at least in the medium term may continue to cause untold mischief in countries under stress.
For this reason, it is unlikely that we have left all the old passions of the 20th Century behind us. In a way, it is predictive to review some of the main ones: Socialism Socialism offers a social contract with immediate benefits for the general population by controlling the distribution of profit in the most equitable manner usually via taxation.
Socialism has usually been less articulate about the most efficient means of production, and being prone to bureaucratization has often put a brake on traditional economic productivity. For example, uncompetitive industries might be overprotected, or accumulating regulations might stifle initiative.
In practice, by de-emphasizing the contributions needed to preserve the system, various brands of socialism have sometimes fostered a debilitating psychology of entitlement and dependence by beneficiaries both individuals and industries , together with increasingly complex and arbitrary mechanisms from governments to preserve social and economic compliance.
Capitalism a — the market Capitalism, as an ideological movement, has proved to have champions quite as doctrinaire as any other ideology, and has historically demonstrated a brutal disregard for the welfare of individuals. The claim from the high priests of capitalism is that the invisible hand of the market regulates the efficient distribution of resources to the ultimate benefit of everybody. Every market is gamed constantly by whoever has privileged access to information, power and money.
The real issue then becomes the extent, nature and efficiency of this governmental intervention. Capitalism b — stability and corporate capitalism Of all the economic ideologies, capitalism may be the least stable.
In fact there is a credible claim that this very instability generates innovation, renewal and growth. However as with all ideologies capitalism has split into sects.
Thus corporate capitalism can become a social sickness as debilitating as fasco-communism. Do non-profit behaviours amount to an ideology? It is notable in the American context that a form of ideology broadly embracing volunteerism, charity, philanthropic trusts and NGOs is widespread, and much patronized by the very rich. There are various ways to interpret this. It could be seen as a vote for humanitarianism and religious charity, or a sop for the more brutal face of capitalist predation.
Of course, conspiracy theories are easy to come by.
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However if we follow the money trail, the final impotence of ideologies seems pretty clear. The real deal: Most world leaders are in on this scam, and they all stay in the same five star hotels. The critical point is that this vast accumulation of hidden wealth has come from countries all over the world, sporting every known brand of political ideology.
In fact the most effective secret thieves of public wealth are very frequently the most earnest public advocates of this ideology or that. Crisis as the genesis of ideologies — the 21st Century If crisis breeds and legitimizes ideologies as a kind of social survival mechanism, one way of predicting the emergence of ideologies is to anticipate the kinds of crises which will arise in the 21st Century.
Perhaps prime amongst these crises will be the ecological survival of the planet itself.
Within the human frame, multiple catastrophes can be predicted in a general way. Many of the most ancient human catastrophes, such as war, show every sign of staying with us.
The pandemics which decimated populations in earlier times, such as bubonic plague, may be driven into retreat by medical science, yet that triumph itself has helped humans to breed as an animal species to plague levels which are arguably beyond the resources to the planet to sustain.
Perhaps related, it is probably no accident that euthanasia as a acceptable solution to aging populations has just been broached in the Chinese media. Crises of population and migration — new sources of ideology? Human beings have always migrated, for opportunity, through war and forced exile, or simply because they could. We have been restocking and moving every since.
However the 21 st Century human world divides itself into nations with movement only permitted through bureaucratic passports and visas.
That is the theory. In practice, there are hundreds of millions of migrants and refugees on the move, with or without documentation. In many settled populations including Australia transnational human movement frequently becomes a major political issue. Wherever there are major political issues old ideologies and new ideologies are amongst the weapons brought into play. I sense that in the coming century questions of human movement will become acute as populations increase, the knowledge of regional disparities in wealth become far more universal, universal instant communication worldwide enlists sympathies and inflames fears, and any part of the world can be travelled to in a few hours.
It is already apparent that in the matter migration there are privileged classes of people. Then there are vast masses of people, many with great ability and energy but without the privilege of money or needed skills. In desperation and hope they also move. We have already seen that old ideologies, like viruses, know no borders. It is therefore reasonable to expect new ideologies which try to deal with the moral dilemmas of human migration, may grow more flesh in coming decades on the bones of the UN convention on refugees, and the UN declaration of human rights.
Equally, there will be forces to oppose the implementation of any such generalized humanitarian principles. The return of Nature to human consciousness — ideological consequences The modern urbanization of populations has, for over a century, given most educated people a mental holiday from the implacable imperatives of Nature which governed the lives of farming and hunting communities for millennia, and shaped whatever ideologies they had.
Now Nature is back with a vengeance. The ecological balance of life and atmosphere on the planet has always evolved and fluctuated. Nevertheless, as with other threats e. The electronic frontier — a new source of ideologies? Mass literacy and the printing press were liberating enough to allow scientific thinking to gain traction, and set us on the path to industrialization, with all the consequences for wealth creation, ideology and government which followed.
Less than a generation ago an even more powerful revolution in the tools at our disposal emerged. When Alan Turing solved the mathematical problem of programmable machine computation in , and John von Neumann followed with a mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication, they set a mathematical foundation for both modern biology and for the age of computers, and now the age of the Internet. No human society has previously seen anything like this, and we have barely begun to grasp the consequences.
At once we are liberated and endangered. We can communicate worldwide with anyone almost instantly, yet our privacy and independence of action has potentially been shredded. Drs Minolfa Prieto and Gabby Navar from Tulane University School of Medicine present a new finding regarding tissue expression of the prorenin receptor.
Their studies, presented in the first original research paper, suggest that renin secreted by the principal cells of the kidney is anchored by the preprorenin receptor locally, contributing to increased local angiotensin peptide generation in the distal nephron, which in turn elevates blood pressure.
Two related reports by Ochsner's Dr Akannsha Singh and Dr Richard Re reflect on the role of intracellular angiotensin in blood pressure control and the potential application of cell-penetrating peptide decoys or related xenobiotics to therapeutic blood pressure control. In this issue, they report that afferent arterioles of diabetic kidneys exhibit an enhanced vasoconstrictor response to chymase-dependent intrarenal endothelin formation compared to control kidneys.
Collectively, their studies lead them to propose that intrarenal chymase-dependent endothelin-1 contributes to a decline in function and progression to end-stage renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. In other diabetes breakthroughs, Dr T. Cooper Woods and D.
The present study shows, however, that proliferation and intimal thickening of diabetic vasculature may, through an insulin-resistance pathway, be relatively impervious to mTOR inhibition. In other reports from Ochsner, Dr George Pankey and his team investigate the in vitro synergy of telavancin and rifampin against antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus.
HIV-related studies from Tulane University School of Medicine further contribute to explanations of how Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus infection promotes the evasion of apoptosis in endothelial cells and mechanisms by which potent insulin sensitizers may protect against protease inhibitor-mediated endothelial dysfunction during long-term antiretroviral therapy.
The homozygous dominant, heterozygous, and homozygous recessive genotypes are then written RR, Rr, and rr, respectively. It would also be possible to designate the two alleles as W and w, and the three genotypes WW, Ww, and ww, the first two of which produced round peas and the third wrinkled peas. Note that the choice of "R" or "W" as the symbol for the dominant allele does not pre-judge whether the allele causing the "round" or "wrinkled" phenotype when homozygous is the dominant one.
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A gene may have several alleles. Each allele is symbolized by the locus symbol followed by a unique superscript. In many species, the most common allele in the wild population is designated the wild type allele. Other alleles are dominant or recessive to the wild type allele. For recessive alleles, the locus symbol is in lower case letters. For alleles with any degree of dominance to the wild type allele, the first letter of the locus symbol is in upper case.
The abt allele is recessive to the wild type allele, and the Ay allele is codominant to the wild type allele. The Ay allele is also codominant to the abt allele, but showing that relationship is beyond the limits of the rules for mouse genetic nomenclature.
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Rules of genetic nomenclature have evolved as genetics has become more complex. Committees have standardized the rules for some species, but not for all.
Rules for one species may differ somewhat from the rules for a different species. If the alleles have different effects on the phenotype, sometimes their dominance relationships can be described as a series. For example, coat color in domestic cats is affected by a series of alleles of the TYR gene which encodes the enzyme tyrosinase. The alleles C, cb, cs, and ca full colour, Burmese , Siamese , and albino , respectively produce different levels of pigment and hence different levels of colour dilution.
The C allele full colour is completely dominant over the last three and the ca allele albino is completely recessive to the first three. Human females are typically XX; males are typically XY. The remaining pairs of chromosome are found in both sexes and are called autosomes ; genetic traits due to loci on these chromosomes are described as autosomal, and may be dominant or recessive.
Genetic traits on the X and Y chromosomes are called sex-linked, because they are linked to sex chromosomes, not because they are characteristic of one sex or the other. In practice, the term almost always refers to X-linked traits and a great many such traits such as red-green colour vision deficiency are not affected by sex.
Females have two copies of every gene locus found on the X chromosome, just as for the autosomes, and the same dominance relationships apply. Males however have only one copy of each X chromosome gene locus, and are described as hemizygous for these genes. The Y chromosome is much smaller than the X, and contains a much smaller set of genes, including, but not limited to, those that influence 'maleness', such as the SRY gene for testis determining factor.
Dominance rules for sex-linked gene loci are determined by their behavior in the female: because the male has only one allele except in the case of certain types of Y chromosome aneuploidy , that allele is always expressed regardless of whether it is dominant or recessive. Birds have oppositely sex chromosomes: male birds have ZZ and female birds ZW chromosomes.
However, inheritance of traits reminds XY-system otherwise; male zebra finches may carry white colouring gene in their one of two Z chromosome, but females develop white colouring always. Grasshoppers have XO-system.
Females have XX, but males only X. There is no Y chromosome at all. Epistasis modifies the characteristic ratio expected for two non-epistatic genes. For two loci, 14 classes of epistatic interactions are recognized. As an example of recessive epistasis, one gene locus may determine whether a flower pigment is yellow AA or Aa or green aa , while another locus determines whether the pigment is produced BB or Bb or not bb. In a bb plant, the flowers will be white, irrespective of the genotype of the other locus as AA, Aa, or aa.
The bb combination is not dominant to the A allele: rather, the B gene shows recessive epistasis to the A gene, because the B locus when homozygous for the recessive allele bb suppresses phenotypic expression of the A locus. In dominant epistasis, one gene locus may determine yellow or green pigment as in the previous example: AA and Aa are yellow, and aa are green.
A second locus determines whether a pigment precursor is produced dd or not DD or Dd. Here, in a DD or Dd plant, the flowers will be colorless irrespective of the genotype at the A locus, because of the epistatic effect of the dominant D allele. Supplementary epistasis occurs when two loci affect the same phenotype.Human females are typically XX; males are typically XY.
Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Am I a Literacy Scholar? In this issue, they report that afferent arterioles of diabetic kidneys exhibit an enhanced vasoconstrictor response to chymase-dependent intrarenal endothelin formation compared to control kidneys. In this League, the wolf would not harm the lamb, nor would the panther harm the kid.
Feagin Eds. One advantage of using storytelling is that it allows us to put our collective stories in conversation with one another and against dominant narratives and stories that perpetuate white privilege, white supremacy, and patriarchy. Note that the choice of "R" or "W" as the symbol for the dominant allele does not pre-judge whether the allele causing the "round" or "wrinkled" phenotype when homozygous is the dominant one.