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The Great Gatsby. Then wear the gold hat, if that will move her;. If you can bounce high, bounce for her too,. Till she cry 'Lover, gold-hatted, high-bouncing lover. My acquaintance with the fashionable white palaces of East Egg began one summer evening when I drove there to have dinner with my distant cousin Daisy . famous American novel written by Francis Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby. The .. The Great Gatsby (published as Velký Gatsby in , in collaboration with Rudolf. Červenka) pdf>.

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březen Velký GatsbyVypravěčem románu je Nick Carraway, který přijíždí do Resources sppn.info You currently viewing: About-us >> webpage[2] >> webpage[3] >> webpage[7] > > sppn.info The Great Gatsby. Home · The Great Gatsby Author: Fitzgerald F Scott. 14 downloads The great Gatsby: notes · Read more · The Great Gatsby. Read more.

It can also be said that individuals avail themselves of a certain gender, or adopt certain performances that constitute a specific gender, rather than being essentially one kind of gender or the other. There is neither an essence nor an ideal inherent in gender cf. The nature of gender is, moreover, a shifting one which is constantly in motion and can be considered more dynamic than static cf.

Kimmel, Hearn, Connell 7. Gender identity is a constant process, always being reinvented and rearticulated in every setting, micro or macro. Gender identity is the codified aggregation of gendered interactions: its coherence depends on our understanding of those interactions.

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Both masculinity and femininity can be considered social constructions which are interrelated, historically variable, as well as loosely defined social ascriptions to individuals with certain kinds of bodies. These ascriptions are far from being necessary, natural, or ideal characteristics when it comes to people with similar genitals cf.

In Western culture, prior to the s, men did not see masculinity as being subjected to gender relations. Masculinity, then, was rather considered unproblematic and as something innate. During the s, however, it became obvious that femininity, which had been the sole center of feminist studies, cannot be studied in isolation. Other categories of difference became important, and the issue of gender difference gained center stage. This again led to the field of masculinity being scrutinized cf. Hayward Consequently, and as the first of the two relevant categories of difference in this thesis, the term 'masculinity' will be attended to in the next subchapter.

Beynon 1 f. This will become more clear in the course of this subchapter. Hence, the term 'masculinities' and the concept of an array of several 'masculinities' will be used and applied throughout this thesis.

The first point that should be discussed in terms of masculinity is the differentiation between biology and culture.

If we draw on the general part on gender again, it is self-evident that masculinity is also not a 'presocial category' or a 'biological fact' cf. Masculinity is rather to be seen as something that originates in a particular society at a particular point in time. These sets of ideas and demands can originate from different sources, as mentioned in the introduction, when Beynon's key factors of what constitutes masculinity in a culture were indicated.

The next point that suggests itself is the historical variability of masculinity. As Beynon notes, what have attained the status of 'facts' underpinning the 'true' nature of masculinity and, of course, femininity are really sociohistorical and cultural constructions.

For example, as a result of the division of labour occasioned by the Industrial Revolution that is, men into the factories, most women consigned to the home and the resulting patriarchy based on men's economic superiority , the idea that men were innately practical, rational and competitive, unlike women, was 'naturalized'.

On the one hand, masculinity changes around an individual cf.

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So, whereas typical masculine characteristics in the 19th century would have been, for example, righteous behavior, physical prowess, strength, fitness, lack of laziness, courage, attitude of saving, wisdom, being reserved, and not showing emotions, a change could be witnessed as to, for example, typical forms of masculinity in the s.

Those tended to be, for instance, being a house-husband, showing traits that could be subsumed under the term hippy-masculinity, as well as adolescence styles, and hyper-masculinity. These two eras definitely show a change in masculinity over time.


On the other hand, Beynon continues, masculinity changes for a respective individual as they age cf. So individuals could be seen as availing themselves of different forms of masculinity when they are in elementary school age, as opposed to when they reach puberty, or retire. As Roper and Tosh argue, and as these examples show, masculinity cannot be treated ahistorically, but rather has to be contextualized historically.

It has to be studied and looked at in view of political, cultural, economic, and social circumstances cited in Morgan If one considers the positioning of masculinity in time not in the sense of a 'change over the course of many years', but in the sense of a 'change of masculinity on a general timeline', then in fact, even a third level of masculinity in time can be added.

If one recognizes the changing of masculinity 'around an individual' and 'as they age' as variation on a macro level, then the contextual changing of masculinity from situation to situation can be considered as variation on a micro level. This point will be the subject matter of the next paragraph.

When it comes to understanding masculinity, the question seems to be fairly often what men are.

The question, according to Morgan, should, however, be posed differently. So, as mentioned in the general subchapter on gender already, performance also plays a vital role when it comes to masculinity. Consequently, while Butler lays her focus on female gender performance, performativity theories can also be applied to masculinity and allow us to theorize how men perform 'masculinity'.

Herrmann and Erhart see masculinity, just as femininity, as 'masquerade', 'permanently enacted', and 'staged' cf.

Here the phrase 'doing gender' also comes into play. As mentioned in the introduction, masculinity can also be part of the construction of femininity. Masculinity is not always and necessarily about men cf.

Sedgwick in Beynon 8. It can be argued that women, even to the same degree as men, are consumers of masculinities, and are also producers and performers of masculinities cf. Sedgwick in Gardiner It is therefore useful to view masculinities as, what Beynon calls, 'cultural space'. This space can then be inhabited by or assigned to men and women, no matter if permanently or temporarily cf. Beynon 7. However, women can not only produce their own forms of masculinity, they also play a vital part in constructing and shaping masculinities for other individuals, in this case, men.

This becomes clear in Pyke's statement in which she sees literature on masculinities as rather focusing on the construction of subordinated or hegemonic masculinities specifically among men.

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She argues that masculinities are not only constructed among men but also in relation with women cf. Pyke Even though women performing masculinities will not be part of the upcoming analysis, women's role in shaping masculinities regarding the male protagonists in The Great Gatsby will play quite a significant role.

I am still a little afraid of missing something if I forget that, as my father snobbishly suggested, and I snobbishly repeat, a sense of the fundamental decencies is parcelled out unequally at birth.

And, after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit. When I came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to be in uniform and at a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart. Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from my reaction — Gatsby, who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn. If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away.

No — Gatsby turned out all right at the end; it is what preyed on Gatsby, what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams that temporarily closed out my interest in the abortive sorrows and short-winded elations of men. My family have been prominent, well-to-do people in this Middle Western city for three generations. I graduated from New Haven in , just a quarter of a century after my father, and a little later I participated in that delayed Teutonic migration known as the Great War.

Social Classes Social class is an integral part of the novel. It is expounded upon at some length by Nick Carroway. It is expected that those in the upper class are to act with dignity, poise, grace, and propriety. Through the eyes of Nick, the reader can see that this is a sham, and those in the upper class are corrupt, deceitful, and carry no remorse for their actions.

Infidelity Although usually confined to adultery, this can also mean a breach of trust and general disloyalty. Unfaithful and deceptive behavior can be seen from most characters over the course of the novel.

Tom, Myrtle, and Daisy all commit adultery; Jordan Baker is a pathological liar and often cheats; Gatsby lies about his past, and about his assets to obtain Daisy; and those who once called Gatsby a friend, even Meyer Wolfshiem, his business partner, ultimately desert and disgrace him by not attending his funeral. Eckelberg These all-seeing eyes watch the characters in the novel and ultimately act as a judge of their deeds.

Ominous Weather Weather is a common symbol in literature.His descriptive passages are truly poetic, and his command of word choice in unparalleled. Then Daisy gave a little laugh and said, 'I'm so very glad to see you again, Jay.

It's difficult to give any even-handed critique F. Nick witnesses Gatsby's gradual admittance of his significant secret. Her concept, too, is based on the assumption that there is not only one but a vast range of different masculinities.

This way one can get a more comprehensive idea of gender, as well as more satisfying answers to the respective questions one poses in this field. I walked slowly down the drive to wait for the taxi by the gate. It facedor seemed to facethe whole external world for an instant, and then concentrated on you with an irresistible prejudice in your favor.