sppn.info Lifestyle Sociedade Da Caveira De Cristal Pdf


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– Triângulo ecológico humano (Natureza-Pessoa-Sociedade). .. Figura 53 – Imaginário policial sob o arquétipo do guerreiro-caveira e o Deserto de Cristal - a primeira missão científica brasileira no interior da Antártida [. disponivel em: sppn.info docpdf JIANG, Lihua . ideia de uma sociedade baseada no sentimento, nos rituais e numa forte liga^ ao a fundada nos ornatos de uma caveira, e no esquecimento dela e tao natural e tao deus deveria ser transparente e Hquido como cristal em lugar desta. saga de filmes alcançou o estatuto de mito na sociedade contemporânea. Indiana Jones e o Reino da Caveira de Cristal [Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of.

Sociedade Da Caveira De Cristal Pdf

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4 ago. quilômetros), de onde trouxeram “muito cristal”. . A sociedade na região das Minas não teria sido tão patriarcal quanto em outras é a chave, que qué conhecê o que viu, fala, mas num é essa caveira, num é aquilo não!. Sociedade Botânica do. Brasil, Porto Alegre Novas, 26/V/, fl. fr., Ferreira (PAMG), Salto Cristal, 19/III/, fl., Hatschbach et al. (SPF); P.E. acreditavam que esta visão neo-malthusiana levaria ao fim da sociedade industrial. Logo a seguir No baixo curso, o rio Canoas encontra o rio Caveiras, o qual também drena .. gemas (ágata, cristal de rocha, opala, rocha ornamentais.

The fashion then returned for covering whole surfaces with tiles, and simple stylized designs were used to decorate shop fronts and residential areas.

The early years of the 20th century saw a revival of large-scale historical scenes in traditional blue and white. Sophisticated designs of this kind disappeared during the upheavals of the Peninsular War see p54 at the beginning of the 19th century Museu Nacional do Azulejo, see pp— They stand guard at the entrance, on landings or on staircases Museu Nacional do Azulejo, see pp— They are relatively cheap to produce, long-lasting and need little maintenance.

Tiled houses brighten up many Portuguese towns and villages. The town of Ovar see pp— is particularly striking. After years of investment in the industry, many of the reds, such as the full-bodied wines from the Douro made with some of the same grapes as port , have established an attractive style all their own.

Great whites are fewer, but most regions have some. And of h i vinho verde, the usually light, slightly onated wine m the north. But the country now has many excellent wines that reach beyond the easy-drinking charms of these.

Other essential information is the name of the producer, the region and the year. Wines made to at least 80 per cent from a single grape variety may give the name of that grape on the label. The back label often describes grape varieties and wine-making techniques used. Cellar of the Palace Hotel do Bussaco, see p , famous for its red wine is from the Douro and is made according to DOC regulations for the region.

It also implies that the wine is of higher quality than non-reserva wine from the same producer. Typical white vinho verde is bone dry, slightly fizzy, low in alcohol and high in acidity. A weightier style of white vinho verde is made from the Alvarinho grape, near the Spanish border. Modern winemaking and occasional disregard for regional regulations have meant more approachable reds often classified as Vinho Regional das Beiras and crisper whites. Ribatejo is the fertile valley of the Tagus to the north and east of Lisbon.

In addition, the region also produces excellent, mostly red, table wine. The Douro region is best known as the source of port wine, but in most years about half of the wine produced is fermented dry to make table wine, and these wines are now at the forefront of Portuguese wine-making. The pioneer, Barca Velha, was launched half a century ago and is both highly regarded and among the most expensive. Small producers, such as Quinta dos Roques, Quinta da Pellada and Quinta de Cabriz, and the large Sogrape company make fruity reds for younger drinking, fresh, dry whites and deeper, richer reds which retain their fruit with age — a far cry from the heavy, hard-edged, and often oxidized wines of the past.

The most interesting DOC is Alenquer. Bucelas, to the south of the region, produces characterful white wines. Festass call the country is more relaxed. There is for prayers, processions, fireworks, deep-rooted respect throughout the eating and drinking, traditional folk country for ancient traditions, which dances and general merrymaking.

This is the time to see the countryside at its most beautiful, although rain can be expected until the end of May. Easter is a time of great religious celebration, with Holy Week processions taking place all over the country. Venue changes from year to year. A festival of music from Portugal and Spain. Pilgrimage to Nossa Senhora da Piedade see p An international agricultural, cattle and handicrafts fair.

The largest religious festival in the Azores. High point of the festival of the Holy Spirit see p Torchlit processions are led by church authorities. May , Barcelos. The Festival of the Crosses celebrates the day the shape of a cross appeared in the earth in Flower Festival late Apr , Funchal, Madeira.

Shops and houses are decorated with flowers. Ends with a parade of flower-covered floats. Huge crowds make the pilgrimage to the place where the Virgin appeared to three children in see p Queima das Fitas mid-May , Coimbra.

Pentecost , Braga. Penitents climb the spectacular staircase on their knees see pp—9. Concerts and performances by the Gulbenkian Ballet. Since many businesses shut down in August, it is holiday time for locals too.

Many families spend the entire summer by the seaside. Named after the red waistcoats of the Ribatejo horsemen, the festival consists of bullfights and bull running. Festa dos Tabuleiros midJul, every four years , Tomar. Music, dancing, fireworks and a bullfight see pp — 7. Four hundred women carry trays of decorated loaves on their heads. Festa da Ria all month Aveiro. Folk dances, boat races and a best-decorated boat competition see p Jul This is a lively beer festival with folk dancing.

Young, unmarried men and women in the town swap phallus-shaped cakes as tokens of love.

A combination of agricultural fairs, bullfighting and displays of folk dancing. Celebrated in the Alfama district with singing and dancing, food and drink. Locals put up lanterns and streamers and bring out chairs for the thousands who arrive. Part of the Corpus Christi Day celebrations, the festival features scenes of St George in comic battle with the dragon. Mid-summer festivities include making wishes while jumping over small fires, and the barcos rabelos boat race see pp—9.

More street celebrations with eating, dancing and singing. Sintra Festival Jun—Aug , Sintra. Classical music concerts and ballet programme. Threeday festival dating back to Torchlight procession, dancing, and medieval parade. Madeira Wine Rally first r weekend , Funchal, Madeira. Na cerimonia de agradecimento de um premio literario que lhe foi atribuido em , Walser reconheceu o peso historico e a vergonha interminavel do passado e, em simultaneo, acusou os meios de comunicacjao de instrumentalizarem Auschwitz e reclamou, por isso, o direito a normalizagao.

O representante da comunidade judaica na Alemanha, Ignaz Bubis, reagiu negativamente e acusou Walser de defender um nacionalismo intelectual e um anti-semitismo velado. Bubis, por seu tumo, entendia que normalizacjao deveria ser traduzida por uma abertura a parucipacjao social e poHtica dos judeus na Alemanha e, opondo-se a ideia de esquecimento ou recalcamento do passado, defendeu um esfonjo de preservacjao da memoria das vitimas da Shoah Jaecker, Constata-se, em suma, que no final dos anos noventa o "ponto final" reclamado por Ernst Nolte estava ainda longe de ser marcado.

Com efeito, a vontade e o esfonjo para conseguir uma forma de coexistir com o passado, de o superar e de o normalizar deram lugar, nesta ultima decada, a um esfonjo de preservacjao da memoria desse mesmo passado. Um dos exemplos mais emblematicos que expressa esta vontade de preservar o passado nacional- socialista podera ser reconhecido no Denkmal fiir die ermordeten Juden Europas, o memorial que a cidade de Bedim, desde 12 de Maio de , dedica aos judeus desaparecidos durante os anos de dominio nazi.

Os grandes monumentos nacionais sao, por norma, erigidos para celebrar os actos positivos ou heroicos de uma nac;ao, contudo, o memorial do Holocausto assume caracteristicas unicas, na medida em que este e um projecto alemao que defende o nao esquecimento dos seus proprios crimes. Este monumento, contudo, nao obstante a intencjao conciliatoria que lhe subjaz, revelou-se polemica, particularmente quando Martin Walser veio a publico afirmar que esta construcjao seria a "monumentalizacjao da vergonha" Gay, Todos os debates e discussoes a que se assistiu na altura sao, no fundo, reveladores de uma realidade muito concreta: O topico da representacjao do Holocausto, e mais particularmente a questao do gesto testemunhal da primeira geracjao, sugere uma breve alusao a uma afirmacjao escrita por Theodor W.

Adomo no paragrafo final do ensaio Kulturkritik und Gesellschaft apos o regresso do exilio, no ano de Aquele que ficou conhecido como o veredicto adorniano e acima de tudo uma afirmacjao reveladora do profundo cepticismo cultural do seu autor, que percepciona o Holocausto como um marco da ruptura civilizacional. Mas, na realidade, e ainda antes de Adomo ter verbalizado o seu controverso veredicto houve, de facto, autores que escreveram poesia.

Paul Celan ou Nelly Sachs sao disso exemplo. E ao longo das ultimas seis decadas esta tematica serviu de mote nao apenas para a escrita de poemas: Mais recentemente, a chamada segunda geracjao de autores tern igualmente obtido tanto junto do publico como da critica literaria uma recepcjao amplamente positiva.

Esta nova vaga de escritores, cujo trabalho Thomas Nolden incluiu na 2 A vasta produgao literaria que surgiu apos o final da guerra com o intuito de dar a conhecer a experiencia de reclusao e de discriminacao imposta pelos anos de ditadura nacional-socialista pertence a categoria literaria que o escritor e sobrevivente Elie Wiesel designou de "literatura de testemunho": Ao contrario da primeira geracjao — para quern o processo de escrita e sinonimo de um processo de busca de sentido, de catarse, de conciliacjao com a propria vida —, esta segunda geracjao centra-se em torno de um eixo tematico diferente: Esta geracjao de autores de expressao alema tern trazido a publico um conjunto bastante significativo de textos onde estas problematicas se encontraram representadas, de entre os quais destaco: Falar de uma geracjao de autores que dedica os seus textos a um acontecimento central do passado historico e familiar, propicia uma referenda a questao central da memoria e sugere uma reflexao sobre a forma como o passado pode influir na constituicjao da identidade de cada individuo.

Com efeito, especialmente no decorrer das duas ultimas decadas um crescente numero de investigadores de diferentes areas tern vindo a desenvolver variadas teorias que descrevem e explicam como a identidade do sujeito e formada. As diferentes interpretacjoes e variacjoes registadas ao longo dos anos comprovam que se trata de um conceito complexo, que nao permite uma defmicjao simples e rapida.

O conceito de identidade aponta igualmente para a noc;ao de "ser identico" a alguem, isto e, partilhar com o outro urn conjunto de caracteristicas. A lingua, a historia, costumes ou tradi ;6es comuns a um grupo especifico, ou, num ambito mais alargado, a uma nac;ao, assumem-se, assim, como elementos culturais partilhados e, por isso, traces distintivos de uma identidade colectiva. Em articulacjao com todos estes aspectos, a nossa memoria, a nossa memoria historica ou colectiva, detem de identico modo uma funcjao nuclear no que concerne a formacjao da identidade.

Na verdade, a questao da memoria e a forma como se relaciona com o passado e um dos topicos centrais da reflexao contemporanea. A memoria permite que cada individuo narre a sua propria historia, permite que o sujeito, ao relacionar os varios episodios ou estadios pelos quais passou, atinja um estadio de auto-compreensao; esta construcjao organizada dos momentos vividos permitem que o sujeito alcance um sentido de continuidade e coerencia, tao importantes no processo da constituicjao identitaria.

Este grupo nao possui uma memoria real deste acontecimento historico, possui, ao inves, uma especie de memoria secundaria, uma memoria intermediada que, indirectamente, tambem lhe pertence. Os processos de transmissao desta memoria, descritos com minucia em varios estudos de Jan e Aleida Assmann, obedecem a duas apologias de memoria que podem ocorrer de forma concomitante ou nao; assim, os acontecimentos do passado podem ser transmitidos as novas gerac;6es ou atraves de uma "memoria comunicativa" — quando o conhecimento desses mesmo eventos e transmitido de forma intergeracional sempre que os membros mais velhos do grupo descrevem ou narram aquilo que testemunharam ou viveram - ou atraves de uma "memoria cultural", isto e, quando os acontecimentos sao apreendidos atraves de meios simbolicos tal como representac;6es materials livros, filmes, fotografias ou imagens ou praticas simbolicas tradi ;6es, comemoracjoes, rituais, etc.

Assmann, Referindo-se em concreto a geracjao de artistas pos-Holocausto, James E. Young considera ainda que esta e uma geracjao que tern construido uma imagem do passado essencialmente apartir de uma "historia recebida", nomeadamente atraves de fotografias, filmes, livros, testemunhos, etc. Young, Eine neue Generation sucht Antworten, relembram que o acto de rememorar e, na verdade, um gesto exclusivo das testemunhas ou intervenientes no momento verbalizado.

Ainda assim, as gerac;6es que nasceram depois de , que tern acesso a memoria do Holocausto a partir da memoria de outros, sao tambem detentores desta memoria, uma memoria que, pela sua singularidade, deve ser concebida como uma memoria universal Birkmeyer e Blasberg, Photography, Narrative and Postmemory, chamou "pos-memoria". A pos- memoria, conceito que descreve a relacjao desta geracjao com as experiencias traumaticas nao vivenciadas, e uma forma muito particular de memoria, uma vez que a ligacjao do sujeito ao objecto e mediada por terceiros, isto e, a narracjao nao e elaborada com base na recordacjao dos eventos vividos pelo proprio, assentando antes num investimento imaginativo e na criacjao.

A pos-memoria descreve ainda a relacjao da segunda geracjao com as poderosas, muitas vezes traumaticas experiencias que antecederam o seu nascimento mas que, nao obstante, foram transmitidas de uma forma tao vincada que parecem assumir-se como as suas proprias memorias Hirsch, A percepcjao de que o nazismo e uma herancja complexa que apenas recai sobre as gerac;6es pos-Holocausto de origem judaica e urn equivoco comum. Ha uma realidade paralela, amplamente documentada em variados estudos da Psicologia e da Psiquiatria que comprovam a simetria psicologica existente entre os filhos das vitimas e a segunda geracjao nao-judaica, que durante muito tempo nao foi reconhecida, nem valorizada, muito provavelmente devido a extrema assimetria moral que prevaleceu no relacionamento entre as vitimas e os seus carrascos.

Nos casos mais extremos verificou-se que a tomada de consciencia da participacjao de membros da familia no exterminio produziu sentimentos de culpa, vergonha, medo e depressao que se traduziram em profunda dor psicossomatica e outros disturbios psicologicos, tao ou mais vincados do que os verificados junto dos filhos dos sobreviventes3.

No fundo, ambos os grupos poderao ser considerados herdeiros do mesmo passado avassalador, repositorios da mesma memoria historica, porem vivida em lados opostos. Mesmo nao considerando as situac;6es patologicas, o passado nazi parece, de facto, ensombrar a segunda geracjao de alemaes que nasceu e formou a sua identidade sob o estigma de um passado terrivel e pelo qual o mundo, mesmo que de forma subliminar, por vezes continua julga-los. As inquietac;6es e interrogac;6es destes sujeitos tern sido, tal como acontece com a 3 Veja-se, por exemplo, Bar-on, ; Brenner ,; Coleman, ; Hardtmann , Na Alemanha nao se fala sem fundamento da historia akma recente como "passado que nao passu", um tempo que, em suma, continua a influendar a vida das grapes seguintes e que as continua a perseguir com o seu horror.

Este e o contexto social que kva os jovens autores a questionar-se nos seus livros o que aconteceu antes do seu nascimento. Porque ha tanto material disponwel, quer para os descendentes dos criminosos querpara os das vitimas, ha ainda muito para contar. Ha nisso muito de afectivo, de intelectual, tanto potential que influencia a nossa gerafao a escrever sobre isso. Ainda nao estd resolvido. A par da literatura, a importancia que o periodo nacional-socialista detem e o interesse que continua a suscitar e igualmente reconhecivel ao nivel da producjao cinematografica.

A representacjao do passado nacional-socialista no cinema e, alias, urn tema recorrente em outros palcos linguisticos, nomeadamente nos Estados Unidos5.

Evidencia deste facto sao a realizacjao e reconhecimento publico de filmes galardoados como A lista de Schindkr, realizado por Steven Spielberg, em , A vida e bela, realizado, em , por Roberto Benigni, ou 0 Pianista, cuja realizacjao esteve a cargo de Roman Polanski, no ano de Enfim, a lista e bastante extensa. Falando apenas de ficcjao narrativa, isto e, excluindo os documentarios, nos ultimos trinta anos produziram-se em todo o mundo mais de uma centena de peliculas dedicadas a esta tematica.

Nao deixa igualmente de ser interessante realgar que, somente no decorrer de , estrearam varios filmes com distribuicjao mundial que remetem para este mesmo tema o que, indubitavelmente, e sintomatico do interesse que esta tematica continua a suscitar na sociedade actual: The reader Stephen Daldry , The boy with striped pyjamas Mark Herman , Valkyrie Brian Singer , Good Vicente Amorim , 5 Atente-se no facto de que alguns dos mais reconhecidos nomes da industria cinematografica norte- americana possuem origem judaica os realizadores Steven Spielberg ou Roman Polanski, por exemplo e ainda que companhias de elevada importancia como a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ou Warner Bros foram fundadas por judeus.

Editions Payot et Rivages, Piper Verlag, Der lange Schatten der Vergangenheit. Erinnerungskultur und Geschichtspolitik. Beck, Das kulturelk Geddchtnis. Schrift, Erinnerung und politische Identitatin friihen Hochkulture. Die East des Schweigens.

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Campus Verlag, []. Kinder der Opfer. Kinder der Eater. Psychoanalyse und Holocaust, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, Erinnern des Holocaust? Eine neue Generation sucht Antworten. Aisthesis Verlag, Jiiden in Deutschland nach Bundeszentrale fur politische Bildung, The Holocaust Monument in Berlin".

International Journal ofCultural Policy. Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. Knew York: Knopf, HALL, Stuart. Modernity and its Futures, Hall, Stuart Ed. Open University, Kinder der Titter. Psychoanalyse und Holocaust. Ruth Kluger, 'weiter leben: Oldenburg, Family Frames: Photography, Narrative and Postmemory. Harvard University Press, Erinnem oder Vergessen? Viewed on Lyrik nach Auschwitz??

Adorno und die Dichter. Reclam, The debate about the central Holocaust memorial in Berlin. Holocaust Literature and the Ethics of Interpretation". Comparative Uterature. Junge jiidische Uteratur. Konigshausen und Neumann, O lugar da memo'ria na obra de jovens autores de expressao alema. European Journal of Social Theory. Wessen Schuld? Elefanten Press, New Uterary History. At memory's edge: New Haven: Yale University Press, O tema abordado por Diogo Azevedo — descricjao de inumeras "vidas" de mulheres portuguesas que se destacaram pelas suas acc;6es notaveis — permite-nos aferir da intencjao didactica e moralizadora da obra e, como tal, inseri-la na longa tradicjao das biografias femininas, associadas ao relato hagiografico.

XVIII, que pela sua especificidade se reveste de grande interesse literario, historico e cultural. Summary of: Diogo Azevedo's matter subject - describes the numerous lives of Portuguese Women who distinguish themselves by noble actions - allowing us the insight of the didactic and moral value of their work and by such being part of the long traditional feminine biographies, associated to the hagiographic descriptions.

We propose to present this study in witch the main objectives is sustained by the desire to bring to the, specific or not, major public's attention a work from the XVIII century, which by it's specifics reveals itself of enormous literature, historic and cultural importance. Mulheres-heroismo- patriotismo-altruismo-abnegacjao Keywords: O tema nao e inovador uma vez que, principalmente a partir do sec. XVI, este tipo de documentos, que tratam o mesmo tema, perseguindo os mesmos objectivos 2moralizadores e edificantes, se tornam mais frequentes e procurados por motivo de varios condicionalismos socio-culturais como veremos de seguida.

A sua existencia estava confinada ao trabalho domestico, em beneficio da familia, ou entao a clausura do convento3.

A mulher que nao se enquadrasse nestes canones era, muitas vezes, condenada a ostracismo ou ate castigada sob qualquer acusacjao bruxaria, heresia ou de pratica abortiva , simplesmente porque tomava a liberdade de mostrar algum controlo sobre a sua vida. O govemo das suas vidas, assim como os escritos sobre mulheres tinham a tutela masculina4.

As que ousavam incursionar no mundo da escrita — conditio privilegiada as ja referidas mulheres instruidas, pertencentes a familias com estatuto social superior — procuravam, como defende Nieves Baranda, "emular a sus pares hombres y de los cuales son palido y desvaido reflejo, que nunca alcanza la calidad literaria necesaria para llegar a ocupar por derecho proprio un puesto en el canon de la gran cultura literaria"5.

A dificuldade em afirmar a sua autonomia, bem como as suas capacidades, resulta numa escassez de informacjoes precisas, que complica a tarefa dos autores que tentam aprofundar as historias sobre mulheres.

A falta de dados so e colmatada com o recurso a documentos dispersos que se vao complementando. Assim, por todas as razoes evocadas entre outras os temas relacionados com a conditio feminina nao conheceram grande divulgacjao, ao longo dos 3 O convento surge, inumeras vezes, no universo feminino como o espaco que garante a subsistencia do corpo e da alma.

Para as mulheres de classe social desfavorecida, incapazes de pagar o dote, a religiao supre as necessidades fisicas e espirituais; cf.

Porem, os parcos registos que chegam aos nossos dias sao reveladores de uma tenacidade e coragem dignas de memoria. Christine de PISAN contraria a "tradicao misogina" ainda que nao o faca deliberadamente por necessidade material e tambem por vontade pessoal, no seu tratado Cite des Dames, atraves do qual defende, informa e aconselha as mulheres.

Desde a Antiguidade ate ao Renascimento surgem inumeros documentos com intuitos edificantes, que tern por objecto o elogio as mulheres ilustres. As biografias escritas por Plutarco ja contem laivos de panegirico, o que nos permite afasta-lo dos generos meramente historicos e aproxima-lo da biografia aliada a exemplaridade6.

Embora Plutarco inicie o tratamento do tema, a divulgacjao do genero faz-se com o De mulieribus clans, de Boccaccio. Na galeria de "vidas" que o autor apresenta, sao citados e elogiados inumeros vultos femininos do passado procedentes da mitologia ou de fontes historicas e literarias , mas tambem referem algumas contemporaneas.

Perseguindo o mesmo objectivo didactico - a educacjao feminina — a publicacjao deste tipo de obras torna-se mais frequente desde entao. As obras que lhes sao agora dedicadas pretendem molda-las para que desempenhem, de forma capaz, as funcjoes sociais que lhes sao atribuidas.

Jose L. Tentam sobrepor-se a literatura de ficgao que circula em vemaculo desde o Renascimento e, portanto, acessivel a maioria das mulheres leitoras , considerada pemiciosa, capaz de influenciar de forma negativa as vulnerdveis mulheres.

No decorrer dos sees. Retomando o caso espanhol, constatamos que, por vezes, o elogio a mulheres ilustres adquire caracter hagiografico, porquanto podemos aferir da relacjao estreita entre a hagiografia edificante pensada em moldes de panegmco. Em , Domingo de Valtanas Mexia publica as vidas de nove santas muito "esclarecidas" em Epltoma y sumera10 e Juan de Espinosa apresenta uma enumeracjao de mulheres ilustres em Didlogo en laude de las mujeres Em , 8 Na esteira desse objectivo D.

Luis dos Anjos, religioso eremita de Santo Agostinho havia feito eruditissima memoria no seu deleitoso Jardim de Portugal".

Bento Jeronimo Feijo, monge beneditino, escreve em uma Defensa das mulheres ilustres. Dois anos apos apublicacjao do Portugalilustradopelo sexo feminino , mais concretamente em e , Damiao de Froes Perym faz no Theatro heroino, abeceddrio historico e catdlogo de mulheres illustres em armas, letras, acpens heroicas e artes liberals17, em nosso entender, uma especie de versao alargada da obra de Diogo Azevedo, uma vez que, para alem de citar exactamente os mesmos casos - muitas vezes, com describes narradas com os mesmos detalhes do padre oratoriano - Froes Perym vai mais longe no numero de casos abordados, conseguindo completar dois volumosos tomos tal como havia pensado Diogo Azevedo com prestigiadas vidas de inumeras mulheres.

A grande diferencja entre as duas compilac;6es reside no facto de o Theatro heroino, abeceddrio historico Com efeito, o sec. XVIII acolheu favoravelmente numerosas obras de caracter historico e literario em virtude da situacjao politica e social de renovacjao e elevacjao do patrimonio cultural portugues, como atras referimos , de entre as quais devemos salientar os estudos sobre mulheres, que contribuem para fazer do sec. Centro de Historia, Lisboa, , p. A titulo de exemplo poderiamos referir o discurso, por vezes inflamado, do ilustre pregador jesuita, Pe.

Antonio Vieira, que repudia a mulher que se deixa corromper por excessos de vaidade e outras minudencias como a formosura. XVI por Juan Justiniano, que os rotulava de "desordenados" uma vez que "en lugar de dar la mano alas mugeres, les dieron el pie: Bernardo, no ano de " Sermdes, vol. I, Obras completas de Antonio Vieira , prefaciadas e revistas pelo ver.

XVII e principios do seguinte sao urn bom exemplo do desprezo que as mulheres sentem por si proprias, pelo seu corpo, pela sua vontade, pelo seu entendimento. Esta consciencializacao da incapacidade negava-lhes a intencao de procurar saber. Talvez este mote sirva de argumento para sustentar as palavras de Teresa Leitao de BARROS quando afirma que "so muito recentemente a mulher portuguesa se tern preocupado com a arrumacao do cerebro, depois da arrumacao da casa", in Esmtoras de Portugal; vols.

Diogo Manuel Aires de Azevedo da sequencia ao proposito da divulgacjao de "vidas" exemplares no Portugal ilustradopelo sexo feminino. O titulo da obra aponta para isso mesmo: O legado que o autor nos deixa reveste-se de enorme importancia pedagogica e moral ao contemplar o testemunho de prestigiados "exempla"21, isto e, de "vidas" recheadas de actos heroicos e comportamentos exemplares que deveriam tomar-se alvo de inspiracjao para todas as mulheres que delas tomassem conhecimento e, consequentemente, imitassem esses modelos de virtude, inteligencia e heroismo.

Devemos, por essa razao, inserir a obra no vasto universo hagiografico, em particular na longa tradicjao de obras que narram biografias femininas de caracter edificante. Mas acima de tudo, quis propor modelos de mulheres nao so do passado, figuras historicas, distantes, mas tambem contemporaneas23, cujos exemplos, estando mais proximos das leitoras, se revestem de maior veracidade e, portanto, se tomam mais tangiveis, mais plausiveis de imitar.

O autor torna-se em mais um dos fieis depositaries das mulheres, que figurara na galeria dos garbosos defensores dos valores e direitos da mulher portuguesa pois, apesar de nao o fazer propositadamente, o padre oratoriano contraria, de certa forma, habitos instalados, que cerceavam os direitos das mulheres a liberdade de acc;ao e de criacjao.

Atraves da sua obra, o autor da vida a inumeros vultos femininos, pois retira-os do anonimato e da voz aos seus sussurros silenciosos. O Portugal ilustrado pelo sexo feminino e, assim, um tributo a mulher portuguesa que a retira das margens da sua propria existencia e a imortaliza, porque "No le bastan a un Reyno para ser famoso heroicas virtudes de sus naturales, si le faltan escritos que las publiquen, porque la memoria de aquellas con el tiepo como todo se acaba y estos hazen con que viua etemamente libre de las leyes del oluido".

Rosa Maria Clara de Lima , II, p. Se a Arte domina pela emofao que desperta e se e absolutamente um lugar-comum afirmar-se que as almas femininas sao tesouros de emofao, fdcil e concluir que em todas as almas de mulher existem qualidades de Arte. Escritoras de Portugal - vol. Fortunate de. Histo'ria da Igreja em Portugal. Porto- Lisboa. James S.: Historia y Genero: Fried Aug. Deveres maternos e educacaoprimeira da infdncia. Albino Moreira de Souza Baptista.

Antonio Alberto de. Frey Luis dos. Ikevista de Estudos Ibericos. Catdhgo chronolonco. Lisboa Ocidental. Ma Velho da: Ma Teresa. Novas Cartas Portupuesas. Teresa Leitao de. Benditas entre as mulheres: Edicoes Europa -Lisboa. Maria", livro I. Edicoes SN.

A santidade e o nosso tempo. Editorial Aster. Maria de Lurdes Correia. XVII em Portugal". Estudos em homenagem a Joao Francisco Marques. Edicao Critica. Campo das Letras - Editores. Jose de. Retratos e elogios dos varoes e donas que illustraram a nacao portwuesa em virtudes.

Biondo da. Roma Trionfante. I I,mini. Portrait defemmes: Damiao de Froes. Theatro heroino, abeceddrio historico e catahgo das mulheres illustres em armas, letras, accoens heroicas e artes liberaes, Lisboa Occidental, na Officina da Musica de Theotomo Antunes Lima.

BN- H. Revista da Fac. De Letras do Porto, vol. Christine de. Ventura de. As mulheres do Evangelho, Homilias pregadas em Paris. Candido dos.

Eugenio Francisco dos. A crise de consciencia em Portugal no sec. XVIH"; sep. Da Fac. Letras "Linguas e Literatuas". IP serie. Centro de Historia da Cultura.

Maria Carolina. A mulher atraves dos tempos. Recinti, Donne, Clausura e Matrimonio nella prima eta moderna.

II Mulino. The following article aims at analysing relevant aspects depicted from the film emphasizing the so much debated reality of life during 80s. In This is England Shane Meadows manages to rediscover his own self geography, by revisiting his adolescent years.

It is a biographical film about the importance of peer pressure and the results of an excess of nationalism, at the same time it typifies some issues related to the 80s youth culture. O presente artigo visa analisar aspectos relevantes extraidos do filme enfatizando a tao debatida realidade da vida nos anos Em This is England Shane Meadows reencontra a geografia do ser, atraves do revisitar dos seus anos enquanto adolescente.

E um filme biografico acerca da importancia da pressao exercida pelos pares e o resultado de um nacionalismo excessivo, ao mesmo tempo que tipifica alguns aspectos relacionados com a cultura dos anos Rudyard Kipling: The English Flag Shane Meadows born in , Uttoxeter, Staffordshire classifies himself as a regional filmmaker. From his feature debut, Tmntyfour Seven, he has set about establishing his filmmaking scenario in the East Midlands area where he grew up. Presently, Meadows is considered one of the distinct British voices in the cinema, being ranked number 40 in the Telegraph's list 'the most powerful people in British culture'.

On the 15th and the 16th of April the University of East Anglia, in Norwich, has held a two day conference entirely dedicated to Shane Meadows' films which contributes to underline the importance that his films have earned at the eyes of the critic. This Is England is considered a social realist drama portraying racism and poverty in s Britain through the eyes of Shaun Thomas Turgoose , a 12 year old boy who has lost his father in the Falklands War, and has to face identity issues, concomitant with the difficult and harsh transition from childhood to adolescence and the need to fit in a determined group.

In the beginning of the film, Shaun is an average boy who does not have a lot companions with whom he relates to. The action starts when, on his way home from school, Shaun is bullied by a group of skinheads.

The gang provides Shaun with a sense of belonging which is obtained both through the clothes and an urge for violence, which stresses a necessity for independence from the social conventions and habits of their milieu. More than a philosophy and a strong feeling of identity, the gang depends on the appropriate dress code which makes them equal to one another and, at the same time, different from the rest of the gangs. Mods, Skinheads, Punks, Neo-Romantics, Goths, all wore their tags proudly since by becoming part of any tribe, young people avoided being bullied as individuals and acquired the right to intimidate others.

This youth culture with its characteristic multicultural nature, which was attained in post-war Britain, was crucial to the formation of many subcultures. Katie Milestone, writing in the The Guardian, 18th December about youth culture, accentuates these aspects when she states: The tribes were created through the amalgamation of particular types of cultural goods; music, fashion, hairstyles, politics, drugs, dances - with their boundaries defined through crucial choices: Vespas or Uarley-Davidsons, speed or acid, Dr Martens or desert boots.

But then, youth culture is full of contradiction: As Higson puts it: Despite the efforts to 'rebrand' Britain and the emergence of 'Cool Britannia' in the late s, the construction of English National identity remains profoundly dependent on the recovery of heritage The protagonist, much like Meadows as a young boy, finds his place in the group and thus finds a way of escaping ordinary life.

In this context, it seems plausible that for a small community in the Midlands, skins were just a name associated first with reggae and then ska music which accounts for the importance of thetwenty-four tracks included in the film.

It is undeniable that, in the 80's, the skinhead culture attracted both white and black working class youth who forged a specific English identity: Martens boots, braces, and sometimes a Cromby hat. This is what pours out in Meadows' vision: The ultimate contradiction of identity is the fact that one of the members of the group, Milky Andrew Shim , is black and is well accepted in a racist milieu, until the moment he becomes the target of Combo's racist hatred and assault.

According to Meadows: Higson Heritage Cinema and Television' in: British Cultural Studies, p. They knew they were second wave skinheads and they knew they weren't original skinheads but they wanted to be true to that. It was always a working class thing. There were no middle class skinheads where I came from. It was political but it was never extreme, one way or the other. Some would be lefi or right wing — as in terms of labour or conservative rather than militant or fascist — and the bands were much the same3.

The status quo of the first part of the film is shattered when Combo Stephen Graham who was cast to this film after drawing Meadows' attention with his performance in Guy Ritchie's Snatch , released from a three-year period in jail comes back to town filled with hatred and a matching philosophy.

Combo's excuse is that the world has changed a lot during his time in prison, and his presence provokes a feeling of unsafeness especially in Woody. After a first attack on Milky, Combo makes an entrance at a party to ask two important questions which will define the first turning point in the film: Combo is contented and starts to deliver his speech about being English and having to cope with all the immigrants that come to England and take the jobs which belonged to the English 3 In: What is striking is that Combo is using more or less the same regrettable words delivered, in a speech, by Margaret Thatcher, as a prime minister in waiting, when she declared she 'understood the fears of the British people of being swamped by coloured immigrants'.

The second determinant moment occurs when, referring to the Falklands, Combo is confronted with Shaun's assault. However, this moment of crisis brings them closer since when Combo draws an imaginary line on the ground to divide those who are with him from those who are not, Milky and Shaun are ready to cross to his side. Again the view on national identity is stressed and puts at stake the notion of being British against a confused sense of Englishness.

Another determinant moment takes place at the summit of the National Front. Historically the National Front was founded in and claims to be The party op White family values, who defends the interests of the British people. In Meadows' film Lenny, the political leader, having on the back an enormous St. George's flag, later robbed by Shaun as a memento, delivers a speech that can have a double effect depending on the nature of the viewer's political affiliations: Near the end of the film Combo's attack on Milky represents a key moment when he tries to crystallise his conflicting thoughts on what he feels about a friend and the set of rules he has to abide by being member of a political party who hates on account of skin colour.

Thus, the National Front speech will ratify the hatred Combo deploys when he assaults Milky. Combo's motives have been unfolded in the previous scenes and dialogues: According to Meadows' view, Combo is just one skinhead among a group of many others who did not turn out to be violent attackers. In the director's words: I always wanted This Is England to tell the truth about skinheads4.

Sociedade da Caveira de Cristal

In search of this truth Meadows manages to rediscover his own self- geography, by revisiting his own adolescent years, starting from the name of the protagonist who bears an unmistakable parallel with his own name Shane Shaun Meadows Fields. It is also a poignant state-of-the-nation address film about the importance of peer pressure and the results of an excess of nationalism.

However, in order to surpass the realm of the ordinary of making yet another film about the eighties and the skinhead subculture, Meadows created devices to present the image that this is not a film for or against racism, this film is his England and Meadows walks down his own private memory lane, trying to cope with his own biography, this time through a director's eye and the comfort of a camera to direct his interests.

In order to create a more realistic portrait of the eighties, Meadows has looked into a lot of footage which has been kept at ITN and has got permission to use some original images throughout the film, namely those related to the Falklands War. His vision about the war is demolishing: People can see that now. Obviously there were more people against going into Iraq than there were going into the Falklands Uke when England goes to the World Cup, there are Union Jacks on the papers, and you can look at headlines from the time and it soundedjust like that.

Ultimately, I was privy to footage from FTN archives — that wasn't shown on television — of the people we were fighting and it was shameful. It was bullying It was really horrible.

How could we have been proud of winning that? It was the equivalent ofputting Mike Tyson in the ring with a 7year-old kid from an infant school.

So that was always running in the back of this film — the root level of that horrible racism, that bullying and violence that exists in someone can also be inherent in a nation without us knowing it. Thus, when he talks about a nation, England, he is also, in a broader sense, naming Britain. His own impressions from his childhood and the parallel with the script he has written are easily identifiable; As Meadows unfolds the plot of his film and takes us through the characters of Shaun and Woody he is also recollecting his young boy days.

By writing the script and directing the film has helped Meadows perpetuate his own self-image: So I looked for my own tribe to join. It was the skinhead movement that enamoured me the most. But to be a skinhead, all you needed was a pair of jeans, some work boots, a white shirt and a shaved head. My older sister was going out with a skinhead who took me under his wing and taught me about the roots of the whole culture.

I learned from him that skinheads had grown out of working class English lads working side by side with West Indians in factories and shipyards in the lates. The black lads would take the whites to blues parties where they were exposed to ska music for the first time. This was where the whole skinhead thing came from - it was inherently multicultural6. This accounts for the realistic trait which has been one of the major sources of the applause that the film has received both by the critics and the media in general.

It is relevant to note, bearing in mind the cultural idea of being English as opposed to being simply British, stated previously, how Meadows often repeats the word English, reproducing the discourse of his characters. Through the eyes of Shaun and the rest of the gang, Meadows talks about a country, England that has its own flag, a football team and a patron saint, and reinforces the idea of Englishness in a country that is a United Kingdom with one Queen who is commonly referred to as the Queen of England!

Andréa del Fuego

It is also this quest for national identity that has enabled the National Front programme to gain some prominence, 6 http: Finally, in terms of visual culture, the screen violence delineated in This is England is another element to take into account when accounting for the film's popularity. The moment of climax of Combo's rage is cathartic from the viewer's perspective since it fulfils the expectations in terms of the crescendo that has been created from the moment of Combo's homecoming.

When it seems that Combo and Milky are bonding, sharing a joint, and using their differences to reinforce what brings them closer, the assault is bloody and explicit and makes the viewers uncomfortable and willing to turn their faces away from the screen. The truth is Combo does not attack Milky because he is a 'nigger' using the words he utters before he starts the beating , that is the excuse he uses to make it plausible; he does it because Mlky has something that Combo never had the chance to have: The moment Combo regains conscience from his sociopath frenzy he can no longer become a role model, or a father figure for Shaun.

The boy's anagnorisis, in an Aristotelian sense, coincides with the recognition the viewer experiences after the attack is over. However, unlike the Greek dramatists, Meadows has no restraint as far as maintaining the blood away from the eyes of the spectators: The final images contrast in terms of total quietness with the previous violent scene: George's flag, which metaphorically stands for his acknowledgement that he has lost his father, that Combo along with his forged beliefs will never replace his loss and in a cultural perspective, the identity of an Englishman cannot be forged on hatred or on mere 'ethnic' loyalties.

Symbolically, the English flag adrift in the ocean represents the state of a nation confounded in a long debate for identity. The film is dedicated to the memory of Turgoose's mother, Sharon, who died of cancer on 29th December , and comparing the biographies of Meadows and Thomas Torgoose we can acknowledge the rapport between them, in terms of personal history, that is why in his construction of the self through the lenses of the camera Meadows has incorporated a bit of Torgoose's personal views as young boy moving on into his adolescent years, during troubling times.

Somers Town 3. This Is England 4. The Stairwell 5. Northern Soul 6. Dead Man's Shoes 7. Once Upon a Time m the Midlands 8. A Room for Romeo Brass 9. Twenty Four Seven Where's the Money.

This Is England written by 3. The Stairwell uncredited 4. Northern Soul writer 5.

A Bíblia Sob Escrutinio

Dead Man's Shoes written by 6. Once Upon a Time in the Midlands written by In: A Room for Romeo Brass writer 8. Twenty Four Seven written by Once Upon a Time in the Midlands Bingo Caller 2. Male Nurse 3. Man with Saucepan on Head Jumbo 5. Ronnie Editor: Northern Soul as Shaun Fields 2.

Where's die Money. Camera and Electrical Department: Milestone, Katie, The Guardian. Sinopse Neste artigo aborda-se o conceito de 'representation discutindo as materias do valor de verdade e da importancia cultural e ideologica das representac;6es. I wrote three papers on the subject: Antonio Tabucchi's Pereira Declares". While still following the same path, I now address more closely the theoretical questions raised by the concept of'representation'. As we know, in Peirce's account of , he called signs 'representations', and divided them in icons, indices and symbols.

His definitions of these three types of 'representations' are, at this stage, a bit blurred, but, as this division remains throughout his work and what is intended by each of these categories is clarified as his work progresses, I shall consider, from this very beginning, their now almost commonly accepted definitions.

Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administracao do Porto, pp. If it is based on a dyadic or existential relationship with its object, then it is [ Elgin defines icons, indices and symbols in much the same way, except for the definition of index, in which she clearly mentions correlation as an instance of dyadic relationship: A sign's status as an icon, index or symbol derives from its mode of reference. Icons refer by resemblance or, as Peirce said, "mere community in some quality".

Indices refer by a natural correlation or "correspondence in fact". Symbols refer by convention. Thus, a portrait is considered an icon, its reference being secured by its likeness to its subject. A symptom is an index in that it in fact corresponds to a disease. And most denoting terms are symbols in Peirce's sense, for their relation to their objects is a matter of arbitrary convention.

Elgin, Without mental image there is no representation, be it on the part of the producer, be it on the art of the receiver3. Now, we know very little about mental images, but we do know a lot more about images as sign inscriptions. One problem seems to be that the word 'image' is used in multiple senses, both referring to mental images and to signs.

Mitchell addresses this issue not with the aim of producing a definition of the essential nature of images, but rather with the aim of examining the ways we use the word 'image' in a number of institutionalized discourses ibid.: According to him, images are based on the concepts of likeness, resemblance or similitude; as such, they may be divided by means of a diagram of a family tree in graphic pictures, statues, designs , optical mirrors, projections , perceptual sense data, 'species', appearances , mental dreams, memories, ideas, fantasmata and verbal images metaphors, descriptions ibid.: This differentiation, he claims, is based on boundaries between different institutional discourses, and by 'institutional discourses' he means the discourse of intellectual disciplines4 ibid.: If that is so, that is, if all five types of images are placed at the same level in a family tree he even calls them 'the family of images' and if the boundaries between them are set by means of differentiation between institutional 2 Furthermore, for Peirce, each of these three instances is a sign in itself.

Hence the fact that Ransdell uses the designation 'interpretant sign'. He himself acknowledges that when he says that people may report experiencing images in their heads while reading or dreaming, but we only have their wordfor this ibid.: In spite of the fact that the aim of this categorization is not to advance the theoretical understanding of the image, and Mitchell is very clear about this, it nevertheless poses a number of theoretical questions, the most important of which is that one thing is a mental image, say, a dream, a memory and so forth, and another thing is its inscription: Now from this reasoning on Mitchell's approach it does not follow that I am against it.

In fact, what I am doing here is exactly within the line of his aim, which is "to open up for inquiry the ways our 'theoretical' understanding of imagery grounds itself in social and cultural practices, and in a history fundamental to our understanding not only of what images are but of what human nature is or might become" ibid.: But to do so, I think we should leave categorizations of images aside and take a leap to concentrate on images as representations, i.

In fact, his views on the matter are much broader than the diagram of the family of images — in which, as explained above, I see some problems — seems to suggest. It is worth noting his consideration that instead of providing a transparent window on the world, images are now regarded as the sort of sign that presents a deceptive appearance of naturalness and transparence concealing an opaque, distorting arbitrary mechanism of representation, a process of ideological mystification ibid.: What, then, is the basis of this mechanism of representation?

Well, he does not seem to be very interested in giving a concise, straightforward answer to this question, for he his more concerned with differentiation and collaboration, for instance, between graphic image and text; but, if we were to infer such an answer from his reflections on the subject of representation I think the touchstone to that answer would be that the mechanism of representation is based on inculcation cf.

This would be consistent with the quote above and with his general approach to the matter, which is both historical and ideological. Baudrillard In his words, representation stems from the principle of equivalence of the sign and of the real even if the equivalence is Utopian, it is a fundamental axiom.

In putting equivalence at the core of the process of representation and in admitting that even if equivalence is Utopian it must be accepted as an axiom, he dismisses similitude or likeness, or resemblance and makes it a matter of convention.

This axiom makes 5 This is, in fact, Nelson Goodman's position, and the inference that it is also Mitchell's position stems from the fact that Mitchell seems to be in favour of it in the eleven pages he dedicates to 'Goodman's Grammar of Difference' Mitchell, According to Baudrillard, these successive phases of the image are: It is the reflection of a profound reality; It masks and denatures a profound reality; It masks the absence of a profound reality; It has no relation to any reality whatsoever; it is its own pure simulacrum.

Baudrillard, ibid.: However, it is worth noting that, even so, his views on the subject of representation are to be taken into account, particularly in what concerns the issue of the truth value of representations. On the truth value of representations Following the line of reasoning so far, I think it might be concluded that in representations, whatever their type may be, there is always some kind of convention.Se os autores realcjam as diferencjas geograficas na definicjao terminologica, que pode ser public service interpreting UK , cultural interpreting Canada , liaison intepreting Australia , contact interpreting Scandinavia , dialogue intepreting,, ad hoc, triangle, face-to-face, and bidirectional or bilateral intepreting Gentile et al, ; Carr, , nao podem, porem, deixar de reconhecer uma certa identidade e homogeneidade nas praticas e no escopo das actividades a que esses termos se referem, apontando todos para o caracter de servigo publico que assumem cumprir.

Em Portugal, o turismo e uma actividade economica que gera ganhos significativos e a promocjao turistica do pais no mercado extemo assenta cada vez mais na criacjao de sites multilingues. Corpora and language Tearners. Boys dress up in masks and rampage through their villages in an ancient pagan rite of passage. Esta tarefa, aparentemente simples, nao esteve isenta de dificuldades: Edicoes Europa -Lisboa.

This is the time to see the countryside at its most beautiful, although rain can be expected until the end of May. The back label often describes grape varieties and wine-making techniques used.

My older sister was going out with a skinhead who took me under his wing and taught me about the roots of the whole culture. Tira-me o coiro e o cabelo.