BIOETHICS PRINCIPLES ISSUES AND CASES PDF
DESCRIPTION Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Third Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories. This books (Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases [PDF]) Made by MR Lewis Vaughn About Books none To Download Please Click. Moral reasoning in bioethics -- Bioethics and moral theories -- Paternalism and patient autonomy -- Truth-telling and confidentiality -- Informed consent -- Human .
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Download Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases PDF. The book Bioethics: Principles, Issues and Cases majorly explores the medical, social, philosophical. Get this from a library! Bioethics: principles, issues, and cases. [Lewis Vaughn]. download bioethics: principles, issues, and cases pdf - classic bioethical cases and abundant pedagogical tools this text addresses the bioethics third edition is.
In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cartwright, N. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health 2 3 : — On the Road to a Cure? The New England Journal of Medicine 10 : — Pediatrics 3 : — Google Scholar Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
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Google Scholar Graham, I. Carroli, C. Davies, and J. Birth 32 3 : — Google Scholar Harmon, S. Developing World Bioethics 8 2 : — Google Scholar Holzer, F. Deigner and M. Kohl Eds. London: Academic Press-Elsevier.
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New York Times Article published 22 June Accessed 17 Apr Levine, R. Clarifying the Concepts of Research Ethics. Hastings Center Report 9 3 : 21— The Need to Revise the Declaration of Helsinki. The New England Journal of Medicine 7 : — Robert Levine. Emanuel, C. Grady, R. Crouch, R. Bioethics is a neologism derived from the Greek bios life and ethike ethics , and may be defined as "the systematic study of moral dimensions, including vision, decision, behavior and rules of life sciences and of health care" 8.
Or even, bioethics is "the systematic study of human behavior in the areas of life and health care sciences, provided this behavior is examined at the light of moral values and principles". Ethics relates to moral, which is the science of what morally "should be" and not of "what it is", or even, is the search and the establishment of the reasons justifying what "should have been done" and not what "may be done".
Science deals with reality as it is, and moral deals with reality as it should be. And what differentiates human being universe from the natural world is exactly the ability to make value judgments, and ethics is the domain of value judgments.
Bioethics is part of a much larger universe, that of ethics itself which involves moral rules of different areas such as business, environment, economics, etc.
However, it also encompasses the known and conservative Medical Ethics, more involved with physician-patient and physician-physician relationships, without presenting solutions for several other emerging problems in the field of life sciences. The Code of Medical Ethics CEM indicates how its members should behave and what they are not allowed to do; it is the classical professional deontology which, in its articles, has starting with "the physician is not allowed to" Bioethics has also a very close relationship with Law and some very old moral rules ended up being incorporated to it.
The ethical behavior of individuals requires their free personal adhesion and convincement; legal rules do not require this convincement but are rather imposed by society to all people regardless of previous individual agreement. Laws, when not respected, generate legal penalties and ethical rules have no mandatory penalties provided for cases of transgression.
The Code of Medical Ethical-Professional Process, regulating the examination of possible breaches of CEM rules and the application of penalties, configures an exception to this rule in article 40 which provides that "disciplinary penalties applicable by Regional Councils are those provided by the law".
That is, transgressions to medical ethics rules are punished by the art. Bioethics and Law, together, have a more humanistic sense because they are bound to the notion of justice to individuals in all health acts. Each and every act aiming at care or technological advances and not respecting human dignity should be repelled for going against ethical-legal justice and human rights.
The practice of some health investigations should be prevented if involving potential and unexpected risks to life or health. Health and Law professionals are responsible for making technological advance something good and helpful for men, to protect human rights with justice goals The principle of beneficence does not clearly define how to distribute goodness and evil, it just imposes the first avoiding the second.
When there are conflicting requirements, higher emphasis should be given to goodness, at the expenses of evil, in ethical terms. In health, especially in Anesthesiology, beneficence is acting in behalf of patients and their health, promoting health and preventing anesthetic complications. But the principle of beneficence is not absolute and is limited by the autonomous right of individuals to decide what they consider their goodness, what is convenient for them It is universally consecrated through the Hippocratic aphorism "primum non nocere", the intention of which is not to inflict any type of physical or moral damage to patients Its philosophical basis is far more encompassing than the principle of beneficence because not causing damage is a common notion to all people due to each and every individual without discrimination; beneficence, however, should only be exerted to those really needing it in a far more limited universe The principle of non-malfeasance is not always adequately understood because the practice of Medicine may initially lead to damages with the objective of obtaining a better future benefit 18; if this were true, physicians would not act whenever their interventions would imply a major risk.
The principle of non-malfeasance is closely related to Medicine and is contained in the same Hippocrates oath: "I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous.
I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel. Autonomy means self-determination, the individual ability and right to decide and choose what is convenient, what people believe is the best for them, to decide their destiny according to their conceptions and without influences, not having to compulsorily adhere to or accept third-party conceptions, in this case physicians.
However, due to the low social-cultural level of our population, this principle has raised major discussions in the exercise of daily Medicine, especially as a function of the deep-rooted paternalism of physicians. But it has also been responsible for the introduction of patients' "free and informed consent" for medical acts, among them anesthesia.
Patients autonomy to choose what they understand is best for them after medical explanations has gone beyond moral and was incorporated to the Law itself; The Supreme Court has consecrated jurisprudence on the matter by stating: "the self-preservation instinct makes all people, the more rudimentary their basic knowledge might be, the safest judge of the conveniences for their own health" The principle of autonomy is frontally against the Hippocratic concept of Medicine of "doing the good and taking care of the patient" solely based on health professionals knowledge and reasoning, without considering patients' wishes.
Respect to autonomy is a fairly recent phenomenon, which is slowly overriding the principle of beneficence A historical landmark of respect to autonomy is the Patient's Bill of Rights, published in by the American Hospitals Association and which is a reference to the practice of Medicine in that country; patients' rights to information and previous consent were consecrated in that bill Physicians may be persuasive but never coactive by manipulating information or unilaterally imposing treatments.
Patient and anesthesiologist should jointly choose the anesthetic method; the physician however is not forced to accept legal impositions which may pose needless risks. Free and informed consent has already been incorporated to deontologic rules of current CEM from , which considers ethical breach: Art. Brazilian civil legislation has confirmed the ethical requirement of the informed consent: Civil code art.
Consumers' Protection Code art.
But the right to autonomy has its limits; it is not absolute and should be limited by the respect to dignity and freedom and by the rights of others and of the community.
A state leader cannot, for instance, refuse a transfusion that could save his life for conscience reasons because this right is first opposed to the right of all the citizens who have elected him of having him as a governor. When the autonomy of someone, permanently or temporarily, as it is the case of the anesthesiologist, is decreased, the principles of beneficence and of non-malfeasance should ethically prevail.
It is worth stressing that from the ethical viewpoint, the notion of free and informed consent may go against current legislation; so, a unique ethical situation is created during anesthesia if the patient had previously refused a blood transfusion which a priori would not be needed, but for an accident suffers a massive hemorrhage.
How should the anesthesiologist act if faced to the Legal Code in not doing so he could incur in omission of aid 22?
Due to the collective interest in preserving the highest good, in this case life, current legislation prevents the physician to satisfy this autonomy of patients.
For adolescents, although still with some difficulties, the idea of autonomy has been preconized based on the notion of "sanitation wisdom", that is, the decision ability of the implied young. According to the Statute of the Child and of the Adolescent, the latter are aged 12 to 18 incomplete years.Integrating eighty-five readings--thirteen of them new to this edition--numerous cases, and abundant pedagogical tools, the book addresses the most provocative and controversial topics in bioethics.
Carroli, G. Although being philosophical, and to a certain extent apart from a specialty focused on acute attention to patients, anesthesiologists are willing to understand this new science, which will increasingly influence the practice of the specialty, in order to protect patients and avoid further inconveniences in the rather difficult practice of this specialty in our country.
Physicians shall strive for the equalitarian distribution of health resources, primarily aiming at reaching as effectively as possible, the universality of patients. Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server Configure custom proxy use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy. This entry has no external links. Captive bolts may be used, typically on dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs and rabbits.
Editors' Choice. It's better than competing books in terms of having a great selection of everything I'm looking for in a text; others have more readings but lack either theories, cases, or legal cases.