PROGRAMMING THE SEMANTIC WEB PDF
PDF | On Jan 1, , Jorge Cardoso and others published Programming The Semantic Web. For example: “Programming the Semantic Web by Toby. Segaran, Colin Evans, and Jamie .org/pdf/sppn.info Displaying Sets of Triples. With this book, the promise of the semantic web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a.
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Programming. THE SEMANTIC WEB. Build an application upon Semantic Web models. Brief overview of Apache Jena and. OWL-API. Familiarity with the Ruby and Java programming languages and The Semantic Web is a vision of the future Web, where meaning is asso-. This is where Semantic Web technologies come in .. The Semantic Web provides technologies to make . the rest is conventional programming ▻ Similar.
The Logic layer enables the writing of rules.
The Logic layer is placed above the ontology layer. It is supposed that information will be extracted from the web according to this logic.
Function of Layer 5 It is supposed to be used as a framework for making new interfaces and should have the necessary expressiveness needed for the implementation of the Semantic Web. It is assumed to be a language used in a manner that describes for agents why they should believe the results. This will be a useful Semantic Web service.
Function of Layer 6 This layer will be used for checking the validity of specific statement.
Layer 7: Trust A lot of efforts have been exerted to reach the trusted web, but this is very complicated and difficult task and has not become a reality. Trust has many meanings in the Semantic Web. Trust is the final layer in the Semantic Web architecture. It depends on the source of information as well as the policies available on the information source which can prevent unwanted applications or user from access to these sources.
Function of Layer 7 It is supposed to provide a mechanism for trust and confidence between information sources and parities. The Vertical layer: Digital Signature. Digital Signature is the only vertical layer in the Semantic Web architecture. It begins from layer 3 and ends at layer 6. Digital Signature is a step towards a web of trust. By using of XML digital signature, any digital information can be signed Cloran, Function of the Digital Signature XML Signature can be applied to the content of resources and, by this way; every resource can be identified.
It also facilitates mapping between ontologies Berners-Lee, 5 Languages on the Web An important requirement for machine-processable information is structure in data. There are several ways to structure data: databases, for example, use tables with attributes as structuring mechanism.
The main structuring technique that is used on the Web is document markup Ying et. A markup language is a specification of the markup-tags that may used, how they may combined, and what their meaning is. However, HTML only provides rendering information about the content, which is often not sufficient for the advanced automated services that are foreseen on the Semantic Web.
Applications will need specialized markup that specifies the role of parts of the content that are relevant for them.
It is necessary to specify the meaning of the tags. XML is a mechanism for representing other languages in a standardized way. In other words, XML only provides a data format for structured documents, without specifying an actual vocabulary.
XML does not imply a specific interpretation of the data. The only legitimate interpretation is that XML code contains named entities with sub- entities and values; that is, every XML document forms an ordered, labeled tree.
As its name indicates, it is not a language but a model for representing data, i. Resources are all things that have an identifier on the Web, ranging from specific, identifiable parts of a document to things like persons or companies.
Basically, the RDF data model is quite simple. It consists of statements about resources, encoded as object-attribute-value triples. The objects are resources and the values are resources or strings. It provides a mechanism to define domain-specific properties and classes of resources to which you can apply those properties. The basic modeling primitives in RDF Schema are class definitions and subclass-of statements which together allow the definition of class hierarchies , property definitions and subproperty-of statements to build property hierarchies , domain and range statements to restrict the possible combinations of properties and classes , and type statements to declare a resource as an instance of a specific class.
Ontologies were developed in Artificial Intelligence to facilitate knowledge sharing and reuse. More recently, the notion of ontology is also becoming widespread in fields such as intelligent information integration, cooperative information systems, information retrieval, electronic commerce, and knowledge management Ying, The reason ontologies are becoming so popular due to what they promise: a shared and common understanding of some domain that can be communicated between people and application systems.
Ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization. Hereby different degrees of formality are possible. Large ontologies like WordNet11 provide a thesaurus for over , terms explained in natural language. On the other end of the spectrum is CYC, that provides formal axiom ting theories for many aspect of common 6 P age sense knowledge. RDF Schema is quite simple compared to full-fledged knowledge representation languages.
To be able to specify the meaning of data more precisely, richer languages are necessary. OIL is such an enhanced language. OIL is the result of an initiative to integrate intuitive modeling primitives, Web-languages, and formal semantics into one language. One of the central design ideas in OIL is its onion model shown in Fig.
Effective and efficient work with the semantic web must be supported by advanced tools enabling the full power of this technology. Other Semantic Web languages are discussed below: 5. Joint Committee on Markup Languages. In turn, it was superseded by OWL.
It is the central research and development organization for the Dept. The DAML program ended in early OWL is considered one of the fundamental technologies underpinning the Semantic Web, and has attracted both academic and commercial interest.
Supports modeling classes, attributes, binary relations and instances. Semantics can improve software reuse and discovery, significantly facilitate composition of Web services and enable integration of legacy applications as part of business process integration. The third generation of the Web has provided a great opportunity to transform these functions such as collection, cataloguing, reference and circulation to the Semantic Web.
The following elaborations will no doubt make us to understand how semantic web is useful for the day to day functions of the library. Only keeping of the resources in an organized manner is not sufficient if the patrons of the library will not be provided the effective services.
The formation of well designed Collection policies helps and encourages the professionals to develop a good attitude towards strengthening collection in the library. Collection development can help libraries with administrative activities by including procedures for acquisitions, gifts, weeding, replacing lost items, and collection evaluation.
The World Wide Web is the treasure house of resources which helps the students, teachers, researchers and scientists to get their required information at their desktop, if the professionals make good effort to collect the same and organized in a well develop manner to disseminate for the patrons.
Programming the Semantic Web
The library professionals as well as information managers should follow the collection development policies and modify them as per the need of the time.
The professionals and the information mangers should bear the constraints to meet the queries of the patrons with great patience and enthusiasm. Charles A. Cutter has made his concept of cataloguing so visionary universal that even in the present era of web.
It is still applicable to library activities in the modern time of current cataloguing activities. However, whether a problem occurs depends not only on the used numbers, but also on other ontology axioms.
However, in the KAON2 distribution you can find eight annotated examples which demonstrate how to solve typical tasks. Here is a list stating what topics are covered by which example: Example 1 shows how to load an ontology and print its contents. It also explains some basic concepts related to working with multiple ontologies with inclusion dependencies.
Example 2 shows how to create an ontology, add several axioms, and save it into a file.
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Example 3 shows how to retrieve axioms and navigate among them. All along we add to the FriendTracker application to directly demonstrate the programming concepts.
Here we build on your solid base of knowledge representation and Semantic Web application development to expand into powerful, useful areas, including semantic services, time and space, Semantic Web architectures and best practices, and unfolding Semantic Web tools that are almost here. It builds on everything we covered so far in the book by presenting a series of architecture patterns for constructing various Semantic Web applications.
It focuses on four critical, evolving areas for the Semantic Web: ontology management, advanced integration and distribution, advanced reasoning, and visualization. This provides a solid view into what is on its way in the actively evolving Semantic Web.
The Semantic Web takes advantage of the multitude of distributed information and services that exist in the World Wide Web, the business enterprise, and your personal resources. Therefore, many technical readers would benefit from this book whether you focus on the entire application or only the information. These include both applications developers and information developers who focus on data in its many forms, from database schemas to XML formats.
This book provides all the tools, background, and rich examples to jump-start your applications. Architects gain insights into the role of the Semantic Web within a larger application. The overall applications serve the system architect, whereas the detailed information and data management areas benefit information architects responsible for data formats and data processing.
Technical management gains insight into the power, risks, and benefits of the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is a strategic technology—one that truly provides a solution with a significant advantage.
It offers a new approach to extremely tough but lucrative challenges that employ vast amounts of information and services. Awareness of the Semantic Web is required for any solution that depends on dynamic information and service resources. The code examples provide credibility to the technology and insights into its own challenges for better planning.
Tools You Will Need We highly recommend that you reinforce your learning by downloading and customizing the numerous coding examples throughout the book.
Programming the Semantic Web
All the software tools are open source and readily available from the World Wide Web. We include all necessary links and instructions. Your computer is compatible with all of these tools as long your operating system supports a Java 1.
As we cover each tool in the book, we provide download, installation, and configuration instructions.
In addition, we summarize all the tools with instructions in Appendix F. Here you can access all related articles, complete code examples, and ontologies, as well as have an opportunity to get involved in the ongoing discussions and activities.
The site also contains any book and code updates to reflect the continual expansion and evolution of the Semantic Web. We welcome comments on the book and examples. Introduction Our site includes an active blog and wiki awaiting your contributions and insights. Feel free to register for either the blog or the wiki or both and enter questions or get in on the discussion.
We find that the best learning occurs through your questions—ask away. Summary From Here, Up Next, and So On Semantic Web programming is an exciting, powerful new approach to better use the vast information and services available.
With all of this power and excitement come a new vocabulary, new tools, and new insights into building working applications.Charles A.
Furthermore, the Semantic Web relies on inference chains that are more brittle; a missing element of the chain results in a failure to perform the desired action, while the human can supply missing pieces in a more Google-like approach. Ontology learning approaches and ontology library systems, which manage, adapt, and standardize ontology.
It also explains some basic concepts related to working with multiple ontologies with inclusion dependencies. Alternatively, the user might send an http request directly to the service URL with the appropriate parameters encoded.
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