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Use features like.. Download or Read Online A dieta viva! Mais de There is a marked botanical affinity between chorous range. Atlantic Ocean; endemites; insular mammals; inter alia by endemic high tree elements, such as the Azores zoogeography.

Mammals of the Macaronesian islands Figure 1 A view of the island of Pico, which boasts the highest peak of Portugal at the summit of the volcano of the same name m above sea level , from Fayal in the Azores photo by Marco Masseti.

These forests once covered most of the Azores, Madeira, and parts of the Canaries between altitudes of Several scholars, such as Rivas Goday and Esteve Chueca — m, but not the eastern Canaries and Cape Verde , Sunding , and Losada-Lima — , are which are too dry Losada-Lima — The Moroccan coast from Cape Africa Vanderpoorten et al.

The latter, in , Cramp , Kunkel , Ribeiro et al. It is a mem- , and Masseti and Bruner , have expressed ber of the tropical family Sapotaceae, originating from insu- themselves in favour of the inclusion of all these East Atlan- lar Macaronesia, which comprises approximately species tic archipelagos within the limits of the Palaearctic zoogeo- and 50 genera. According to Vernon et al. The same territories of the north- outpost Clarke , even though we have to note the pov- western Atlantic coast of Africa are also characterised by the erty of the Azorean fauna when compared with that of occurrence of several zoological species that could, from cer- Madeira and the Canary Islands de Frias Martins We could, for example, Palaearctic region, Ellerman and Morrison-Scott and mention the Moroccan jird, Meriones grandis Cabrera , Corbet exclude the islands of Cape Verde, but Vaurie which is confined to western Morocco where it is dispersed — and Cramp suggest comprising them in the steppes and cultivated areas of the Atlantic plains and within the confines of this zoogeographical region in view hills up to the Atlas chain Aulagnier et al.

In fact, as is expected on oceanic islands, no indigenous non- flying terrestrial mammals, freshwater fishes, and amphibi- ans occur, or have occurred, on the vast majority of the Macaronesian islands Hazevoet The representatives of these latter taxonomic groups are in fact absent from the original fauna of the Azores, the archipelago of Madeira, and that of Cape Verde.

The mammal scenario of these islands is disconcertingly impoverished and monotonous, made up exclusively of the same taxonomic groups. The very few endemites can, in fact, be referred essentially to three species of chiroptera — of which the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and the Canaries each possess a native represen- tative — in addition, for the Canaries alone, to three murids which became extinct in the Holocene, after human coloni- sation of the islands, and one representative of the taxonomic Figure 2 Boundaries of the biogeographical unit of Macaronesia group of the Soricomorpha, still in existence, the Canary with its continental African enclave.

Setzer , Aulagnier and Thevenot , Aulagnier et al. The current mammalian composition of the islands of , , Musser and Carleton , Rihane , The- Macaronesia is characterised by the presence of species of venot and Aulagnier In certain respects, the Saharan shrew, Crocidura tarfayensis Vesmanis and Vesmanis , could also be considered an endemite of this portion of North Africa, being dispersed along the Atlantic coast of Sahara from Morocco south of Agadir to Mauritania Wolsan and Hutterer , Hutterer b.

The definition excludes islands associated with continents and which occur within or along their periphery. In effect, as pointed out by MacArthur and Wilson , an increase in distance near to far lowers the immigration rate of biotas on islands, whereas an increase in island area small to large lowers the extinction curve.

According to Alfred Russel Wallace Wallace , oce- anic islands are those lacking in several categories of biotas, Figure 3 Current endemic mammals of the Eastern Atlantic such as non-volant mammals, for example.

Resenha das Familias Titulares e Grandes de Portugal - Tomo II.pdf

One of the exam- islands. Article in press - uncorrected proof 6 M. Mammals of the Macaronesian islands Table 1 Non-volant anthropochorous mammals. Species Island References 1. Miller , cuniculus L. Dorst and de Naurois , de Naurois , , Flux and Fullagar 5. Pygmy white-toothed Tenerife Canary Islands Martin et al. Muzio , Alfonso-Roque , L. Mathias 9. Pena and Cabral a,b; L.

Figueira , Zino , Monod , Press et al. Muzio , Darling , Zeuner , , Nogales et al. Muzio , Ulfstrand , L. Siverio et al. Hooker , Martin and Machado , Nogales et al.

Hooker , Nogales et al. Evidence shows that the extant occurrence of non- of the Pleistocene Boston et al. The distribution of the Ten- sp. Three of these bats are where it has been reported from Tenerife Moreno , regarded as endemic: Together with the et al. Even the rean bat, Nyctalus azoreum Thomas It would, however, islands of Corvo and Flores, the western Azores, lie outside appear that, during the 16th century at the time of the colo- the range of the latter bat Mathias , Palmeirim , nisation of the Ilhas Perdidas — their Portuguese name — Salgueiro et al.

In total, five continental species there was only one species of bat in existence Fructuoso of bat are today reported from the islands of Cape Verde: Mammals of the Macaronesian islands Table 2 Chiropterofauna recorded from the Macaronesian islands.

Geoffroy Trujillo , Nogales et al. Madeira pipistrelle, Madeira archipelago of Madeira ; Archipelago of Madeira: Neukirchen and Niethammer , Mathias ; Canary Islands: Noctule, Nyctalus noctula Azores Palmeirim Schrebee Grey long-eared bat, Madeira archipelago of Madeira ; Archipelago of Madeira: Fischer Cape Verde: European free-tailed bat, Madeira; Madeira: It would appear, ed from Europe.

Nor should we Even considering the great distance that separates this forget that for the Azores too Drouet mentioned the Macaronesian archipelago from the nearest African coasts introduction of a species of bat, probably N. On the island of Tenerife, it is suspected that several individuals of the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus E. Geoffroy , escaped from two zoological gardens in resulting in two different populations Trujillo , Nogales et al.

Other bats were found in the archaeological deposits of Cueva de la Enladrillada, Tegueste Tenerife Diego Cuscoy and in the volcanic pipes of the island of El Hierro Castillo et al.

Mammals of the Macaronesian islands Table 3 Extinct and living endemic non-volant mammals of the Canary Islands also see Figure 5. Non-flying terrestrial mammals although no longer from La Graciosa and Alegranza where have always been absent from the native fauna on the west- it probably recently became extinct Hutterer et al. Article in press - uncorrected proof M.

The last remnant of a bravoi bones in Tenerife indicate a Holocene extinction after vanished world, it is part of the unique native mammalian BC Bocherens et al.

It reached a body survived, and hence deserve special protection and conser- length of approximately 25 cm, around the size of the brown vation Hutterer et al. Its adap- Another shrew, which was recorded on the Canary Islands tive features and geographical distribution suggest a relative- and described as the Osorio shrew, Crocidura osorio Molina ly humid open habitat, with herbaceous vegetation Figure and Hutterer , was at length believed to be endemic to 7.

The species has been recorded from the Holocene where Gran Canaria Hutterer et al. However, this alleged endemic char- aboriginal man. Morphological and genetic It was a generalised rodent with a head and body studies Vogel et al.

The Canaria is a peripheral population of C. In fact, this rodent ecology, and behaviour Hutterer et al. There is a notable convergence in ic rodents were also extracted from the sediments and depos- skeletal proportions between the lava mouse, the rock mouse, its of the Canary Islands.

These were members of the Old Apodemus mystacinus Danford and Alston , the Gala- World subfamily of Murinae and colonised the islands by pagos rice rat, Nesoryzomys indefessus Thomas , and natural means, leading to endemic genera and species: According to Boye et al.

All are now extinct Rando et al. The Tenerife giant rat, Canariomys bravoi Crusafont-Pairo and Petter , was a big murid weighing around 1 kg Musser and Carleton Article in press - uncorrected proof 14 M. Mammals of the Macaronesian islands Figure 7 Reconstruction of the skeleton of the Gran Canaria giant rat.

According to Rando et al. Even though the distance that separates Fuerteventura, the However, like many other endemic rodents around the world easternmost Canary Island, from continental Africa, is only Flannery and Schouten , it probably succumbed to the around km Losada-Lima — , it seems very arrival of rats, passengers on the ships of European settlers.

Together with the endemic hypothesis explaining this extinction. Canariomys tamarani Canary rats, the lava mouse also probably colonised the also became extinct after man settled on the islands islands when these were still joined to western Africa Azza- Michaux et al. The assumption that the Eastern Canary Islands Bones of all three species of endemic Canary rodents are were once part of Africa is supported by geological evidence found at archaeological sites, documenting contact between Azzaroli Fuerteventura is largely composed of Ter- the aboriginal people and the native mammal fauna.

Rodents on islands generally increase in size during the course of their evolution Masseti b but, The mice of Madeira as we have already seen, the lava mouse was rather small for an insular rodent Boye et al. Based remains or with a species of mouse, considered to be the on a comparison of dental size and shape, as well as geo- house mouse, Mus musculus Linnaeus , the only species graphical considerations, a possible mainland ancestor could among the Eurasian Mus genus complex that has a com- be either the genera Paraethomys North-African Pliocene mensal interaction with humans Bonhomme et al.

Such The first humans arrived on the Canary Islands between results support the hypothesis of a Pliocene colonisation and years ago Gonzales and Tejera Gaspar , event, in which case Malpaisomys would display a normal Navarro et al.

The earliest known evolutionary rate in dental size and shape, despite the insular human inhabitants were the Guanches, now extinct as a dis- context. Mammals of the Macaronesian islands 15 from continental Africa. This aboriginal population had long of reference for the oldest remains of the species retrieved been out of touch with the mainland when they were redis- on Fuerteventura Rando et al. The mouse found in covered about by the Portuguese who began their association with the endemic lava mouse presents certain conquest in Hooten The extant populations of M.

In spite of the fact and their rapid genetic evolution Britton-Davidian et al. Overall, populations from eastern islands entirely cleared this find is at any rate of importance as it diverge more from the continental mice than those from represents one of the rare examples of the occurrence of western islands. Two This is probably the first rodent to have been introduced to main factors could have contributed to this pattern: Evidence for the occurrence of ber of subsequent introductions of continental individuals via Mus musculus on Madeira at an age prior to all known shipping Michaux et al.

It is possible that the first attempts at colonisation of the island on the part of the Eur- house mice imported onto Madeira and the Canary Islands opeans, which took place only in — De Freitas were introduced by some prehistoric human group, such as , Harley and Woodward , does not rule out that the Gaunches.

Mus musculus appears to be the only form of this commensal species might have been introduced in the house mouse to have so far successfully colonised the archi- course of prior frequentations of Madeira by other human pelago of Madeira, including the Desertas Islands and Sav- groups.

The large-sized mouse probably became extinct soon age Islands Mathias and Mira The species seems to after the colonisation of Madeira in the 15th century.

It has have been common in the Azores since the establishment of been suggested that the main reason for its extinction was the first human colonies in the 15th century Drouet , Arruba Rattus rattus, for example, was introduced onto Robertsonian races has been detected in this island popula- the Canary Islands from the 15th century, whereas the brown tion, revealing that it has accumulated different combinations rat, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout , was imported from of 20 metacentrics in — years Britton-Davidian et the 17th century Rodriguez Luengo and Garcia Casanova al.

The latter species was introduced involuntarily by On the Canary Islands too, Mus musculus was present at man onto the Azores not before the 18th or at the beginning archaeological sites on some islands in pre-European times of the 19th century Mathias et al. According to Drouet , the introduc- do et al.

According to Castillo et al. In fact, Fructuoso lier than the first human inhabitants. This age, however, was mentioned that this species was already present on obtained from shell samples from land snails and was indi- some of the islands by the 16th century. Rando et al. Thus, as far as is presently lates into the Eastern Atlantic islands, and in particular onto known, the documented presence of M.

In fact, as for most of the other non-flying mammals, on the Eastern Atlantic Islands the natural occurrence of this arti- odactyl cannot be proven by any fossil record Masseti a. As Zeuner pointed out: Zeuner himself studied these three animals from the prehistoric site of Gauyadeque, Gran Canaria, Diego Cuscoy , and Acosta Martinez and Pellicer Catalan recorded them from several sites in Tenerife and Hernandez Camacho et al. Subfossil osteo- logical remains of the species were found during the archae- ological exploration of several of the Holocene deposits of the islands of Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Ten- erife, La Gomera, and El Hierro Castillo et al.

A particular abundance of goat remains more than bone fragments of approximately individuals was observed by Meco Cabrera et al. Medieval goat remains have also been provided in sev- eral Canarian sites, such as those of Cueva del Llano, dated were present on Deserta Grande Bannerman and Bannerman to AD, on Fuerteventura Rando et al. These are close- Pereira , but are now extinct on both islands Gangoso ly connected with the phenotypes of the Asiatic Bezoar goat et al. Bugio, instead, is the only or Pasang, Capra aegagrus Erxleben , characterised Eastern Atlantic island still inhabited by a population of inter alia by a dark median spinal stripe stretching from the goats characterised by the pre-Hispanic phenotypes.

Here, a base of the cranium to the tail, by a dark collar in the males feral herd of perhaps no more than 60 individuals, reputedly and by upright ears in both sexes and scimitar-shaped horns, of very ancient origin, is reported as still surviving Masseti the tips of which can either converge or diverge Masseti It would appear that these goats were imported to , a.

More specifically, they fall within the pheno- Bugio from the island of La Palma Canary Islands in his- types of the wild goat of Youra, Capra aegagrus dorcas Rei- torical times, possibly during the 15th century Pena and chenow , still occurring on the namesake Greek island Cabral b , and according to Morus , their release in the Northern Sporades, Aegean Sea Masseti , onto the Ihlas Desertas might have taken place not before a.

Its phenotype is characterised by a greyish-tawny Despite the blackish-brown colouring of the coat Fig- coat colouring which can comprise patterns typical of the ure 9 , the form of the horns is entirely comprised within the wild goat, with a dark stripe along the back and black-and- variability of the Youra phenotype.

It seems probable that whitish fetlocks. However, the main character that distin- the first domestic goats arrived on Madeira, Porto Santo and guishes this phenotype from the wild goats still dispersed in the Desertas Islands only in medieval times. In fact, they the continental Near East and in several Eastern Mediterra- were probably brought from the Algarve and very likely also nean islands consists in the development of the horns.

They from the Canary Islands or elsewhere, before Mathias are in fact still sharply keeled but no longer emerge parallel Black individuals south of Madeira, at least up to the second half of the s also occasionally occur. Zeuner reported the occur- Zino , Monod , Press et al. This rence of pre-Hispanic goats of this phenotype from the island too was regarded as a population of ancient origin.

Diogo of La Palma, in the Canaries, recording a stuffed specimen Gomes mentions, in fact, in his account of Great Savage exhibited in the Museo Canario at Las Palmas de Gran island, that the goats were already present there in the 15th Canaria Figure 8.

Mammals of the Macaronesian islands 17 In the Canary Islands, feral goats were noted by Lack and Southern to be present above the tree line on Tenerife in the late s. Nogales et al. According to Morus , goats from the Canaries were collected by Columbus during his second voyage — and these were almost certainly among the first Old World farm ani- mals to enter the Americas Ryder The goats that were imported onto the remote Galapagos islands, approxi- Figure 9 Male goat of pre-Hispanic phenotype from Bugio in the mately km from the South American coast of Ecuador Desertas Islands archipelago of Madeira characterised by a black- in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, must also have been ish-brown colouring of the coat photo by Miguel Domingues, comprised within the phenotypes of Capra aegagrus Parque Natural da Madeira.

The beard and the dorsal mane were particularly well-developed. In the s, some feral goats were in fact reported to exist on the ledges and coves of steep hill- sides on the Azorean island of Santa Maria Bannerman and Bannerman Figure On the southernmost archi- pelago of Macaronesia, Cape Verde, populations of feral goats are still reported from the small island of Baixo Maio , where they were imported a few decades ago. According to the Ministerio do Ambiente Agricultura e Pescas of Cape Verde, goats are still present on the small islet of Rom- bo, off the northeastern coast of Brava Figure According to the chronistas, sheep might also have been present on the Canary Islands before the European conquest Alvarez Delgado , Zeuner , Hernandez Perez By way of example we can mention the book entitled Nuzhatul Mushtaq, written by the 13th century Arab geo- Figure 10 Bugio, in the Desertas Islands, is the only island of grapher Al-Idrisi, which is often cited by proponents of pre- Macaronesia where a population of goats of the pre-Hispanic phe- notype still occurs.

Another population characterised by similar pat- Columbian Andalusian-Americas contact theories, reporting terns was still reported on the Canarian island of La Palma in the the journey over the Atlantic Ocean made by a family of s Zeuner Other feral goats were previously recorded Andalusian seafarers from Lisbon.

Effectively, prehistoric bones of sheep and goats The Portuguese prince had in fact taught his seamen have been provided by the archaeological exploration of the that one of the fundamental rules in the colonisation of new latter island Rando et al. The breed originally imported to the Canary Islands importation and successive acclimatisation of plants and might have been the thin-tailed wool sheep Blench Mammals of the Macaronesian islands as part of primitive husbandry practice, solely for their coarse , and on Hierro in the s Nogales et al.

According to Villafuerte , the species occurs at present on all the Canary Islands. Dorst and de Naurois and de Naurois noted that these leporids were introduced on some of the The introduction of the rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus L.

Cape Verde islands post, after the official date of the , on the Eastern Atlantic archipelagos took place in the discovery of the archipelago by the Portuguese, and subse- 15th century, or even earlier, and was thought to have been quently became abundant on some islands, although they triggered by the early stages of both the Portuguese and the have now disappeared Dost and de Naurois , de Nau- Spanish discoveries Long , Ferrand Figure In the Canarian archipelago too, the been indigenous and only observed after human settlement.

Literary references indicate that this species was lib- settlers until they caused damage. According to Torriani , unknown. According to Perez de Paz , they were intro- Borda et al. It has long been believed that these island granza, Santa Clara, Graciosa, and Gomera Canarian archi- populations are of feral origin, mainly as a result of the tem- pelago , and Porto Santo and the Savage Islands archipelago poral coincidence of the human movement and the appear- of Madeira.

Rabbits were abundant on Lanzarote by ance of documents attesting the emergence of domestic and were reported from there in the s Moseley , rabbits Ferrand In the 19th century, Haeckel s Aritio , and s Nogales et al. They described the Porto Santo rabbit as a new species that he were present in Gran Canaria in the s Santana et al. Darwin showed, however, that the animal dif- fered conspicuously from the English rabbit and inferred that it had evolved into a new race since its introduction into the island some hundreds of years ago Cockerell Neverthe- less, according to Esteves et al.

The results obtained from a preliminary genetic analysis of mtDNA sam- ples obtained from Porto Santo and Madeira do not refute the hypothesis that the rabbit population of Porto Santo was founded by one pregnant female. Furthermore, the results of another study by Esteves on the genetics of the rab- Figure 11 Recent genetic studies indicate that the rabbits of the bits of Porto Santo, together with the comprehensive inves- Azores, Madeira and most of the Canary Islands exhibit the molec- tigation of Fonseca in Madeira and most of the ular signature of a common Iberian origin Fonseca , Ferrand Azores and Canary Islands, clearly showed that introduced photo by Marco Masseti.

Mammals of the Macaronesian islands 19 colonisation of the islands was accompanied by a major bot- According to Haltenorth and Diller , in some tleneck, and Fonseca further suggested that the rabbits animals — presumably Cervus elaphus hispanicus Hilzheimer of the three archipelagos exhibit the molecular signature of — were imported onto the Spanish island of Fernando a common Iberian origin Ferrand This information was later taken up by several cation of rabbits was carried out on the island of Great Desert other authors including Lever , Whitehead , and archipelago of Madeira by the Parque Natural da Madeira Long Literary references to the occurrence on Bioko Bell These are all, however, refer- ences dating prior to , the date of the alleged introduc- Wild game from continental Europe tion of the deer onto Bioko, even that of Sundiata which can actually be referred to the s.

In my opinion, Starting from at least the 15th century, the colonisation of this introduction of red deer on Bioko should be regarded as the islands was also implemented through the importation of dubious. The aim was to provide a source in the studies on Bioko mammals, such as Basilio or of animal protein, available as need arose.

Several authorities who have spent many almost certainly feral, are recorded as part of the fauna of years working on the African island were then consulted the Guanche settlements of most of the Western Canary about this alleged occurrence and not one was able to con- Islands Mercer , Blench According to Blench firm these reports Mike Hoffmann personal commu- , pigs must therefore have been brought to this archi- nication.

As a matter of fact, however, if red deer were ever pelago with the first Berber incursions, well before the introduced onto the island, they certainly did not last long. The Spanish word venado sred deer is men- Venice — Amiotti , Manfredi , and tioned in the checklist reported by Basilio at the end Torriani also records these animals on Madeira and of his book to indicate several species of the genus Cepha- Porto Santo in the 16th century. According to Pena and lophus. Thus, it seems possible that this incorrect use of the Cabral b , wild pigs on Madeira were in the habit of Spanish term generated the misunderstanding regarding the taking shelter in the wildest spots.

In the first half of the 20th alleged occurrence of true red deer on Bioko. It is, however, much more probable that these were actu- again be a plausible explanation of the report of Cervus ela- ally feral pigs rather than authentic wild boar; moreover, various authors, including Bresc , have observed how phus from Bioko. Other feral ungulates, such as equids and camels, were and Diller This was the The English also introduced hares, perhaps of the species case of feral asses, Equus africanus Fitzinger , with the Lepus europaeus Pallas , onto the Desertas Islands famous example of the massacre of specimens on a sin- around the beginning of the last century, although they have gle occasion, perpetrated in a single hunting party organised now disappeared Pena and Cabral b.

On the Canary on Fuerteventura by Captain General Don Luis de la Cueva, Islands, less than 40 years ago, for hunting purposes an at the end of the 16th century Borda et al.

On the Azores, a relatively recent Moreno et al. Mathias also reported the ago-Moreno et al. The origin of these mouflons is, occurrence of ferrets from the island of Madeira. They belong instead to a kitten of domes- sibility study for the introduction of the species into the tic cat, which makes it one of the earliest records of domestic mountainous area of the island of Pico. In the same archi- cats in the Canary Islands Hutterer Despite its cor- pelago, small herds of European fallow deer, Dama dama rected identification with a domestic variety of Felis silves- L.

According to gin. This species was imported into the Azores from Portugal at an Mammals from continental Africa unknown date Martins et al. Haltenorth and Diller , where it is still recorded as pres- Because it is logical to assume, the insular groups closest to ent by Corbet , although Frade described only the mainland were those in which a greater introduction of the African civet, Civettictis civetta Schreber , among allochthonous species was recorded.

According to the data the carnivores of the island. These might comprise the primates con- Roque , Neukirchen and Niethammer , Mathias et fined in botanical or zoological gardens, such as several rep- al.

Figure 12 The weasel, Mustela nivalis L. Haltenorth and Diller and Long also refer to the introduction onto the Canary Islands of another African primate, the talapoin, Miopithecus talapoin Schreber Among all the species introduced into the Canaries, how- ever, only 12 proved capable of acclimatising and providing origin to vital populations.

One such example is that of the Barbary ground squirrel, Atlantoxerus getulus L. On the latter island, 15 specimens of this squirrel were on Fuerteventura, where it is today regarded as a threat to the in fact captured in various localities between and In Morocco, these rodents are regularly captured to be sold in the tourist markets photo by M.

Having escaped on Fuerte- acteristic of northwestern Africa and of the territories of the ventura, the rodents have thrived in a natural environment Western Sahara, the former Spanish Sahara Masseti , similar to their homeland.

Without predators, however, their This is a medium-sized antelope, whose natural distri- mares Martinez , Cassinelli et al. The natural outside closed forests, from the southern regions of the con- tinent to the Atlantic coast Haltenorth and Diller , distributional range of this ungulate extends over the moun- Grubb It might be curious to note that in Portuguese tainous and deserted areas of North Africa, where it is dis- this ungulate is also known by the name of veado Cordeiro persed from Mauritania and Morocco to Egypt, throughout , apparently equivalent to the Spanish venado with Niger, Libya, and Sudan Grubb According to de Naurois , often described in the past as native to the island of and Sorgial , the monkeys were imported, Santiago St.

Jago since the 17th century Figure In respectively, from Guinea and Guinea Bissau. Azzaroli Puc- reality, these are continental primates naturally dispersed cetti and Zava are instead of the opinion that this from Senegal to the river Volta Ghana Hill , Groves introduction took place from Senegal towards the end of the , , although Groves indicates the archipel- 19th century.

In any case, the monkeys cannot have been ago of Cape Verde as the type locality of the taxon. In fact, released on Cape Verde before the beginning of the second the description of Linnaeus and the Latin name of the spe- half of the 15th century, the date of the discovery of the cies, Simia sabaea Systema Naturae, 12th edn, 1: In the late s, green mon- island of Santiago, which was published by George Edwards keys were introduced onto several West Indian islands, in the in his Gleanings of Natural History — Today, large feral populations of these Island of that name.

The same author declared that the sailors primates live in Barbados, St. Their story is England from St. Jago in the Cape Verdes. Later on, both somehow connected with that of the early European settle- Jardine and Goldsmith noted that green mon- ments of the Caribbean islands, the African origin of West keys lived on the islands of Cape Verde, while Ogilby Indian slaves, and the transatlantic routes from the 17th confirms that the species to which the name came to be century up to the 19th century and even earlier Masseti and applied was that otherwise known as the green monkey and Bruner Cape Verde monkey.

A large colony of the primates lives in the palm grove It is thought that the primates were imported from conti- behind the beach of Tarrafal, in the northernmost part of nental Africa onto the Cape Verdes no later than the mid- Santiago Rigetti Figure Green monkeys on Fogo 17th century Napier and Napier and perhaps even are now kept as pets Masseti and Bruner Apart from much earlier Denham Mammals of the Macaronesian islands 23 Figure 17 Green monkeys were introduced in historical times on the archipelago of Cape Verde, where they are today present only on the island of Santiago and, perhaps, Fogo grey arrows: Thus, animals that would never have been able to reach these Figure 16 Adult individual of green monkey or Cape Verde mon- islands now appear as living organisms which interact with key, Chlorocebus sabaeus L.

Descubra um mundo de possibilidades com a Mimaki.

By way of vento group, possibly owing to the more favourable climatic example, we can cite the documented case of the former and and environmental conditions, together with the presence of present occurrence of herds of pre-Hispanic goats — ungu- some wooded areas. They are the only non-volant mammals lates of evident near-Eastern origin Masseti , , of Cape Verde, apart from introduced rats and mice. The protection and study of green monkey is also considered to have had negative effects these anthropochorous zoological elements can provide an on the native flora and fauna of the archipelago.

The black rat, for example, has adapt- ed to the exploitation of the resources of the Macaronesian Concluding remarks relic laurel forest, originally completely extraneous to it. Apart from these extinct petrel, Pterodroma madeira Mathews , an endemic bur- Canarian rodents, all other species considered in the present row-nesting seabird of the Diomedeidae family Menezes study are of anthropochorous origin.

They have been delib- and Oliveira a,b. As already noted by Nogales et al. The process L. Mammals of the Macaronesian islands white-toothed shrew. By contrast, mammalophagous preda- Simon J. Wilderness-Studi ambientali, Palermo. The Cape Verde monkey, then, deserves a special mention.

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