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ANDREW HEYWOOD GLOBAL POLITICS PDF

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Andrew Heywood All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No portion of this. 44 9/11 and the 'war on terror' 45 1 Introducing Global Politics 1 Shifting balances within the global economy 50 WHAT IS GLOBAL POLITICS? 2 What's in a. Find detailed information and updates for the second edition of Global Politics by Andrew Heywood.


Andrew Heywood Global Politics Pdf

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sppn.info Global Politics Heywood, Andrew Global Andrew Heywood-Politics, Second Edition – Palgrave Foundations S. Andrew Heywood-Politics, Second Edition – Palgrave Foundations S. PALGRAVE MACMILLAN is the new global academic imprint of. St. Martin's Press LLC. In this extensively revised new edition of Global Politics, internationally renowned author Andrew Heywood provides a systematic and integrated analysis of the.

BBC News. Bowden, Brett. Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Elbourne, Elizabeth. Heywood, Andrew. Global Politics, Palgrave Foundations.

- Global Politics (Palgrave Foundations Series) by Andrew Heywood

Hillenbrand, Carole. The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Rather, the former should be seen as a manifestation of the latter. Globalization has been made by states, for states, particularly dominant states. Developments such as an open trading system, global financial markets and the advent of transna- tional production were all put in place to advance the interests of western states in general and the USA in particular.

Furthermore, realists question the notion that globalization is associated with a shift towards peace and cooperation. Liberal view Liberals adopt a consistently positive attitude towards globalization. The miracle of the market is that it draws resources towards their most profitable use, thus bringing prosperity to individuals, families, companies and societies.

The increased productivity and inten- sified competition that this produces benefits all the societies that participate within it, demonstrating that economic globalization is a positive-sum game, a game of winners and winners.

Liberals also believe that glob- alization brings social and political benefits. The freer flow of information and ideas around the world both widens opportunities for personal self-development and creates more dynamic and vigorous societies. Moreover, from a liberal standpoint, the spread of market capital-. For liberals, globalization marks a watershed in world history, in that it ends the period during which the nation-state was the dominant global actor, world order being determined by an inherently unstable balance of power.

The global era, by contrast, is characterized by a tendency towards peace and inter- national cooperation as well as by the dispersal of global power, in particular through the emergence of global civil society see p.

Critical views Critical theorists have adopted a negative or opposi- tional stance towards globalization. Often drawing on an established socialist or specifically Marxist critique of capitalism, this portrays the essence of globalization as the establishment of a global capitalist order. Indeed, Marx see p. Like liberals, critical theorists usually accept that globalization marks a historically significant shift, not least in the relation- ship between states and markets.

States have lost power over the economy, being reduced to little more than instruments for the restructuring of national economies in the interests of global capitalism. Postcolonial theo- rists, for their part, have taken particular exception to cultural globalization, interpreted as a form of western imperialism which subverts indigenous cultures and ways of life and leads to the spread of soulless consumerism.

Approaches boxes outline important theoretical approaches to a central theme under discussion, providing in each case realist, liberal and critical views of the theme or issue. In , an estimated 65 per cent of Internet searches worldwide were made using Google.

Google has expanded rapidly through a strategy of acquisitions and partnerships, and it has also significantly diversified its products, which include email Gmail , online mapping Google Earth , customized home pages iGoogle , video sharing YouTube and social networking sites. As well as develop- ing into one of the most powerful brands in the world, Google has cultivated a reputation for environ- mentalism, philanthropy and posi- tive employee relations.

Supporters of Google argue that in facilitating access to websites and online data and information, Google has helped to empower citi- zens and non-state actors generally and has strengthened global civil society at the expense of national governments, international bureau- crats and traditional political elites. The oft-repeated truism that knowl- edge is power conventionally worked to the benefit of govern- mental bodies and political leaders.

NGOs, think-tanks, interest groups and protest movements have therefore become more effective in challeng- ing the positions and actions of government and may even displace government as an authoritative source of views and information about specialist subjects ranging from the environment and global poverty to public health and civil liberties.

Politics, 2nd Ed (Andrew Heywood) notes

In this sense, Google and other search engines have turned the World Wide Web into a democ- ratizing force. On the other hand, Google and the bewildering array of knowledge and information available on the Internet have also been subject to criticism. The most significant drawback is the lack of quality control on the Internet: Note, for example, the way Wikipedia entries can be hijacked for self-serving or mischie- vous purposes.

Linked to this is the fact that the Internet does not discriminate between good ideas and bad ones. It provides a plat- form for the dissemination not only of socially worthwhile and politi- cally neutral views but also of polit- ical extremism, racial and religious bigotry, and pornography of various kinds. The Google generation may therefore know more but have a gradually diminishing capacity to make considered and wise judge- ments.

Google may therefore be making people stupid rather than better-informed Carr , Type of organization: About 20, full-time employees. Global actors boxes consider the nature of key actors on the world stage and reflect on their impact and significance. The academic discipline of International Relations frequently shortened to IR emerged in the aftermath of World War I —18 , an important impetus being the desire to find ways of establishing enduring peace.

The central focus of the discipline has been on the study of the relations of states, and those relations have traditionally been understood primarily in diplo- matic, military and strategic terms. By the s, realism had gained ascendancy within the discipline. Manuel Castells born A Spanish sociologist, Castells is especially associated with the idea of information society and communications research. In The Risk Society , he analyzed the tendency of the globalizing economy to generate uncertainty and insecurity.

Individualization written with his wife, Elizabeth champions rights-based individualization against free-market individualism. In Power in the Global Age , Beck explored how the strate- gies of capital can be challenged by civil society movements. Social Theory and Global Culture Saskia Sassen born A Dutch sociologist, Sassen is noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration. Jan Aart Scholte born A Dutch sociologist and globalization theorist, Scholte argues that globalization is best under- stood as a reconfiguration of social geography marked by the growth of transplanetary and supraterritorial connections between people.

A Critical Introduction Key theorists provide brief biographical material of key figures or major thinkers, some of these boxes group together a number of influential theorists in a related area. Security Security is the deepest and most abiding issue in politics.

At its heart is the ques- tion: Security has usually been thought of as a particu- larly pressing issue in international politics because, while the domestic realm is ordered and stable, by virtue of the existence of a sovereign state, the inter- national realm is anarchical and therefore threatening and unstable.

As, in a world of self-help, all states are under at least potential threat from all other states, each state must have the capacity for self-defence. National security therefore places a premium on military power, reflecting the assumption that the more militarily powerful a state is, the more secure it is likely to be.

This focus on military security never- theless draws states into dynamic, competitive relationships with one another, based on what is called the security dilemma. This is the problem that a mili- tary build-up for defensive purposes by one state is always liable to be inter- preted by other states as potentially or actually aggressive, leading to retaliatory military build-ups and so on.

The security dilemma gets to the very heart of politics amongst states, making it the quintessential dilemma of international politics Booth and Wheeler Permanent insecurity between and amongst states is therefore the inescapable lot of those who live in a condition of anarchy. However, the state-centric ideas of national security and an inescapable secu- rity dilemma have also been challenged. There is, for example, a long-established emphasis within liberal theory on collective security see p.

Furthermore, the security agenda in modern global politics has changed in a number of ways. On the other hand, September 11 and the wider threat of terrorism has highlighted the emergence of new security challenges that are particularly problematical because they arise from non-state actors and exploit the greater interconnectedness of the modern world. Conditions in which the mutual survival and safety of states is secured through measures taken to prevent or punish aggression, usually within a rule-governed international order.

A framework of cooperation amongst states and other actors to ensure the peaceful resolution of conflict see international regime, p. Security dilemma Security dilemma describes a condition in which actions taken by one actor to improve national security are interpreted as aggressive by other actors, thereby provoking military counter-moves. This reflects two component dilemmas Booth and Wheeler First, there is a dilemma of interpretation — what are the motives, intentions and capabilities of others in building up military power?

As weapons are inherently ambiguous symbols they can be either defensive or aggressive , there is irresolvable uncertainty about these matters. Second, there is a dilemma of response — should they react in kind, in a militarily confrontational manner, or should they seek to signal reassurance and attempt to defuse tension? Political communication as techniques for the control and dissemination of information, based on closer links between government and the media pp. Social capital as norms of trust and civic engagement that underpin successful communities and good governance pp.

Means of legitimizing power, particularly through the exercise of different forms of authority pp.

Chapter Notes

Tendencies within industrialized societies towards legitimation crises stemming from tensions between capitalism and democracy pp. Marxist theories of revolution as attempts to explain revolutions by reference to contradictions that exist at a socio-economic level pp.

Non-Marxist theories of revolution as explanations of revolutions based on systemic imbalance, frustrated rising expectations or the weaknesses of the state pp. Representation as, broadly, standing for or acting on behalf of a larger body of people p.

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Representation as trusteeship involving representatives thinking for themselves and using their supposedly superior wisdom p. Representation as delegation as the use of representatives merely to convey the views of others pp.

Representation as the theory of the mandate, linked to the authority parties supposedly derive as a result of election victories pp. Representation as resemblance, whereby representatives share the characteristics and life experiences of those they represent pp. Elections as devices for filling public offices by reference to a system of popular voting pp.

The functions of elections, including both 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' functions pp.

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Majoritarian electoral systems as systems in which larger parties are typically over-represented, often leading to single-party government pp. Proportional electoral systems as ones which guarantee an equal, or at least more equal, relationship between seats won by a party and votes gained in an election pp.

Attempts to impose meaning on elections by using election results to define the 'public interest' pp. Party-identification models of voting behaviour based on psychological attachments that people have to political parties resulting in habitual voting patterns pp. Sociological models of voting behaviour that link voting patterns to group membership p.

Rational-choice models of voting behaviour that focus on the individual's tendency to vote on the basis of self-interest and the policies offered by parties pp. Dominant-ideology models of voting behaviour that emphasise the role of ideological manipulation p. Political parties as groups of people that are organised for the purpose of winning government power, by electoral or other means pp. The functions of political parties ranging from representation, elite formation and goal formation to the organisation of government pp.

The organisation of political parties as the location of policy-making power within parties and the extent of party democracy pp. Party systems as complex interrelationships between and amongst parties that structure the workings of the political system pp.

One-party systems as monopolistic systems in which competition is formally forbidden pp.

Two-party systems as duopolistic systems with a tendency towards single-party government and an alternation in power pp. Dominant-party systems as systems dominated by a single major party that enjoys prolonged periods in power pp.

Multiparty systems as systems characterised by competition amongst more than two parties, thereby increasing the likelihood of coalition government pp.

The decline of parties, linked, variously, to their bureaucratic character, the relationship between power and ambition, and the increasingly diverse and pluralistic nature of society pp. The pluralist model of group politics as the belief that political power is fragmented and widely dispersed in modern societies pp.

The corporatist model of group politics as the belief that major economic interests are inevitably incorporated into the processes of government pp. The New Right model of group politics as the belief that people join organised groups to secure 'public goods' and that such groups exert non-legitimate influence on government pp.

The importance of interest groups as determined by factors such as the political culture, institution or structure, party system and government policy pp.

The methods employed by interest groups influenced by the resources available to the group and the principal channels of access through which influence is exerted pp. Social movements as forms of collective behaviour, characterised by loose organisation, in which the motive to act springs largely from the attitudes and aspirations of members pp. New social movements as movements of the relatively affluent that typically have a postmaterial orientation pp. Constitutions as sets of rules that regulate the relations amongst the various institutions of government and relations between the state and citizens pp.

The functions of a constitution, ranging from the empowering of states and the establish of unifying values to the protection of freedom and the legitimization of regimes pp. The significance of constitutions, linked to whether they correspond to the political culture, are respected by dominant groups, and are able to remain relevant and up-to-date pp. The judiciary as the branch of government that adjudicates on the meaning of law pp.

The political role of judges as the extent to which judges are able to maintain independence from other branches of government and neutrality pp. The policy role of judges as the extent to which judges impose meaning on law, or even create law, rather than merely apply the 'letter of the law' pp. An assembly as the branch of government that typically enacts laws and serves as a forum for debate pp.

Parliamentary systems as ones in which the government governs in and through the assembly, thereby 'fusing' the legislative and executive branches pp. A presidential system as one in which a formal separation of powers ensures that the assembly is formally independent from a separately-elected executive pp.

The functions of assemblies, ranging from legislation, representation and scrutiny to legitimization pp. Differences between unicameral and bicameral assemblies including their impact on representation, legislation and accountability pp. The use and significance of committees as ways in which assemblies can accumulate expertise and strengthen executive accountability pp.

The significance of assemblies as the extent to which they make policy, influence the content of policy or merely 'rubber-stamp' policies made by the executive pp. The decline of assemblies, linked to the rise of disciplined political parties, interest groups and the mass media, and the capacity of the executive to provide leadership in an era of 'big' government pp. The revival of assemblies, linked to their importance as 'communicating mechanisms' and a trend towards greater independence and improved resourcing p.

The executive branch of government as the branch responsible for implementing policy, embracing both political and bureaucratic institutions pp. The functions of political executives as the capacity to provide leadership in areas such as policymaking, bureaucratic control and crisis management pp.

Presidents as formal heads of state who also, as heads of government, serve as chief executives pp. Prime ministers as heads of parliamentary executives that operate, in theory at least, within a framework of cabinet government pp. Cabinets as committees of senior ministers who may either exercise policy leadership, operate as administrative devices, or provide support for chief executives pp. Leadership as influence exerted by an individual or group over a larger body to secure the achievement of desired goals pp.

Rival theories of leadership, including the belief that leadership is a personal gift, a sociological phenomenon, an organisational necessity or a political skill pp. Styles of political leadership, including differences between laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership pp.

The bureaucracy as the administrative machinery of the state, although the term is highly contested pp. The rational-administrative model of bureaucracy as the belief that bureaucracies are neutral administrative machines that ensure efficient social organisation pp. The power bloc model of bureaucracy as the belief that bureaucracies shape policy in the interests of powerful, external social groups pp. The bureaucratic oversupply model of bureaucracy as the theory that bureaucracies develop their own interests and are thus always resistant to political control pp.

The functions of bureaucracies, ranging from their ability to carry out administration and offer policy advice to their capacity to maintain political stability pp. The organization of bureaucracies, including attempts to 'reinvent' government through ideas such as the 'new' public management pp.

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Bureaucratic power explained by reference to bureaucrats' control of information, relationship to ministers, and expertise pp. Means of controlling bureaucrats including mechanisms of political accountability, politicization and the construction of counter-democracies pp.Means of controlling bureaucrats including mechanisms of political accountability, politicization and the construction of counter-democracies pp.

The Marxist view of liberal democracy as a sham that protects bourgeois class interests behind a facade of popular control and political equality pp. Forgot your password? Political parties as groups of people that are organised for the purpose of winning government power, by electoral or other means pp. The emergence of global governance as a means of ensuring international order or managing the global economy pp.