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GANDHI BIOGRAPHY BOOK

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Gandhi Biography Book

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Gandhi book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Mohandas K. Gandhi is one of the most inspiring figures of our time. In h. The Story of My Experiments with Truth is the autobiography of Mohandas K. Gandhi, covering Gandhi wrote the book to deal with his experiment for truth. Joseph Lelyveld's new biography has been banned in part of India because GANDHI is still so revered in India that a book about him that few.

His sister Ansuyaben was leading the labourers. During the struggle, Gandhi's co-workers regularly visited the labourers' quarters to solve their problems and to keep high their morale. Daily meetings and prayers were held. Bulletins were issued. Gandhi did not like charity. Efforts were made to find alternative employments for the workers. However, after a fortnight, the workers started getting tired. It was difficult to face starvation.

It was unbearable for Gandhi that they should break the vow. He then decided to undertake an indefinite fast. This strengthened the workers. It brought moral pressure on the mill-owners. They consented to arbitration after three days. Gandhi broke his fast. The Satyagraha was successful.

The workers' demand was thus fully met. However, Gandhi's fast did involve in an element of coercion. But it was a spontaneous decision. The situation demanded some drastic action.

The Satyagraha was significant in many respects. It was the first Satyagraha by industrial workers. It was wholly peaceful. It showed how workers could fight non-violently. It also gave rise to a strong Gandhian Labour Union.

Kheda was a district in Gujarat. In , there was a crop failure due to famine. Peasants were unable to pay the land revenue. The rules permitted suspension of revenue collection when the crops were less than four annas. According to the peasants' estimate, the crops were less than four annas. Gandhi's inquiries, as well as inquiries by independent observers, showed that the peasants were right. The Government, however, thought otherwise.

It even turned down a suggestion of an impartial enquiry. It started coercing the peasants to collect revenue. Petitions etc. Satyagraha was therefore started on the 22nd March Gandhi advised the peasants to withhold payment to revenue.

Satyagrahis took a pledge not to pay the same and resolved to be ready to face the consequences. Volunteers went to villages to keep up the morale of the peasants. As in Champaran, Gandhi's main concern was to remove the fear from the peasants' minds. The officials started attaching the property of the peasants including cattle and even standing crops. Notices were sent for attachment of the land. An occasion for civil disobedience arose when standing onion crop was attached at one place.

Gandhi advised one Mohanlal Pandya and a few volunteers to remove the crop. This was done. The volunteers were arrested. Pandya earned the nickname 'Onion Thief. It tested the people's patience. The Government discontinued coercive measures. It advised that if the well-to-do peasants paid up, the poor ones would be granted suspension. In one sense, the Satyagraha was thus successful. The peasants' demand was not, however, fully met.

Gandhi was not satisfied. He wanted people to come out stronger after Satyagraha. However, the Satyagraha resulted in awakening the peasants. It educated them politically. It was the first peasant struggle under Gandhi's leadership, the first nonviolent mass civil disobedience campaign organised by Gandhi in India. The peasants became aware of their rights and learnt to suffer for them. British Government appointed a Committee in under the chairmanship of Justice Rowlatt, 1 to enquire and report to the Government about the nature and extent of anti-government activities, and 2 to suggest legal remedies to enable the Government to suppress those activities.

The Committee submitted its report in April Its work was carried out in secrecy. The Committee's recommendations were embodied in two bills. The first bill sought to make a permanent change in the Criminal Law. The second bill intended to deal with the situation arising out of the expiry of Defence of India Rules. The first bill made punishable the possession of an antigovernment document with mere intention to circulate it.

The second bill also gave sweeping powers to the officers. There were other harsh provisions also. The bills shocked the entire country. All the leaders considered the bills unjust, unwarranted and destructive of elementary human rights and dignity. The second bill was eventually dropped and the first one passed as a Law in March India had helped the British in the World War. She expected substantial political rights. Instead, she received the Black Rowlatt bills.

Gandhi: The Years That Changed the World,

Gandhi had decided to help the British war efforts during the war. He undertook a recruiting campaign and worked hard which ruined his health. While he was recovering, he heard about Rowlatt bills. He was shocked.

He took up the matter and started propaganda against the bill. Gandhi carried out propaganda against the bill. A separate body called Satyagraha Sabha was formed. A Satyagraha pledge was drafted and signed by selected leaders. The Government was, however, adamant.

It then suddenly it occurred to Gandhi that a call for nation-wide hartal should be given. Everybody in the country should suspend his business and spend the day in fasting and prayers. Public meetings should be held everywhere and resolutions passed for withdrawal of the Act.

The programme was taken up. The notice was very short. Still the masses rose to the occasion. The country rose like one man. Hartal was observed throughout India. Communal prejudices were forgotten. All fear disappeared. It was also decided that civil disobedience should be offered to selected laws which could easily be disobeyed by the people.

Gandhi suggested breaking of the Salt law and the sale of the banned literature. The civil disobedience was a great success. Throughout India, meetings were held and processions taken out. The public awakening was unprecedented. It startled the British. Repression was let loose. Processions were broken up by mounted police and firing was done at several places.

Many persons were killed. At some places, people lost balance in the face of repression. In such a situation, Gandhi thought it fit to suspend the Civil Disobedience Campaign.

It was done on the 18th April. Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act was historic. It was the first nation-wide struggle, in which crores of people participated and showed exemplary courage. The Indian freedom movement was transformed into a truly people's movement. The period also witnessed Hindu-Muslim friendship to an extent that was never surpassed thereafter.

Satyagraha in Punjab was also quite successful. Its leaders Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Kitchlew were arrested. People observed hartal and took out a procession in Amritsar to demand their release.

It was fired upon, and many persons were killed. The crowd therefore became violent and killed Englishmen. Some public buildings were burnt. Army troops were rushed in to stop the violence. This was on April 10th On April 11, a peaceful funeral procession was taken out. General Dyer then took command of the troops. Meetings and gatherings were prohibited. Still a large meeting was held on April 12th at Jallianwala Bagh.

General Dyer took no steps to prevent the meeting. But when the meeting was taking place, he surrounded the place and without any warning, gave orders of firing. The crowd of nearly 10, men and women was peaceful and unarmed. They had no idea that they would be fired upon. When the firing started the people became panicky. There was only one exit. Bullets were showered on the trapped people. About persons were killed and injured. General Dyer did this deliberately to teach the Indians a lesson.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre shocked the country. It showed how brutal the British power could get. It was followed by many more atrocities. They turned Gandhi fully against the British Empire. Most of the leaders in jails were released before or during the session. The session was attended by delegates including peasants. It was the last Congress session attended by Lokmanya Tilak.

The Moderates, however, did not attend it. Pandit Motilal Nehru was in the Chair. The Congress was now acquiring a mass character. The proceedings were conducted mainly in Hindustani.

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Recall of the Punjab Governor and the Viceroy was also demanded. It was decided to erect a memorial for the Jallianwala Bagh martyrs. Gandhi moved a resolution condemning violence on the part of the people and got it passed.

It was a very significant event. The resolution also urged the people to remain peaceful. The Congress also reiterated the demand for responsible Government.

The Montague Reforms were considered inadequate, disappointing and unsatisfactory. But it was decided to work the reforms.

Revival of hand-spinning and hand-weaving was recommended. The Congress appointed a subcommittee for reconsideration of the Congress Constitution with Gandhi as the Chairman.

It was the first Congress session in which Gandhi took an active part. His leadership was strengthened in Amritsar Congress. The Sultan of Turkey was the Khalifa, the religious head of the Muslim world. The future of Khalifa, therefore, became a matter of concern for Indian Muslims.

The British Government promised them that the Khilafat would not be violated and favourable peace terms would be offered to Turkey. But when Turkey was defeated in the war, the promises were forgotten. Turkish Empire was broken. Indian Muslims felt agitated over this. Gandhi sympathised with the Khilafat cause. He felt that Hindus should help the Muslim in their need.

For him, it was an excellent opportunity to forge communal unity, bring Muslims in the freedom movement and form a common front against the British. The Khilafat Committee was formed. It demanded that terms of treaty with Turkey should be changed to satisfy the Indian Muslims.

Gandhi suggested the programme of Non-Cooperation with the British Government. This programme was adopted by the Committee in May The redressal of injustice of Punjab and Khilafat and the attainment of Swaraj became the key issue.

The masses were getting awakened. A special session of Congress in September accepted the programme. The Nagpur Congress in December endorsed it enthusiastically. The programme consisted of the following points - Surrender of titles and honours given by the British Government Boycott of law-courts Boycott of educational institutions Boycott of councils and elections Boycott of foreign cloth Boycott of Government functions Picketing of liquor shops Refusal to get recruited in the army The programme was not just negative.

It included the building of new institutions. National Education was encouraged. Stress was laid on Khadi. Charkha became the symbol of freedom. The Congress was completely reorganised and a new constitution drafted by Gandhi was adopted to make it a mass organisation and a useful tool for the struggle. The movement started with hartal, fasting and prayers.

It soon spread like wildfire. The freedom movement had become a mass movement. Gandhi declared the Swaraj could be won within one year if the programme was fully implemented. People showed great unity, determination and courage. Hundreds of National schools were established. Tilak Swaraj Fund was over-subscribed. About 20 lakh charkhas began to be plied in the country. The boycott shook the Government. Masses looked to him as a saint, as an incarnation of God who had come to free them from slavery and poverty.

The Government started repression. Arrests were made.

Firing took place at some places. Disturbances broke out at Bombay and Gandhi had to fast to control the situation. By the end of , the number of prisoners had risen to 30, Processions and meetings were being broken up.

The masses were getting impatient. Call was given for Civil Disobedience. Gandhi wanted to start the campaign step-by-step. He chose Bardoli in Gujarat for starting the campaign. Notice was given to Government on the 1st February However, the movement had to be called off within a few days. Gandhi was shocked. He realised that people had not fully accepted non-violence.

He persuaded the Congress to suspend the agitation. Gandhi was arrested in March and was sentenced to 6 years' imprisonment. He was kept in the Yeravda jail near Pune. Gandhi was freed from jail in on the ground of health. The country was witnessing a wave of communal riots. Gandhi fasted for 21 days in October He toured the entire country. He laid stress on the charkha and the removal of untouchability.

Political atmosphere in the country began to change slowly. There was a wave of labour strikes in Armed revolutionaries stepped up their activities. There was widespread discontent among the peasants. The historic Satyagraha at Bardoli in Gujarat showed its intensity. Bardoli was a tehsil in Gujarat. The peasants thought it unjust. Vallabhbhai Patel studied the case. He was convinced that the peasants were right. The peasants decided to withhold the payment until the enhancement was cancelled or an impartial tribunal appointed for setting the case.

Gandhi blessed the Satyagraha. It started in February Vallabhbhai Patel led the struggle. He organised sixteen camps under the charge of volunteers. His organisation was superb. It earned him the title 'Sardar'. The government tried its best to terrorise the people and extract the payment. It tried flattery, bribery, fines, imprisonment and lathi-charge. Pathans were brought in to threaten the people.

The cattle was taken away and lands auctioned at several places. Patel kept up the people's morale. His volunteers were arrested. People imposed a social boycott on the Government officials and against those who bought auctioned property.

Seven members of the Legislative Council resigned in protest against the Government repression. Several village officials, too, resigned their posts.

Patel demanded that 2 The Satyagrahi prisoners should be released. All the dismissals and punishments should be undone. Gandhi and Patel promised to call off the agitation if these demands were met and an inquiry ordered. The Government ultimately yielded. An Inquiry Committee was appointed. The Committee recommended an increase of 5.

The satyagraha was thus successful. The Bardoli struggle was very well organised one. The peasants remained united against all odds. Women took part in the struggle on a large scale.

Book on Gandhi Stirs Passion in India

The struggle became a symbol of hope, strength and victory for the peasants in the country. The discontent against the British Government was increasing. The Government appointed Simon Commission to decide about the grant of political rights of India.

Indian leaders had not been consulted. There was no Indian Member in the Commission. The country boycotted Simon Commission. Gandhi had regarded himself as a 'Prisoner' and refrained from political activities till , when his jail term was to expire. He thereafter took the reins of Congress in his hands.

Congress resolved in to fight for complete independence. Confrontation with the Government became imminent. Gandhi wrote to the Viceroy, listing eleven demands which, according to him, formed the substance of self-government.

They were rejected.

Gandhi then decided to start Civil Disobedience by breaking the Salt Law, which heavily taxed the salt, an article of daily consumption for the poorest of the poor. He started his epic Dandi March on the 12 March from Ahmedabad. A carefully selected band of 78 Satyagrahis accompanied Gandhi in this March to Dandi, a deserted village on the sea-coat, at about miles from Ahmedabad. As the March progressed, the atmosphere in the country was electrified.

Several village officials resigned their posts. Gandhi declared that he would not return to Sabarmati Ashram till Independence was won. Congress Committee met on the 21st March to plan the strategy. Gandhi reached Dandi on the 6th April and broke the Salt law symbolically by picking up a pinch of salt. It was signal for the nation. Civil Disobedience campaign was started throughout the country. Salt Law broken at many places by illegal production of salt and its sale.

Gandhi went to the surrounding places and started a campaign to cut toddy trees. Picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops was started. Women were on the forefront in picketing the liquor shops. The whole country was stirred. Some other laws like Forest Laws were also taken up for disobedience at some places. Government intensified the repression. Most of the important leaders including Gandhi were arrested.

But the agitation grew in strength. People bravely faced police brutalities and even firing at many places. A wave of strikes and hartals swept the country. At Peshawar, soldiers of Garhwali regiment refused to fire on the unarmed people. They were court-martialled. Before his arrest, Gandhi hit upon a novel idea to raid salt depots.

The Dharasana raid, in which several non-violent Satyagrahis were mercilessly beaten, sent shock-waves throughout the world. It lowered the British prestige. The movement progressed till January The boycott of foreign cloth, liquor and British goods was almost complete.

Gandhi and other leaders were subsequently released from jail. Government started negotiations. Gandhi-Irvin Pact was signed in March. The Satyagraha was discontinued. This was a major Satyagraha, during which Satyagrahis died in firings and about one lakh persons went to jail. Gandhi took part in the Round Table Conference in England in as the representative of the Congress.

It was a frustrating experience for him. The British were bent on prolonging their rule by following the policy of Divide and Rule'. Gandhi stayed in London in a poor locality.

He even met the unemployed textile mill-workers who had lost the jobs due to Gandhi's movement of Swadeshi and Boycott. He explained to them the rationale behind Khadi. The workers showered love on him.

The Round Table Conference yielded nothing. Gandhi returned in December He was arrested and the Civil Disobedience Campaign was resumed. The Congress was declared illegal.

The Government was determined to crush the movement. The leaders and a large number of workers were arrested.

Ordinances were issued to arm the Government with wide powers. Gandhi was lodged in the Yervada jail. The depressed classes now known as Scheduled Castes were recognised as a minority community and given separate electorates.

It was an attempt to divide and destroy the Hindu Society and the Nation and in turn to perpetuate India's slavery. It was not good for the depressed also. Gandhi announced his decision to fast unto death from the 20th September He was fully for the representation to the depressed classes, but he was against their being considered as a minority community and given separate electorates. Gandhi's decision stirred the country.

Indian leaders began hectic efforts to save Gandhi's life. But Dr. Ambedkar described the fast as a political Stunt. Gandhi's decision awakened the Hindu Society.

It dealt a blow to the orthodoxy. Hindu leaders resolved to fight untouchability. Several temples were thrown open to the Harijans. The fast began on 20th September. Attempts to evolve an alternative scheme were continuing. Gandhi's health started deteriorating. He had several rounds of discussions with Dr.

At last, an agreement was reached on the 24th September. The Government was urged to accept the same. The British Government ultimately gave its consent. Gandhi broke his fast on 26th September.

The agreement is known as the Yeravda Pact or the Poona Pact. It provided for doubling the number of representatives of depressed classes. Separate electorates were however, done away with. It was decided that for every reserved seat, members of the depressed classes would elect four candidates and the representative would be elected from them by joint electorate.

The system of primary election was to be for ten years. Harijan Sevak Sangh was established. After his release, Gandhi put aside political activities and devoted himself to Harijan service and other constructive work. All-India Village Industries Association was also formed.

He toured the entire country and collected Harijan Fund. The massive anti-untouchability propaganda launched by him had spectacular results. He had, of course, of face opposition. Even a bomb was once thrown at him. The campaign destroyed the legitimacy of untouchability.

It cleared the way for legal ban. In , Gandhi settled down at Sevagram, a village near Wardha. In , he presided over the Educational Conference, which gave rise to the scheme of Basic Education. While Gandhi was busy in the constructive work, elections to the provincial assemblies were held in Congress Ministers were formed in several provinces.

Neelkanth Prakashkan

Congress Ministries resigned in protest. The Congress expressed expressed sympathy for the Allied powers' fight against Nazism and Fascism and offered co-operation provided responsible Self-Government was granted. Gandhi was however against any co-operation in war efforts on the ground of Nonviolence. When the Government turned down the Congress demand, Gandhi was requested to resume the leadership. Gandhi decided to launch Anti-War individual Satyagraha against curtailment of freedom. It was inaugurated by Vinoba in October Pandit Nehru was the Second Satyagrahi.

The Satyagrahis were arrested. By May , the number of Satyagrahi prisoners had crossed The War was approaching India's borders with the advance of Japan.

England was in difficulties. It could not afford any agitation in India. There were various other pressures on the British Government to make political concessions. Cripps discussed the matter with the Indian leaders.

He proposed Dominion Status with power to the States and the provinces to secede and convening of a constitution-making body after the War. But the adherence to the constitution drafted by that body was not to be obligatory. Indian leaders including Gandhi found the Cripps Proposals disappointing.

They were aptly termed as post dated cheque on a crashing bank. The Muslim League wanted a definite pronouncement about Pakistan and therefore criticised the Cripps proposals. Congress rejected the Cripps scheme because it did not provide for the participation of the people of the states and the principles of non-accession was against Indian unity.

The Cripps Mission failed. The country wanted nothing but Complete Independence. The Congress passed the historic 'Quit India' resolution on 8th August Gandhi and other leaders were arrested. The country now rose in revolt. With most of the leaders in jail, it fought in the way it thought fit. Railway lines and telegraphic communications were interfered with. Government property was burnt or destroyed in several places.

The people displayed unprecedented courage and heroism. Unarmed people faced police lathis and bullets. Young boys suffered flogging without flinching. Government machinery was paralysed and parallel Government was set up at some places. Many workers went underground.

About people died in firings during the movement. About were injured and people were arrested. It was noteworthy that violence was done to Government property only. Englishmen were safe throughout the Movement. There was little personal violence. Thus, while the masses rose to great heights of heroism, they also displayed remarkable restraint.

It was surely Gandhi's contribution. The rebellion was, however, gradually put down. Gandhi was in Agakhan Palace jail. He was blamed by the British for the disturbances. He could not tolerate questioning of his faith and honesty and fasted for 21 days. It was a great blow to him. His health was not in a good condition.

He was finally released in May on health grounds. He then started efforts to break the political stalemate. The Hindu-Muslim unity, forged at the time of the Khilafat agitation, collapsed thereafter.

The country witnessed a wave of communal riots. The British encouraged Muslim communalism and used it to obstruct the path of the Freedom Movement.

Jinnah, an erstwhile liberal leader, who had been sidelined when the Congress became a mass organisation, assumed the leadership of Muslim communalism. The Muslim League under his leadership became more aggressive, unreasonable and violent. The two-nation theory-that Hindus and Muslims were two separate Muslim homeland called 'Pakistan,' consisting of the Muslim-majority provinces. Jinnah's shrewdness, ambition and ruthlessness, communalisation of large sections of society and the British support for Jinnah, brought about such a situation that the Muslim demands became an obstacle in the way of India's Independence.

Jinnah kept the demands fluid and utilised every opportunity to frustrate the Nationalist Movement and further his end with the support of the British rulers. The two-nation theory was an untruth. The Hindus and Muslims had lived together in India for centuries. Gandhi fought this untruth with all his might. He did everything possible, including meeting Jinnah several times.

But he failed.

Jinnah wanted recognition of the League as the sole representative of the Muslims. It was not acceptable to the Congress. The War ended in After an election, Labour Party's Government came to power in England. England had been extremely weakened financially and militarily. The Azad Hind Sena had shown that even the army was not untouched by nationalism. Mutiny of the naval ratings in February gave the same indication. The people were in an agitated mood.

The British rule had lost legitimacy in the eyes of the people. The British, therefore, decided to withdraw from India. Cabinet Mission was sent to India to help in the formation of Interim Government and to purpose a scheme regarding the transfer of power. The mission proposed that the provinces be divided in three groups, in one of which Hindus were in the majority while in the other two Muslims.

Subjects like defence, foreign affairs, communications etc, were to be with the Central Authority and the groups were to be free to frame constitutions about other subjects. Gandhi found the proposals defective. Muslim League declared 'Direct Action' to get Pakistan. The Hindus retaliated. In Calcutta alone, over people were killed 4 days. The Hindu communalism too became stronger. The Hindus were killed and beaten, their property was burnt, thousands of Hindus were forcibly converted and thousands of Hindu women were abducted and raped.

Temples were defiled and destroyed. The League Government in Bengal aided the goondas. Even ex-serviceman joined in committing the atrocities.

In Noakhali, about three-fourth of the land belonged to the Hindu landlords and the tenants were mostly Muslims. The peasant unrest was naturally there. It was now turned along communal channels. The Noakhali massacre had few parallels in the history. It showed to what level communal politics could stop to. It was meant to terrorise, kill, convert or drive away the Hindus from Muslim-majority areas so that Pakistan could become a reality.

Gandhi was deeply shocked.

He could not bear the defeat of his long-cherished principles. On 6th November , he rushed to Noakhali. It was to be his final and perhaps the most glorious battle. Gandhi reached Shrirampur and camped there for a few days. He sent his associates including Pyarelal and Sushila Nayyar to different villages which were mostly deserted by the Hindus. He did all his personal work himself.

Mahatma Gandhi Biography

He worked like a possessed man. He walked barefooted, went from house to house, talked to Hindus and Muslims, heard their points of view, and reasoned with them and addressed meetings.

He wanted to instill fearlessness into the Hindus. He exhorted them to die nonviolently, if need be, but not to submit to terror.

He did not appease the Muslim. He told the truth bluntly. He wanted to win their confidence and make them see reason and earn the confidence of the Hindus. He did not only preach, he served the village poor. He was testing his Nonviolence. It was very difficult to establish mutual trust. The League had made poisonous propaganda against him. But Gandhi's mission began to yield results. It boosted the morale of Hindus. Passions began to subside. Some evacuees started returning home.

Some even returned to their original faith. Gandhi gradually succeeded in earning the love and confidence of even the Muslims. Noakhali had its reaction in Bihar, where Hindus resorted to violence. The country was seized by communal madness. Gandhi went to Bihar and brought the situation under control. The situation in the country was explosive.

Civil War was imminent. The Congress ultimately consented to the partition of India. Despite Gandhi's bitter opposition, he could not do anything to prevent the partition. While the country was celebrating the Independence. Day on 15th August , Gandhi was in Bengal to fight communal madness.

Partition was followed by riots, a massacre of unparalleled dimensions. It witnessed movement of about one crore persons and killing of at least six lakh persons. Calcutta was once more on the verge of riots.

Gandhi under-took a fast which had a magical effect. Lord Mountbatten described him as 'one-man peace army'. Gandhi continued to plead for sanity in those turbulent days. It was January Communal feelings were high due to the partition of the country. Hindu communalists thought that Gandhi was pro-Muslim. His fast for communal amity which resulted in the Government of India honouring its obligation of giving Rs.

Gandhi was staying at the Birla house in New Delhi. He used to hold evening prayer meetings regularly. He used to speak on various issues. Once a bomb was thrown during his prayer meeting. Still, Gandhi did not permit security checks. On 30th of January , about people had gathered for the prayer meeting on the lawns of the Birla House. Gandhi was a bit late as Sardar Patel had come to see him. He was supporting himself on the shoulders of Abha and Manu, his grand daughter-in-law and granddaughter respectively.

People rushed forward to get his darshan and to touch his feet. Gandhi folded his hands to greet them. When he was a few yards away from the prayer platform, a young man came forward. He saluted Gandhi, suddenly took out a small pistol and fired three shots. The bullets hit Gandhi on and below the chest. He fell to the ground with the words. He died within minutes. The crowd was shocked. The assassin was Nathuram Godse,' a worker of Hindu Mahasabha.

He was caught and handed over to the Police. Gandhi's body was taken to Birla House. People thronged the place and wept bitterly. The whole world was plunged in sorrow.

The next morning, Gandhi's body was placed on a gun-carriage and taken to Rajghat. Millions of people joined the procession to have the last darshan glimpse of the Mahatma. His son Ramdas lit the funeral pyre. The Mahatma had become a martyr for communal unity. An Introduction Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a man considered one of the great sages and prophets. Violence is violence. In its most extreme and violent manifestations, we can plainly see that it is senseless, but in its more commonplace variations it can be tolerated or ignored.

It seems that to many of us there is some line between acceptable and unacceptable violence and maybe this is part of the problem; we can compartmentalize and label the violence we do not like as the work of the evil or insane. Back in university I read this book by Gandhi. Those who think that they cannot defend or promote ideals without the use of violence are either ignorant or more likely lazy, because the non-violent path is much, much harder to walk than the violent one.

Violence is easy. Revenge is natural. But Gandhi was able to lead an entire nation to freedom without bombing police stations. The writing of Gandhi is all about the individual having dignity and independence - that self respect comes from respecting others. Gandhi's writing is a roadmap to a better world. I think that those who have not read Gandhi have an overly simplified vision of the man; that he was simply a pacifist or an unrealistic dreamer.

I know that's what I used to think. But he was primarily concerned with erasing social injustice; non-violence was simply the best means to his ends.

The best and most difficult.Martin Green Published by: Drawing on new archival materials, Ramachandra Guha has crafted a luminous portrait not only of Gandhi, but also those closest to him—family, friends, and political and social leaders.

The work consisted of carrying the wounded on stretchers. There were various other pressures on the British Government to make political concessions. This work allowed him to both earn a living while also finding time to devote to his mission as a public figure.