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The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the use of intelligently connected devices and The Internet of Things can enable the next wave of life-enhancing services . 5 days ago PDF | The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most promising area which penetrates the advantages of Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks. PDF | The high penetration rate of new technologies in all the activities of everyday Years have passed since the Internet of Things (IoT) has.

Internet Of Things Pdf

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Introduction to the Internet of Things. Marco Zennaro, PhD. Telecommunications/ ICT4D Lab. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Pt/homepage/ist RMSF - Internet of Things: An Introduction. • IoT Overview and Architecture. • IoT Communication Protocols. • Acknowledgements . Internet of Things i. About the Tutorial. IoT (Internet of Things) is an advanced automation and analytics system which exploits networking, sensing, big data, and.

However its security is very many more. IoT network architecture consists of 4 layers [14] as shown in Besides gigantic importance and wide applications of IoT, It is figure This is not a standard architecture for IoT, however not easy to deploy it in mission critical application areas, most of the proposed architectures have these layers.

Abusing the Internet of Things

For Therefore we took this architecture as our reference example a successful security attack on smart healthcare architecture for identifying and classifying different security system can cause in loss of many lives of patients, whilst it problems in IoT. Figure 01 shows most widely accepted IoT can also cause in financial loss, and loss of human lives in architecture. The different layers in IoT are: case of intelligent transportation system. Security of IoT is a challenging area and require further research work to cope 2.

Figure 02 visualize 3.

First of all IoT system must be physically secured from 3. Node authentication is also necessary to prevent illegal access to system. The integrity Perceptual layer consists of resource constrained IoT devices confidentiality of data to be transmitted between nodes is very i. These important so light weights cryptographic algorithms should be devices are more prone to cyber-attacks. As large amount of designed to securely transmit data between nodes.

Key IoT devices are physically deployed in open fields, it management is also a problem to be solved in context of IoT. Traditional security problems can affect the replace the full node or part of its hardware or can also integrity and confidentiality of data. Many types of network connect directly to it to alter some sensitive information and attacks like eavesdropping attack, DoS attack, Man in the gain access to the node [15].

The access network have multi making low power devices busy and consuming their energy access methods, this heterogeneity makes security and [18]. It can also act as a man in the middle attack.

This problem should be solved by having a feasible device authentication mechanism 3. The adversary can physically damage the IoT device for 3. IoT devices are deployed in both open and closed vicinities and are more susceptible to physical This is an attack on network layer in which the radio damage by the attacker. In this attack the attacker interfere the radio frequency of wireless sensor networks and 3.

It is also a type of denial of service. The confidentiality requirements of the sensor data is low as adversary can place a sensor near to the IoT system sensor and 3. Every type of attack starts from information gathering via sniffing using some sniffing tools like packet A large number of nodes in an IoT system face authentication sniffers [20].

Huge amount of network communication require for authentication purpose only thus affecting the performance. Different vendors use different proprietary services to legitimate users. This heterogeneity also create 3. Cloud vendors must provide continuation of services in natural disasters like floods, fire and earth quicks disasters. It The adversary can alter the routing information and distribute should be in the approach of quick response teams.

Clouds it in the network to create routing loops, advertising false should also have some data back up plans [26].

This node can cause many harms like it can distribute false routing 3. The security of virtualization is important. Virtual machine communication some time bypass network security 3. Secure migration of virtual machine is required as it can be a hurdle in cloud audit.

Support layer security is independent from other layers and cloud computing security is a large domain of security. Cloud 3. There security and privacy should not Protocol SCAP [24] and providing trusted results via Trusted be abused in the cloud. The applications so both should be protect from security breaches. Besides 3. To keep the data confidential and secure in cloud it must be secure from breaches. This can be done by using tools to 3. Data dispersion and data Different applications at application layer have different fragmentation can also be used for Data security in cloud [26].

By now there is no standard for IoT application construction. However data sharing is one of the characteristics of IoT application layer. Some of the access control mechanism is required at application layer [18].

Proper authentication and legitimate user credentials and gain access using those credentials [28]. Encryption for users data tools, Anti malwares to devices, Anti DoS attacks confidentiality and integrity protect applications against mechanisms malwares.

These algorithms are therefore through the internet and make the IoT user to run the active x not feasible to use for securing IoT. So there is a need to script thus compromising the whole system [29]. Trojan horses, Worms and Key management is an important and most mentioned viruses are some of the dangerous malwares used by research problem in all cryptographic algorithms.

Researcher adversaries to exploit a system [29]. These solutions are somewhat applicable to other networked 3. To cope with the application layer security, strong Therefor key management in IoT system is a major research authentication and access control mechanism is required.

Besides these educating the users to use strong password [30] is also important. Denial of service attack may be more overwhelming in IoT as 4. DDoS detection and mitigation solutions for traditional network systems may not be Security is the basic requirement of any user of digital media. With the attack and blocking it because of battery operated resource emergence of cloud computing the security demands of its constrain sensor nodes.

Solutions to denial of service detection user also increased as they have to trust on third person owned cloud.

The Road to Digitization

For cloud vendors to attract more users to use their and mitigation [39] [40] are not effective and still need services they need to build user trust through cloud audits and attention to design efficient solutions for DDoS detection and Certification of compliance to CSA security standards or other mitigation.

Although legacy network security solutions are mature enough but it is not feasible to apply it in 4. For such communication nodes authentications is very important for insuring security and 4. When two or more nodes are communicating with each other for a common objective they should authenticate Currently available cryptographic algorithms like symmetric each other first in order to block fake node attack. However key cryptographic algorithms, Advance encryption standard there is no efficient authentication mechanism for massive AES is used to insure data confidentiality, which is indeed number of IoT devices.

Which creates a security hole and need very secure algorithm. Similarly frequently used asymmetri c to be fill. Secure 5. Elliptic curve cryptography ECC is also an efficient asymmetric Internet of things security being a sizzling topic for researcher cryptographic techniques which is not recently used [35]. However neither Kerberos is sustainable solution it. Devices must authenticate each other before exchanging for authentication nor AES is practical for constrain IoT any information between them M2M communication which devices.

Some of the work related to device authentication and Periera et al. The framework allows per service fine grained access control.

It merge the Chen et al. It supports group reliable access control framework. A requester can use a single token for group RADIUS to create a low power platform for Access control access Group of devices that offer common services to and authentication aspects. The CoAP client get the ticket communicate with any device in the group.

There are Two Steps for Authentication and second identifier. Each device in the group is identified by a ULA. In for Access control. The user is first authenticated based on a group access token the requester puts its ULA and the credentials like shared key, password or other validator. On network prefix of access group. The governments play key roles in smart cities projects as changes in policies will help cities to implement the IoT which provides effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of the resources that are being used.

For instance, the government provides tax incentives and cheap rent, improves public transports, and offers an environment where start-up companies, creative industries, and multinationals may co-create, share common infrastructure and labor markets, and take advantages of locally embedded technologies, production process, and transaction costs.

Trends and characteristics[ edit ] Technology roadmap: Internet of things. The IoT's major significant trend in recent years is the explosive growth of devices connected and controlled by the Internet.

The IoT creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

Ambient intelligence and autonomous control do not necessarily require Internet structures, either. However, there is a shift in research by companies such as Intel to integrate the concepts of the IoT and autonomous control, with initial outcomes towards this direction considering objects as the driving force for autonomous IoT. For example, an autonomous vehicle's camera needs to make real-time obstacle detection to avoid an accident. This fast decision making would not be possible through transferring data from the vehicle to cloud instances and return the predictions back to the vehicle.

Instead, all the operation should be performed locally in the vehicle. Integrating advanced machine learning algorithms including deep learning into IoT devices is an active research area to make smart objects closer to reality. Moreover, it is possible to get the most value out of IoT deployments through analyzing IoT data, extracting hidden information, and predicting control decisions. A wide variety of machine learning techniques have been used in IoT domain ranging from traditional methods such as regression , support vector machine , and random forest to advanced ones such as convolutional neural networks , LSTM , and variational autoencoder.

Autonomous behavior through the collection and reasoning of context information as well as the object's ability to detect changes in the environment faults affecting sensors and introduce suitable mitigation measures constitutes a major research trend, [] clearly needed to provide credibility to the IoT technology.

Modern IoT products and solutions in the marketplace use a variety of different technologies to support such context-aware automation, but more sophisticated forms of intelligence are requested to permit sensor units and intelligent cyber-physical systems to be deployed in real environments.

The specific problem is: The information is partially outdated, unclear, and uncited. Requires more details, but not so technical that others won't understand it.. WikiProject Technology may be able to help recruit an expert. It includes various database systems that store sensor data, such as time series databases or asset stores using backend data storage systems e.

Cassandra, Postgres.

In order to program and control the flow of information in the Internet of things, a predicted architectural direction is being called BPM Everywhere which is a blending of traditional process management with process mining and special capabilities to automate the control of large numbers of coordinated devices.

With billions of devices [] being added to the Internet space, IPv6 will play a major role in handling the network layer scalability. Fog computing is a viable alternative to prevent such large burst of data flow through Internet.

Internet of Things From Hype to Reality

Stroke prediction through intelligence technology and prediction algorithms which controlled by hyper-connected self-machine learning engine. The idea achieved through building a knowledge base including physiological data, motion data, bio signal, risk factors and electronic health record.

The physiological, biosignal, and motion data will be measured through wearable and embedded sensors. This paper focused on briefly explaining the conceptual idea and related information of the elderly stroke prediction while sleeping using IoT. Farming the Web of Things. ABSTRACT The Web of Things promises real-time visibility into the state of fixed and mobile real world entities, as well as the provision of measurement data that can be analysed for optimisation.

We present a Web of Things case study for A range of fixed environmental sensors and autonomous livestock monitoring technologies are used. We have developed an ontology-enabled architecture that permits personal alert specification.

Sensor observations are published as a linked data cube, supporting longer-term analysis and data sharing at a local, industry or national scale. We look at the opportunities for such technology for Australian agriculture in the context of a national broadband rollout.

We propose that although benefits accrue at farm scale there is untapped benefit to be obtained at the industry scale, envisioning a service industry driven by the opportunity not only to provide sensor, software and decision support services but also to aggregate farm-scale data for industry-scale optimisation.

The neonatal incubator is an apparatus that provides a closed and controlled environment for the sustenance of premature babies. But recently, many premature babies have lost their lives due to lack of proper monitoring of the incubator But recently, many premature babies have lost their lives due to lack of proper monitoring of the incubator that leads to accidents leakage of gas and overheating causing short circuits and eventually, the bursting of incubators.

This project deals with the cost- effective design of an embedded device that monitors certain parameters such as pulse rate of the baby, temperature, humidity, essential amount of gas and light inside the incubator. The details are sent as a message to the doctor or nurse through IoT, so that proper actions can be taken in advance, to maintain the apt environment inside the incubator and ensure safety to the infant's life.

So, the objective of this project is to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks and provide a safe and affordable mechanism for monitoring the incubator. Application for Integrating Microcontrollers to Internet of Things. Internet was introduced to the common people over two decades ago and over the years we have witnessed its massive growth into the mass population through personal computers, laptops and cell phones.

Until recently, the Internet was a Until recently, the Internet was a commodity of the people, i. In the past few years we have witnessed that the end users of the Internet are no longer only people but devices as well. With the advent of IPv6 addressing, it is possible to connect countless devices to the Internet with unique IP addresses.

Thus scientists and engineers have been able to hookup all kinds of devices to the Internet, a concept known as Internet of Things IoT.

Another domain of recent interest is the use of microcontrollers to build various home and laboratory projects. In this paper we propose a model that will allow home grown engineers as well as professional engineers to easily control their microcontroller based devices globally via Internet.

In the modern world, the technologization of various spheres of life is becoming a growing trend. The consumer properties of goods are radically changing. The article examines the emergence, the dynamics of the growth and the development The article examines the emergence, the dynamics of the growth and the development prospects for technologies, related to the concept of the "Internet of things" along with the development specifics of the "Internet of things" concept as one of the drivers of the fourth industrial revolution.

Mitigating Security Threats in Virtualized Environments. This paper reviews and provides clarification to the meaning and concept of cloud computing with particular reference to Infrastructure as a Service IaaS and its underlying virtualization technologies.

The categories of cloud computing The categories of cloud computing and key characteristics of cloud environment are also discussed. A review of virtualization technologies and approaches is presented with key vulnerabilities to security threats and mitigation strategies and countermeasures are also presented. This knowledge is imperative in making virtual Information Technology IT environment more secure and robust and can help improve the operational efficiency of Virtual Machines VMs in such a manner that organizations can benefit from virtualization technology in particular and the cloud computing systems in general.

The conservation of crop field has been a main content and a complex issue. The animals mainly elephants from the protected area [PAs] are continuously attacking the crop field over the years and the protection of this crop field has The animals mainly elephants from the protected area [PAs] are continuously attacking the crop field over the years and the protection of this crop field has become a main concern. Wildlife intrusion in areas with high human mobility is proved to be lethal for both human beings and animals.

The surveillance and tracking of the wild elephants are difficult due to their size and nature of movement. Further, identifying the species captured from camera is a critical challenge.

Thus, our proposed system seeks to identify wild elephants that disturb the human life and the agricultural fields with the aid of an intelligent image processing algorithm in Raspberry pi. In our methodology, the process followed is the detection of motion in the video frame and identification of the objects in the area descriptor as the local features which describes the unique features of animal.

So it detects the elephants accurately and creates the different sound via speaker like honey bees sound which mainly irritates the wild elephants and also focusing the bright focus lights on the elephants so it cannot see properly and has a more chance to stop and get back into the forest. The system also simultaneously alerts the authorized person if the elephant is detected by sending a message through IoT.

Sivakumar arasu. This paper examines the challenges which Supply Chain Partners in a Highly Digitized ecosystem have in getting access to good quality reliable data. It also explores limitations of the traditional IoT and Blockchain integration patterns and presents an architectural framework for a permissioned Blockchain that can be used to overcome these limitations.Boudriga, D.

The Internet is evolving rapidly toward the future Internet of Things IoT which will potentially connect billions or even trillions of edge devices which could generate huge amount of data at a very high speed and some of the applications may require very low latency. Duraiswamy, G. It is organized into five main parts, comprising of a total of 11 chapters. Email: falcon19khan gmail. On network prefix of access group. These important so light weights cryptographic algorithms should be devices are more prone to cyber-attacks.

Conference on, pp. Ding, L. Cloud 3.