FANUC CNC CUSTOM MACROS PDF
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Custom Macros 3. Probing Applications . CNC Lathe Ap pli ca tions. .. System Variables for Fanuc Series 10/11/ Fanuc CNC Custom Macros By Peter Smid. March 25, April 27, 1. Click here Download. Advertisements. CNC Manual/CNC Programming/CNC Programming Using Fanuc Custom Macro B. CNC Programming Using Fanuc Custom Macro B. Views: Continue.
For a better Gauging. A macro program developed using Custom However, the thrust of this paper is on the Common Variables. Macro B or else resembles a standard CNC program to a certain extent, but includes many features not found in regular 3. It is stored under its own program function of the Common Variables. The use of Common or number O- , and it is called by the main program or by Global Variables is appreciated when a macro programmer is another macro, using a G-code typically G However, in a in need of sharing the values of a defined variable a number of very simple form, macro features can be used in a single times for different applications.
In contrast to Local Variables, program as well, with out the macro call command . A variable is a mathematical Although, this shortcoming of local variables could be easily quantity that can assume any value within its allowed range compensated by making use of nesting but nesting in a macro and format. The word variable means change or changeable. However, care must be exercised in local variables have been cleared and there still is the need to assigning the maximum value of the range which could be less pass one or more variable values to another macro.
Moreover, Ingenuity may be applied to alter and when and how the common variables are cleared . They adapt this macro to be applicable to clear two or more ranges start with the first common variable - However, the actual number of these variables from any undesirable handling or change.
The common variables in these two ranges varies on the various function that can be used with single variable or a range of control systems of the Fanuc.
The difference between the common variables range starting Moreover, on some control models, common variables from from and the other range starting from is very to can be protected from any change in its data by significant. Variables from to are cleared when the setting certain system parameters. In contrast to local variables, common particular emphasis on Common Variables for the variables are not cleared by M99 or M30 functions.
The higher development of Macros. This paper also discussed the use of level common variables to range may be cleared Common Variables to eliminate a serious limitation associated one by one in Manual Data Input Mode MDI mode by with the Local Variables. Nothing more is happening. Then 0. In this case, a value of 0.
When local variables are used, it is important to be aware that once the M99 is executed at the end of the sub-program, or if the power is shut off to the machine, all local variables are cleared and are empty. This does not set the value stored in variable 1 to zero, but clears the contents of the machine memory where the data for variable 1 is kept.
Common or global variables are not reset to null with M These variables are to and to In many cases, the one hundred series variables are cleared when power to the machine is lost. More common variables are available, but these are the default ones, which all Fanuc-based machines should have. Again, these are simply a location to store a number. Figure 3 shows a value of 1. Figure 4. Screen shot showing local variable with a value of 1.
System variables start at and go up from there. They store everything about the machine and are specific to the controller type. The system variables should never be manipulated by an inexperienced individual. Macro Call Subprograms are called with the M98 command. A typical subprogram call looks like this: M98 P When calling a subprogram, you should not program any other code on the same line after the subprogram call, as it will be ignored.
For example, if you program: G90 Z2.
The machine will move the Z-axis to 2. However, this line would be coded as follows: M98 P G90 Z2. The Z-axis movement would not occur because the subprogram will be executed first. The group of similar parts is often called the family of similar parts or. Some offset changes require a probing device. Later in the handbook. Knowledge of offsets and the way they interact with the CNC program is absolutely essential for most macro applications.
Alarm and Message Generation Macros can also be used to detect a number of erroneous conditions faults and allow the part programmer to communicate the fault to the CNC operator in the form of an alarm or an error condition. The feedrate is always the same for both directions.
They include curves based on mathematical formulas. Nonstandard Tool Motions The three common tool motions. Custom Fixed Cycles Fixed cycles have been part of programming for a long time. Other motion types are often needed. Special G-codes and M-codes Manufacturers of special equipment may want to control certain operations by a G-code or an M-code.
Custom macros can be developed to accurately simulate such a toolpath. You may develop a new cycle. Instead of alarms indicating the possible cause of a fault.
These will be nonstandard functions and can be developed with a macro. Many special cycles can be developed. G83 and G73 cycles cannot do that. Alarm error can have its own number and a brief description of the cause.
Using macros. They are used every day and they work very well. Another example is a cycle that can peck drill with a decreasing peck depth of each subsequent cut. Custom macros used in probing can be applied to different types of drawing specifications.
The field of macro applications is very extensive. Various Shortcuts and Utilities Many small utility programs can also be written into a macro form. In addition to the many possibilities already described. Coordinate System Rotation. Measured values actual values can be compared with the expected values drawing values.
Typical optional features are Scaling Function. The applications are virtually endless. Utilities are usually small programs that do not actually machine a part. Using probes and similar devices. Hiding and Protecting Macro Programs There will be macro programs that you create. A section on probing. Probing and Gauging Probing and gauging are a very important areas of using custom macros. Macros with sensitive contents can also be hidden from the directory display.
With macros. If something goes wrong with the macro in the control system. Polar Coordinates. After all. Additional Offsets. Macros can be protected within the control software.
Typical applications may include safe tool call. All these programs share a common feature. Establish a specific practical project. For the standard CNC programming. M-codes will vary a great deal between different Fanuc controlled machined tools. Languages mentioned earlier. Just do not give up!
One skill that is very important to understanding macros. The chapter covering this topic lists the M-codes for reference only. When a macro programming is compared to a conventional CNC programming. Another very important background skill. Subprograms are the first logical step into the macro development. Keep in mind that G-codes are reasonably consistent between different Fanuc control models and compatible controls.
Work experience is a definite asset. Although most controls have the same defaults. To set a different default. Defaults of several G-codes may be set by the vendor or the user. It is important to know these codes for every CNC machine and control system equipped with macros.
In macros. If you do not select the mode in the program. The key to programming any G-codes is that the desired mode has to be selected before it is used.
The chapter also includes a typical reference list for both types of the basic G and M programming codes. Typical default settings are identified with the t diamond symbol in the reference tables. Be very cautious when making permanent changes to the control system settings!
The control system has to be preset to that mode before any dimensional value appears in the program. Other common examples of preparatory commands include the type of tool motion G That means the built-in settings.
In this chapter. The G-codes and the M-codes are the major feature of every CNC program and the key to successful macro program development. The purpose of the preparatory commands is to prepare. Default Settings When the power to the control system is turned on. Most of them control the hardware functions of the machine tool. If a conflicting G-code appears in the same block. The most typical is the G20 or G21 command that selects the units mode.. Some preparatory commands remain in effect.
They also control the program flow. Only a small number of M-codes can claim to be standard. Custom M-codes The M-codes are the least standard from one control or machine to another. Modal commands are programmed only once. The typical non-modal commands are G Programming Format Any number of G-codes from different groups see table can be programmed in a single block.
Every machine tool manual should include information on how the M-codes behave when programmed with a motion. G09 and the machine zero return commands GG These are often called 'one shot' commands. M03 will start simultaneously with the motion. Many M-codes are designed by the manufacturer of the machine tool. Programming Format Normally. M30 is the program end. Machine tool manufacturers assign an M-code to any unique option the machine tool may have.
Fanuc system will not cause an error condition! Always know the special M-codes for every machine you work with. Some manufacturers may assign hundreds of unique M-codes for a particularly complex machine tool. If a conflicting M-code appears in the same block or too many M-codes are in the block.
M-codes with a Motion If an M-code is programmed together with an axis motion. Reference Tables The following tables list the typical preparatory commands G-codes and miscellaneous functions M-codes. Both milling and turning applications are included and the typical default preparatory commands are marked with the t symbol subject to change by the vendor or the user. In case of discrepancy between the included tables and the CNC machine tool manual, always use the codes listed by the machine tool manufacturer.
G-codes for Milling The following table is a fairly comprehensive reference listing of all standard as well as the most common G-codes preparatory commands used for CNC milling programs CNC milling machines and machining centers. All inter-dependent G-codes belong to the same group number and are modal, unless they belong to the Group 00, which identifies all non-modal commands: Three-Digit G-codes Some machines and control systems also provide G-codes that have three digits instead of the standard two digits, for example, G This is a good indication that the machine manufacturer has included some special time-saving cycles internal macros.
These are not standard codes and usually vary from one machine to another. As you will learn later, a macro can also be called by a G-code other than the standard G M-codes for Milling The following table is a fairly comprehensive reference listing of the most typical and common M-codes miscellaneous functions used for CNC milling programs CNC milling machines and machining centers. Only a very few M-codes are industry standard, so check the manual of your machine for details and usage: G-codes for Turning The following table is a fairly comprehensive reference listing of the standard and the most common G-codes preparatory commands used for CNC turning CNC lathes.
All dependent G-codes belong to the same group number and are modal, unless the Group is 00, which identifies all non-modal commands. Fanuc offers an option of three G-code types called A, B and C. The most common in North America is the A-type. Type is selected by a system parameter. Small differences between control units should be expected - check the Fanuc reference manual for your application! M-codes for Turning The following table is a fairly comprehensive reference listing of the most typical and common M-codes miscellaneous functions used for CNC turning CNC lathes.
Check your machine tool manual for any discrepancies in this reference list. Only a very few M-codes are industry standard and common to all controls: Caution is advised here: Lower level controls such as Fanuc 0. The standard program codes are fairly common across different Fanuc models. The focus of this handbook is mainly on the higher level of Fanuc controls.
These are available to every user and when used in macros. Subprogram must only contain data common to all parts or operations Subprogram Example. Comprehensive knowledge of subprograms is essential for macro program development..
In CNC programming. Mill To illustrate the concept of subprograms with a practical example. Figure 2: In a subprogram. A subprogram is always called by another program main program or another subprogram. What makes it different is its content. In standard part programming. Without a subprogram. All three examples will follow the holes in the same order. Program Example 1 shows the program without a subprogram. The main reason is a possible drawing change.. Program Example 2 shows the same machining process using a subprogram call: Using a subprogram will not only shorten the program length.
L0 or K0 is a fixed cycle parameter. The data programmed in the current block are stored in memory and will be used when the subprogram is processed.
G80 G00 Z The program Example 3 of the complete program will be a bit shorter than the previous version see reservations following the program: Also note the L0 or K0 added to the fixed cycle block for all tools.
Anytime you see several consecutive blocks that are identical either before or after the subprogram call. In the shown Example 2. The hole locations in the subprogram will use any fixed cycle data that are active passed from the main program. The clue may often be found in the main program.
There might be other ways to structure the main program and the subprogram. Look at the reasons.
M98 Subprogram call followed by the subprogram number M99 Subprogram end The M98 function must always be followed by the subprogram number.
In a strict technical definition. You have look deep into the subprogram to find out these important details. Study the main program and you will see that it is impossible to tell whether the fixed cycle had been canceled or not. When the processing returns to the program of origin. In conclusion. In a summary. The miscellaneous function M99 is usually programmed as a separate block.
That may be the main program or another subprogram.. This function will cause the transfer of the processing from the subprogram back to the program it originated from. When the subprogram is completed. For instance. Although the program itself is somewhat shorter. M98 P The subprogram must be stored in the control system under the assigned number.
Rules of Subprograms From the last two examples for the five holes. Also difficult is to see what other data may have been passed to the main program from the subprogram. One area of programming where this technique has a good application is bar feeding on a CNC lathe N43 N44 N45 N46 N There are times when the program processing has to return to a block other than the one immediately following the subprogram call.
Industrial Press Inc.. This is not a common occurrence and is used for special purposes only. M98 P Note that the P-address in this case has a totally different meaning than the P-address in the M98 function. Figure 3 below. New York In such a case If the number of repetitions is not specified. The choice depends on the control system.
It is very unusual to program more than two levels deep nesting. Look at this example. This is called a single level nesting. Nesting means that one subprogram may call another subprogram. The address L or K specify the number of repetitions directly and separately from the subprogram number call.
As the number of calling levels increase. The third example uses a combined structure. Although several subprogram calls can be made from the main program. In all cases. After that. That is the most common default condition. In a nested program environment. What are the differences? There is a simple answer. Method 1 M98 P L Subprogram Nesting The most common application of a subprogram is to call it only once and process it only once.
Fanuc controls allow for up to four levels of subprogram nesting also called four levels fold. Check the control system user manual to find which method is supported for your control unit. If the subprogram has to be repeated more than once. It simply means that although you may develop a very sophisticated program flow. More complex multi-level subprogram nesting brings an extra power to the CNC programming process. The three levels of subprogram nesting are illustrated as schematic graphics Figures 5 to 7: This is the most common application of subprograms.
Four-level nesting has been designed for the same reason.. That is not to say the multi-level subprogram nesting should be discouraged or even avoided altogether. Subprograms that use the three or four-level nesting are very rare in practice. By careful planning. All four illustrations that follow show a graphical program flow for the four levels of subprogram nesting: Provide only those comments that are relevant.
Documenting CNC programs has been largely ignored by many users. Although somewhat forgivable for simple and easy programs.
Look at the schematic drawings of the four levels of subprogram nesting and you will see how complex the program can become with each increasing level of nesting. Program comments are typically enclosed in parentheses.
For both. This can be achieved by including important comments in the program body main program. New York.. A good documentation will help the user in orientation and program 'decoding'.
Good program documentation is the key part of any CNC program development. Since the program development of subprograms is critical as the basic knowledge for macro development. In the terms of purpose. The main. There are many uses of macros that cannot be compared with anything similar to subprograms.
A very important part of macros is their ability to use conditional testing. Macros are called in a similar way. The use of looping features alone.. Unlike subprograms. A typical CNC program can mix both. The major difference between the two unique programming methods is the flexibility macros offer. Macros One main purpose of this handbook is to emphasize the custom macro option of Fanuc controls. Of course. Typical features that are classified as unique to macros are mostly related to flexibility: They are treated virtually the same way as subprograms.
Do not think of macros just as a better replacement for subprograms. In Figure 8 shows a drawing of a lathe part with three identical grooves. Although all three grooves are located at the same diameter. Whether developing a subprogram or a macro. Not only simple or more complex algebraic functions can be used. Specific constants. Calculated values can be stored into a memory register and used in the current program.
Knowledge of subprograms. While grooves that do not change diameters can be programmed in absolute mode along the X-axis and incremental mode along the Z-axis.
Although machining centers used so far as illustrative examples have become the most likely sources of macro programs. The one machine tool that is widely used in everyday production. There is no doubt that macros can elevate CNC programming to the levels never before possible with only main programs or subprograms alone. In the main program.
Tool retracts above the diameter to the initial position. In the subprogram. In this case. Tool retracts to the start position.
Tool retracts 0. Typical examples include rapid traverse rate. Parameters are critical to the CNC machine operation. If you are a part programmer with limited experience. They include such items as all machine tool specifications. For specialized work like macro development. Parameters are often changed intentionally. The majority of control parameters relate to the specifics of a particular CNC machine tool. There are hundreds of parameters available for any control system.
The control system of Fanuc units has been designed with great internal flexibility and many parameters have to be set before the CNC machine tool is operational. As an English word. The process of connection and configuration is often known as interfacing. These parameters do not change and any attempt to make any changes severally endangers smooth machine operation. Their original factory settings are generally quite sufficient for most work.
Even when a system parameter is changed by the program standard or macro. When the purpose is achieved. The sentence shows that the dictionary definition is right on for the purpose of defining parameters for a CNC system. What are Parameters? When the machine tool manufacturers design a CNC machine. Do not confuse parameters of the control system with the method of programming called parametric programming. These parameters are strictly in the domain of the user and without a backup strategy.
The reason is that when a company downloads a CNC machine. Number two reason is customized settings.. It may be fairly easy to replace lost parameters that had been supplied by the machine tool manufacturer. There may be quite a few of them. The most popular is to save the parameters as a disk file. There are several reasons for the backup. Backing Up Parameters Control system parameters can be backed-up saved externally by several means.
The rule is so simple and so much a common sense. Each control has a battery backup that provides power to the important settings. Either the manufacturer had provided the customer a copy or keeps a copy on file.
Many CNC users are not familiar with the function of parameters at all and only a handful know how the parameters can be used to an optimum performance of a CNC machine. These factory settings work well for the majority of users and there is a little need to make any changes.
Fanuc CNC Custom Macros
If you cannot save parameters in an efficient way. Saved parameters should also be printed as a hard copy. The energy is supplied through the main power. The first reason is that all current settings of the parameters need power energy to be retained in the memory of the CNC system.
It could also be the machine tool dealer that keeps a backup no guarantees. This rule recommends that all system parameters should be backed up. Even if major changes to the default settings are planned. That way. When the main power is turned off. The same rule that applies to any computer data and is fairly well followed in an office environment. What about the parameters that have been modified by the user.
These backups may help to restore standard parameters. This operation requires a computer laptop is ideal. For macros. Parameter Classification Numbering the system parameters makes sense for the programming purposes. This can be confusing to anybody.. Fanuc has been well aware of the potential problem and organized the parameters into about two and half dozen logical groups. Numbering of Parameters Parameters are typically numbered as four-digit integers within the to range.
Typical settings may include configurations of various machining cycles.
Fanuc CNC Custom Macros By Peter Smid
In the Fanuc reference manual typically called the Parameter Manual. In addition. To illustrate what areas of the machine tool operation the CNC system parameters cover. Just try to memorize a few dozen of particular four digit numbers. Every CNC machine has literally several hundreds specifications that have to be set by the system parameters. Since there are several models of Fanuc controls available.
Compound these differences with a number of different options available on each control. As a CNC programmer. Parameters for Tool Life Management Parameters for Position Switch Functions Parameters for Turret Axis Control Parameters for High Speed Machining Parameters for Axis Control by PMC Parameters for Service Other parameters As the list shows.
Parameters for Straightness Comp. Parameters for Inclination Comp. Do not expect all of them on all controls and do not expect them to be permanent. Although the list is generally accurate. Control systems do develop.
To the CNC programmer. Do not confuse parameter numbers with system variables! On all Fanuc controls. The screen cursor display indicator will be positioned at the parameter number and the parameter data will be displayed in reverse colors highlighted. The English word binary has its origin in the Latin word binarius.
Only two input values are allowed. For the purpose of this handbook.. Done or Not Done. On or Off. Each data type group uses a different range of valid parameter data entry. A particular parameter can be called by its number see Parameter Manual. In a control system. In the bit type entry. They are listed here with appropriate data ranges for each group: Based on this definition.
The screen pages can be quickly scrolled through. Depending on the individual parameter application. The word bit is an abbreviation. Parameter Data Types The classification of parameters in the brief section listed on the previous page has only shown the description of the parameters by function.
True or False conditions can also be interpreted as Yes and No. Such a condition can be either true or false. A bit is the smallest unit of a parameter input. A byte described later is a sequence of several adjacent bits typically eight. The safest way is to write down the original settings.Open or Closed. On all Fanuc controls. Columns Formatting. Fanuc macro is not a language itself by a strict definition.
The obvious reason is that the value is already built-in inside of the control system. A macro program developed using Custom However, the thrust of this paper is on the Common Variables. Miscellaneous Functions.
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