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You may not, except with express written permission from sppn.info, distribute the content of this document. Nor may you transmit it or store it in any other. wishing to enhance their knowledge of C++. It was our goal from the begin- ning to design this text with the capabilities of serving dual markets, as a text-. C++ i. About the Tutorial. C++ is a middle-level programming language This tutorial adopts a simple and practical approach to describe the concepts of C++.


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C++ Tutorial in PDF - Learn C++ in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced concepts with examples including C++ Overview, Environment Setup, . designer and original implementer of C++, Bjarne Stroustrup, and written by for appropriate combinations of these types: x+y. // plus. +x. // unar y plus x−y. Visit sppn.info to view this book's cheat sheet. .. PDF or an MS-DOS (remember that?) batch file ends sppn.info The point of.

C does not support object oriented programming; therefore it has no support for polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance. In C because it is a procedural programming language , data and functions are separate and free entities.

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For creating objects class provides a blueprint of structure of the object. In C, data are free entities and can be manipulated by outside code.

This is because C does not support information hiding. C, being a procedural programming, it is a function driven language. C does not support function and operator overloading.

C does not allow functions to be defined inside structures. C does not have namespace feature. A namespace is a declarative region that provides a scope to the identifiers the names of types, functions, variables, etc inside it.

Namespaces are used to organize code into logical groups and to prevent name collisions that can occur especially when your code base includes multiple libraries.

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All identifiers at namespace scope are visible to one another without qualification. Identifiers outside the namespace can access the members by using the fully qualified name for each identifier.

The function declaration should be preceded by the keyword friend. The function definitions does not use either the keyword or the scope operator The functions that are declared with the keyword friend as friend function. Thus, a friend function is an ordinary function or a member of another class.

2. External Storage Class

What is an iterator? Iterators are like pointers. They are used to access the elements of containers thus providing a link between algorithms and containers. Iterators are defined for specific containers and used as arguments to algorithms.

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What are the differences between new and malloc? New initializes the allocated memory by calling the constructor.

Memory allocated with new should be released with delete. Malloc allocates uninitialized memory. The allocated memory has to be released with free.

What is an explicit constructor? A conversion constructor declared with the explicit keyword.

The compiler does not use an explicit constructor to implement an implied conversion of types. Explicit constructors are simply constructors that cannot take part in an implicit conversion. What do you mean by inline function?

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An inline function is a function that is expanded inline when invoked. An inline function is a function that is expanded in line when it is invoked.

That is the compiler replaces the function call with the corresponding function code similar to macro. What is the difference between a copy constructor and an overloaded assignment operator? A copy constructor constructs a new object by using the content of the argument object.

An overloaded assignment operator assigns the contents of an existing object to another existing object of the same class. What is class invariant?

A class invariant is a condition that defines all valid states for an object.The srand function must only be called once in a program — at the start. The functions that are declared with the keyword friend as friend function.

Following execution the function must return a value to the operating system of the data type specified in its declaration — in this case an int integer value. To display result. Constructor and destructor methods have no return value and are called automatically — they cannot be called explicitly.

It is often convenient to combine the setter methods into a single method that accepts arguments for each private variable.

What is an explicit constructor? Add the following definitions for each method in the header file.