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Moreover, they remain challenging to control as extractive activities are usually performed illegally and spread over vast areas. They also poorly contribute to the national coffers. UN Comtrade, Still, they represent an important source of income in some regions, especially in rural areas where few employment opportunities exist outside agriculture.
The purpose of my investigation is to determine what forms of public policies are conducted in areas where precious stones are excavated and discuss how they can possibly regulate mining activities. The diversity of colored gemstones found in this region enabled its main urban centers to become the most significant trade and cutting places of the country.
Regarded as a high-potential economic sector, several public actions aimed to formalize extractive activities and support gem industry sustainable development. After presenting the case study and its context 1 , public actions carried out will be examined 2 and their consequences evaluated 3.
At last, others elements will be considered and the first conclusions will be discussed 4. This analysis is based on semi- structured interviews conducted with 57 local economic agents, including 15 engaged in extractive activities, and with experts and officers from 14 different institutes engaged at some levels in public actions in the region.
While global consumption of manufactured goods rose, their demand increased, leading to economic growth for producers but also strong negative externalities. Indeed, mining activities imply the destruction of significant inputs in process, the threatening of local environmental standards, and the exposure of workers to several physicals stresses and potential harmful hazards Bebbington, Taking those facts into account, some would argue that natural resources abundance can even be treated as 1 Access to all of the data on http: Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner highlight that their profusion can be negatively correlated with economic growth Sachs and Warner, If technically gemstones are ores, they remain however characterized by important specific features.
Above all, conversely to other ores, they must not be treated as raw material and they interest only a restricted category of actors, mainly jewelers. Then, because of their characteristics — easily transportable, high value for low weight and volume Hugon, — precious ores can easily integrate illegal economic circuits controlled by mafia-style organizations, fostering corruption and the development of criminal networks Guillelmet, ; Mugnier, ; Duffy, However, gemstones should not be considered as an homogeneous category as their value ranges from very high diamond to very low quartz.
As most of gemstones have a middle-range value and are extracted by small groups using primitive techniques and minimal capital, their socio-economic impact is relatively limited at global scale, whereas at a local level, institutions are particularly affected by the undesirable consequences drained by such activities. Environmental damages Middle to high as most excavations Low to middle very few operations are realized at an industrial scale; as are conducted at an industrial scale.
Exposure to physical stresses and Middle to high risk even if formal Very high risk. Consequences for saving and Middle to high impact at local and Middle to high impact, at local scale investment national scale.
Irrational behavior of political Low to high. High, especially at local scale in elites and institutions deterioration remote areas.
Cause of conflicts Low to high. Very high, especially in remote areas. Corruption and development of Low to high. Middle to high. Probably yes, as most of products Probably not, as they are a luxury consumed are made with minerals.
In many aspects, gems are products similar to any others, with producers, downloaders and consumers, and they have been traded worldwide for centuries Brunet, Mainly dominated by United States, Western Europe and Japan until the 's, the world trade has been radically reorganized under the pressure of new actors in a few years only. Indeed, gem business has now become an Asian affair dominated by China which became also one of the world most important gem cutting and consummer center Reys, However, in this new trade system, extractive places — mainly localized in the southern part of emerged lands — have not benefited from these changes and remain at the periphery of the world-gem-economy Duffy, ; Reys, , as it is the case with Brazil mainly engaged in extracting activities Reys Map 1 Geography of the Brazilian gem industry Sources: Almost all gems extracted, predominately uncutted, are exported to China which moved only in a decade from the status of a almost non-trade partner to the most important one source: They are also exported to the United States, Hong-Kong, India, and Germany, these five countries importing about 80 percent of the Brazilian gems production Reys, If a significant part of activities still takes place outside the legal framework, some are even so conducted in total legality.
The aim of public action to fight illegality can somehow seem hazardous and cause the destruction of illegal jobs which will not be necessarily substituted by legal ones. Besides, in areas mostly characterized by low socio-economic indexes4 and lack of economic opportunities, such politics can also dangerously lead to social conflicts, poverty or paradoxically an increase of illegal practices.
In this context and because of these extreme conditions, the northeastern part of Minas Gerais offers a very interesting case to study public action. But when enforcement actions started to be carried out at national level, only significant and strategic economic sectors were concerned.
Thus, semi-precious ores like colored gemstones did not attract much interest from authorities in the beginning.
Drastic changes occurred during the 's with the debt crisis. Consequently, numerous competencies have been transferred to the local authorities. In Minas Gerais, they support local industry by funding lapidary training course and by helping local economic actors to create their own associations as the new constitution of Brazil was enacted.
In this context, the following measures have been taken by the authorities: PNUD, The first aim of public actions is to take over the control of illegal activities as most of them were conducted without environmental assessment. These policies were driven simultaneously — but in a non-coordinated form — by: An agency located in Governador Valadares. But such objectives are particularly repressive, expensive and technically difficult to achieve.
Indeed, gem mining operations of inconspicuous size are scattered over The quantity of officials is often described as insufficient to accomplish such mission. For instance, in Teolfilo Otoni, only four police officers are appointed to take care of all environmental issues in an area of 8. And out of the four administrative regimes existing, only two are really implemented to legalize mining operations: A second set of actions is undertaken to encourage cooperation between local actors.
Firstly, it consist in constraining them to adhere to representative association or cooperative. This process also enable to record them in view of a future larger formalization of current activities. In Nova Era, an emerald extraction area, a cooperative exists since As emeralds are very precious gems, illegal miners regularly invade areas controlled by authorized mining companies.
Gem fairs are also organized each year and lapidary or jewelry courses are becoming more common and obtaining a great variety of supports: Besides providing training and apprenticeship, these group teaching classes enable to strengthen local networks as they are mainly frequented by gem industry professionals.
As a consequence, projects are usually carried out by various institutions simultaneously without a good governance and are not very efficient. The current results are far from being the ones expected.
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Among the positive achievements, action plans to fight illegal mining seem to be successful, associations and gem fairs created a couple of decades ago still existing, and state institutions are increasingly present. However numerous adverse impacts can be observed. Indeed, extractives activities have declined significantly and a majority of the policies carried out were unsuitable to fulfill objectives set out. The unwanted consequences of the programs developed by public authorities can be grouped and discussed as follows a Intensification of struggle against illegal mining is correlated with a severe decline of the regional gem mining and industry Fight against illegal extractives activities seems to have been done at the expense of the sector's growth.As emeralds are very precious gems, illegal miners regularly invade areas controlled by authorized mining companies.
Completely absent from the market before, the rise of the Asian country changed completely the organization of international flows. Mugnier, D. The State of Bahia produces mainly emeralds, amethyst and aquamarines and is the second largest producer of uncut colored stones after the State of Grande do Sul, which is one of the most important producers in the world of two of these: namely agate and amethyst.
Cassiolato, J. Delaney, P. Even worst, in many cases, inadequate measures encouraged illegal behaviors making policies unadapted.
Conclusion This case study highlights the difficulties of an emerging country's authorities in combining the control and the development of an extractive sector such as gem mining, and points out unsuspected factors with negative trend.
Cause of conflicts Low to high.