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Téléchargement Gratuit Jennifer Nome livre ou tout simplement lire en ligne Jennifer Livres gratuits en PDF et EPUB Will & Will: Um nome, um destino. Ecosia uses the ad revenue from your searches to plant trees where they are needed the most. By searching with Ecosia, you're not only reforesting our planet, . Origine e misteri dei nomi dei nostri eroi, Firenze, Edizioni Clichy / Daniele Imperi, Personaggi indimenticabili. .. Nomi-destino: solo coincidenze? . As can be seen, some researchers analyse proper-name-to-appellative transfor-.

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Nome. Digite um nome para o destino. Local. Selecione Pasta de rede ou Nota : os formatos de arquivo Raw e Secure PDF não estão disponíveis em dispositivos que .. version, so that the original author's reputation will not be affected by. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from. PDF | On Dec 1, , Max Marmor and others published “Par che sia I will further suggest that Leonardo's prophetic dream narrative reflects, in its reads : “Del monte che tiene il nome del grande uccello piglierà il volo il.

E a Giuseppe Pontiggia non piaceva Azzeccagarbugli. Da Manzoni a Camilleri: Scangi di accento nei cognomi di Montalbano. Un toponimo letterario ligure e uno vero. La finzione fiction dei limnonimi. Troppo lunghi i cognomi baschi?

Le incerte pronunce dei telecronisti sportivi. Abitare in via Carneade. Dalla California alla Bretagna: Vogliono cambiare nome Ingegni aguzzi per arguti giochi: Un esempio di narrazione deonimica. Cognomi e catene onimiche palindromi. Toponimi bifronti con o senza ombelico. Coppie di prenomi anagrammati. Anagrammi di cognomi. Parole incrociate. Scarti iniziali successivi. Marchionimi petroliferi ed enigmistica.

Crittografie onomastiche di un secolo fa. On the proper-name-to-appellative transformation There is no consensus in linguistics on how to interpret the proper-name-to-appellative transformation from a linguistic semantic, grammatical aspect.

Whether the process involves a change in meaning or the construction of a new meaning is controversial. A closely related issue is also debated, namely whether or not the proper name word class changes during the process, as well as which changes must be regarded as examples of the process under discussion. From a broader perspective, these questions, are connected with the definition of proper names and, in more general terms, with meaning and word class classification problems.

After reviewing the current literature on proper-name-to-appellative transformation, this paper aims to describe this phenomenon in the framework of cognitive linguistics, adopting a connectionist holistic approach, trying to shed a new light on the above mentioned issues. Views on the proper-name-to-appellative transformation in the litera- ture on onomastics International literature on onomastics has several terms deonimisation, depro- prialisation, commonisation, appellativisation denoting the phenomenon of a proper name taking on the role of an appellative within a community.

These terms refer to various aspects of the proper-name-to-appellative transforma- tion; this is linked to the fact that there are variations between researchers both in the definitions given for the phenomenon and the examples catego- rized under it. This may be one of the reasons why there is no consensus in linguistics on how to interpret the process of proper-name-to-appellative transformation from a linguistic semantic, grammatical aspect.

Contentious issues include whether the process is a change or a creation of meaning; whether a change of grammatical category occurs or not; not even which ex- amples are within the scope of the phenomenon is entirely clear. Answers to such questions are basically a function of what concept an expert has on proper names, their meanings, functions and grammatical status.

There are many who categorize proper-name-to-appellative transforma- tions as a kind of antonomasia e. Antonoma- sia is a kind of metonymy, and the processes it covers actually fall within either of two kinds of opposing directions: The King referring to Elvis Presley on the other, cases in which proper names are used in the place of appellatives e. In her concept de- onimisation has three stages. The first stage of deonimisation is that of a per- son being denoted by a proper name of someone with whom they share a cer- tain property, e.

An eponym is a word formed from the name of a famous person and used to denote a concept the formation of which can be linked to that person.

The cardigan, for example, was named after James Thomas Brudenell, the 7th Earl of Cardigan, who led his troops in warm knit- ted coats during the Crimean War Besides anthroponyms, it is al- so possible for other kinds of proper names to go under such changes, e.

Words within this group have already become appellatives, with users often not even being aware of the proper names they originate from The two stages presented by Karpenko can be seen as the two typical stages of deonimisation, even though it may not always be possible to clearly delineate them from each other. Then again, Karpenko does not address the problems outlined with regards to the process, and one can only deduce that she sees deonimisation as a type of change of meaning, since she discusses the meaning of proper names.

Mentions several types of proper-name-to-appellative transformations, however, he does not consider all of these to be appellativisa- tions.

They have several Monets in the museum. Generalization is a prerequisite of appellativisation, but it plays no role in the examples above. Another function of pluralisation is illustrated by the following sentence: There might be more Johns here. He does, however, quote examples for occasional appellativisation as well: Views formed upon the change of meaning occurring in the course of appellativisations are a function of how the meaning of proper names are interpreted.

File:Will of Zephaniah Kingsley, WDLpdf

As can be seen, some researchers analyse proper-name-to-appellative transfor- mations as processes of deonimisation, i. Therefore, their views on the various kinds of transformations are not identical to each other.

The characteristics of usage within the language concerned also have a significant effect on the interpretations of the actual examples. In descriptive formal linguistics, proper-name-to-appellative transforma- tions are considered to be a type of conversion. The scope of conversions cov- ers word pairs the members of which are identical in form, yet belong to dif- ferent word classes, for example, the English word hammer, which is used both as a noun and as a verb cf.

The commonisation process, in the course of which it is the appellative usage or meaning of a proper name which takes root, essentially produces similar pairs of words BALTEIRO The metonymical usage of names I read Dickens is not considered to be conversion. To do so, he borrows the term of lemmas from psycholinguistics. Van Langendonck has actually developed a general name theory, into which he integrated pragmatical, semantical and syntactical aspects Lemmas originally constitute one of the levels in mod- ularist2 speech production model; they are elements of the mental lexicon, and they store the syntactic and semantic information pertaining to particular words cf.

In other words, lemmas are dictionary items with potential functions, and their functions are determined by their usage. A proprial lemma has one primary function, that of a proper name, and several secondary functions. Their prototypical function is the proper name function but they can also, non prototypically function as com- mon nouns. The actual function of a proprial lemma depends on its use in a specific construction Thus, according to the theory, a proper name is one of the ways in which a proprial lemma can be manifested the prototypi- cal one , i.

Consequently, Van Langendonck defines a proper name as a noun denot- ing a unique identity, and, while having no lexical meaning similar to those of 1 In construction grammar, language proficiency is based on a set of form-function pairs.

The function side is the one normally identified as meaning, content, intention, and it also cov- ers pragmatics and semantics.

Will e Will: Um Nome, Um Destino

Form is not only syntax, but also covers phonological aspects, such as prosody. Usage based models are derived from the theory of inductive learning, ac- cording to which linguistic knowledge is acquired through building from the bottom up, drawing upon experiences and usage, with language learners making generalizations based upon repeated linguistic examples.

ROSCH , an associative, an emotive and a grammatical meaning. You are talking about a different John. In contrast, he thinks that in the case of eponyms, the link between the appellative and the original proprial lemma is merely historical, and in present day language usage only the pres- ence of an appellative lemma can be assumed As can be seen, by separating lemmas and names from each other, Van Lan- gendonck practically eliminates some of the questions raised by the appellativisa- tion.

With regards to proprial lemmas acting in the capacity of common words, it is pointless to discuss changes of meaning or word classes, since these meanings and functions are inherent to lemmas, and neither the meaning, nor the word class of a lemma is effected by the fact that it is used as a common word.

The model developed for proper names as linguistic elements, however, is in essence static. It is true that Van Langen- donck does refer to certain characteristics of the acquisition of proper names on several points for example the fact that names are amongst the linguistic ele- ments acquired during the earliest phases, or that categorical meanings are also a part of early learning.

He gives, however, no explanation for how the sec- ondary function of proprial lemmas is developed, or how it can become perma- nent, possibly even dominant. Additionally, words lemmas appear to be independent from each other within this model, or, to say at least, the relationships between them are not given emphasis.

Another point not brought forward in the model is the fact that languages, and names as their parts are used in communities. Proper-name-to-appellative transformations in the mental system Whatever linguistic process is the subject of a study, I deem it an important re- quirement not to approach the phenomena under consideration in isolation from other linguistic and cognitive processes.

This is also true for proper- name-to-appellative transformations, since proper names are linguistic ele- ments, just like common words. In order to gain a comprehensive overview of the process, beyond an analysis limited to the linguistic system, investigations on two additional levels is required as well. One of these is the level of the ner- vous or mental system, since words are physically located in our brains. In my paper I will endeavour to demonstrate how proper-name-to-appellative transformations within the mental system can be interpreted, without losing sight of the social aspects of the process.

A study with such a broadened perspective requires a model suitable for grasping the dynamics of the process, as well as the fact that these mental processes have ex- ternal factors.

Therefore, with regards to mental processes, I shall apply the holistic cognitive approach and the connectionist mind model, as these pro- vide explanations for external effects and language changes cf. This is the theoretical framework within which I shall reinterpret the process of proper-name-to-appellative transformations, as well as the issues it raises.

The holistic cognitive approach and the connectionist concept of proper names In the cognitive approach, language is a product of the human mind, therefore, it is to be studied as a cognitive phenomenon. Consequently, this bidirectional relationship between language and the cognitive system cannot be ignored when examining the language LAMB According to the researchers of cognitive semantics, meanings are based on concepts, and there is a close analogous link between our knowledge on the world and linguistic representations.

Hence, they think the meanings of words cannot be separated from the concepts they are linked to, or the general knowl- edge on the world cf.

In this model proper names similarly to common words have encyclopedic, conceptual meanings. In the case of city names, for example, the latter include size, geograph- ical location, structure, characteristic buildings, common word meanings of the elements of the name in question etc. Depending on their previous experiences, the meaning of a name may be perfectly schemat- ic for the speaker of a language, but it may also be fully detailed, with a number of versions in between the two.

The holistic approach to linguistics fits well with the connectionist ap- proach, with the latter representing the mind — in a fashion analogous to the neural system — as a model comprised by units storing elements of knowledge sub-symbols, micro-marks and the connections between them.

The model is literally represented in the mind as a network which consists of a set of infor- mation processed and stored on objects, plus phonological, morphological, syntactical attributes of the word, within which system it is impossible to make a clear distinction between linguistic, semantic elements of information on the one hand, and non-linguistic knowledge on the other.

The phenomenon occurs particularly often with proper names cf. Additionally, geometrical and func- tional etc. Proper names may be represented in our minds in a similar way, that is, the representation of a single proper name is the network of knowledge elements of various kinds. Thus, just like with other words, the entire extended — or, as the case may be, not so extended — data set activated in the mental system by a name is a part of its meaning.

Furthermore, the connectionist model also accommodates the fact that meanings are not static, but dynamic sets of knowledge, and vary from person to person. Dynamism can be mapped into changes in the strength of links be- tween network units. Variations between individuals are particularly charac- teristic of dynamic information links stored as the meaning of proper names.

In the holistic model, words fall into natural categories in part by their meanings and in part by how speakers use particular words, i. Human cognition will categorize a certain group of phenomena as things, entities. The most frequently used word class to express things in a language is that of nouns. Proper names also appear in a designating role.

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This is because appellatives denote a certain type or one of its instances, and anything denoted by an appellative will be narrowed down to a specific instance within its context, while in the meaning of a proper name, type and instance are present at the same time, therefore, participants of the communicational situation can always uniquely identify the entity denoted by the proper name.

Yet, these single-element classes function as parts of larger networks. Within these net- works, the elements of specific name types are organized by various effects frequency, similarity of usage and the word form, associations etc.

Needless to say, names are also linked to linguistic elements other than proper names cf. The development of name representations is a gradual process. As part of acquiring their native language, humans learn the elements of various name types, as wells as the usage associated with them. Consequently, new names are processed with previously acquired names serving as schemes, in an analogous fashion.

When hearing a name or its context, one will have certain preferences with regards to its possible references. My own case would be an adequate illustration: Name schemes for various kinds of objects, however, can have vast differences between cultures e.

The interpretation of proper-name-to-appellative transformations within the network model Proper-name-to-appellative transformations can be interpreted as changes in the network representing the proper name within the mental system. Thus, one concept and the relevant word will evoke the other concept and the word relevant to it Within the mental lexicon, networks representing individual names are al- so linked to other names, and even other words, concepts that is, with visual and other memory traces.

Experiences may reinforce these links. Therefore, the knowledge element representing this trait would be integrated into the mental representation of the name with rather strong links, together with knowledge elements representing other traits of the person denoted by the name.

Psycholinguistical research shows that when words are processed, the con- cepts related to them are also activated. When the verbs kick, throw are heard by a person, for example, within their cerebral cortex, the area responsible for the relevant motion functions can be seen to have increased activity cf. Even though the processing of proper names has not been subjected to similar research,6 the operative processes occurring in our case can be considered to be similar.

When a name is recalled in the course of producing or processing an utterance — through similarities or contingence-based associations, or, in essence, links between representations — any related content of meaning with an appellative nature may be activated, and vice versa; when an utterance is produced, a con- cept may also activate a name linked to it. This is because in the course of language acquisition, a person will come across proper names func- tioning as appellatives, i.

The mental representation of such a name — through identi- cal elements of knowledge — will to a lesser or greater extent overlap with the representation of the common word, or include the latter of course, the effect of appellativised names should not be ignored either. Armed with this knowledge and set of examples, humans are then capable of processing proper names which are used as appellatives, and we are even ca- pable of creating such forms ourselves, that is, using proper names as common words.

Processing the element used as an appellative is also aided by the par- ticular context and situation, as well as presumptions on the knowledge of the other party involved in the communication. Presumptions on the knowl- edge of the other party involved in the communication also play an important role in the selection of the linguistic elements utilized in the production, and the usage of the appellative form of a proper name.

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Other resolutions: Structured data Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents.

Kingsley, Zephaniah Testament de Zephaniah Kingsley, Will of Zephaniah Kingsley, Testamento de Zephaniah Kingsley, J Kingsley, et leurs enfants. Anna Kingsley. Zephaniah Kingsley was a wealthy planter and slave owner in northeast Florida. His heirs included his wife, a freed slave named Anna M. Kingsley, and their children. Kingsley was both a defender of slavery and an activist for the legal rights of free blacks.

By the s, Kingsley was active in maritime commerce, including the slave trade. In , he became a citizen of Spanish Florida and began acquiring land in northeast Florida.

Over the next three decades, however, state and local laws and customs slowly eroded the rights of these U. By the s and s, many free blacks were forced into slavery.

Fearing for the safety of his family in Florida, Kingsley made preparations to send his wife and children to Haiti, and by , Anna and her children were residents of Haiti. In this will, Kingsley sought to ensure the freedom and financial well-being of the children he had by various women slave and free , as well as of his wife. He gave instructions that the slave families he owned not be separated without their consent, that his slaves be given the privilege of downloading their freedom at half their respective values, and that they be given the opportunity to go to Haiti if they could not remain free in Florida.

Colonial America; Slavery; Wills. Entre seus herdeiros estavam sua esposa, uma ex-escrava de nome Anna M.

Kingsley, e seus filhos. Zephaniah Kingsley era un propietario de esclavos y hacendado en el nordeste de Florida. Kingsley y a sus hijos. State Library and Archives of Florida. Biblioteca y Archivo del Estado de Florida.

This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art.Such process may result in ad hoc as well as permanent instances, and the possibility of degrees on the scale between these two extremes can be included with regards either to the mental system of the individual or the level of the community.

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Help Center Find new research papers in: The two stages presented by Karpenko can be seen as the two typical stages of deonimisation, even though it may not always be possible to clearly delineate them from each other. One of these is the level of the ner- vous or mental system, since words are physically located in our brains.

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In her concept de- onimisation has three stages. The holistic approach to linguistics fits well with the connectionist ap- proach, with the latter representing the mind — in a fashion analogous to the neural system — as a model comprised by units storing elements of knowledge sub-symbols, micro-marks and the connections between them.

This is the theoretical framework within which I shall reinterpret the process of proper-name-to-appellative transformations, as well as the issues it raises. Hence, they think the meanings of words cannot be separated from the concepts they are linked to, or the general knowl- edge on the world cf.