THE QURAN DILEMMA PDF
A book of terror or a book of peace? An inspired text or a political agenda? How is one to know the truth about the Qur'an? Where does one. The Qur'an Dilemma. A book of terror or a book of peace? An inspired text or a political agenda? How is one to know the truth about the Qur'an? Where does. The book has been available in Arabic for about ten years in PDF form. . was raising provocative subjects, but his faith struggled to answer every dilemma.
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The Quran Dilemma Book brings to live, to English-speaking readers, many of the critical arguments concerning Islam and its holiest book the Quran. Qur'an Dilemma: Former Muslims Analyze Islam's Holiest Book [former Muslims] on sppn.info A must for anyone who wants the truth about the Quran. This is an extensively researched three-volume commentary that critically examines Islam's holiest book. Available in both Arabic and English, it challenges .
Meanwhile, the newly elected president of the United States and his inner circle have a tendency to conflate the ideas of radical Islam with the beliefs of the entire Muslim population. So, on the right, the very same self-critique of Islam is used to attack Muslims and legitimize draconian policies against them. One possible response to this problem is to back down and stay silent.
The Atheist Muslim is a sustained argument for why silence is not an option. I met up with Rizvi in his hometown of Toronto recently to discuss his reasoning. Rizvi told me he wrote his book to give other ex-Muslims and wavering Muslims a reference point.
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Rizvi, who was born in in Pakistan, where blasphemy carries a potential death sentence , and who lived for more than a decade in Saudi Arabia prior to becoming a permanent resident in Canada in , knows all too well how dangerous public declarations of disbelief can be.
He grew up in a loving and supportive family. One criticism that has been leveled at ex-Muslims is that they are prone to fundamentalism, trading one form of zealotry for another. For Rizvi, Islam was never an all-defining identity, and neither is his current ex-Muslim status. He writes about Muslims with great humanity and feeling.
He also remains culturally wedded to Islam, celebrating Eid and enjoying the feasts of Ramadan.
Therefore, a Muslim is intolerant of others who have different religions and ideas. The above-mentioned consideration is strictly a superficial, if not a consequence of bad intention, interpretation of Islam. This understanding of Islam and Islamic values, on the contrary, stems from a totalitarian and absolutist consideration of Islam.
Such image of Islam does not reflect the only opinion of some western intellectuals but it is also the reflection of secularist and totalitarian believers of ideologies in the form of socialism, fascism, and scientism in the Muslim world. It is a fact that Islam, as a religion with its holy book like some other religions, has some basic stable, unchanging principles and norms.
Otherwise, to speak about Islam or any doctrine would be impossible. A text including religious scriptures and works of art and even nature has mainly two dimensions: normative and historical. While the normative expresses unchanging, a historical aspect; the historical represents the idea of adaption of the text to the given situation. That is, the historical aspect is the application of the meaning derived from the normative being of the text to a concrete situation Gadamer, However, as a matter of fact, interpretations differ while time is passing over history.
As much as interpretations, understandings and applications differ. In this process, we first interpret a given text then understand it. Finally, we are going to apply it in accordance with our own particular situation.
Meaning of the text includes the process of interpretation, understanding, and application. In the so-called hermeneutical process, scholars produce meaning from Quran through their own historical presence of being.
Not only Muslims but all other interpreters establish their ethos or Lebenswelt in a similar way. Accordingly, relating Islam to liberal democracy, to human rights or freedom, at a first glance, is arbitrary, because Islam has its own unique conception of the universe, man, society, state, justice and the like as any religion has.
Here my thesis is that it is a matter of interpretation to argue that Islam is compatible or not with the context of liberal or non-liberal ideas related to justice, freedom, and democracy. Besides, there is the historical context of the Muslim world in the sense that cultures, civilizations, and nations have their lives in close relations with one another. In this context, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and other religions have been developed in close relations, and confrontations so that one influenced the other.
On the other hand, it is historically known that Judaism, Christianity, and Islam can be classified in the same category in being monotheistic, heavenly and Abrahamic. Roughly speaking, the believers of Quran regard that Islam is the last step in the chain of revelation. In this sense, for Muslims, Judaism and Christianity came into existence through revelation before Islam. In fact, all theologies are products of interpretation of the scripture.
In the theological perspective, all these religions are to be deliberated in the same context of tradition. This is the key question in understanding some crucial differences and clashes among them. It is not true to say that the main character of the West is that they are secular without Jesus. It may be only argued that in the West, religious conception is based on more secular values and so the Church is more secularized than the Mosque.
The mentioned question about how and why the Muslim world is different from the Christian one is a matter of 3 Istanbul Network 5th International Conference Paper interpretation. There have been important differences between the West and Islamic world in terms of scientific, technological, economic and political developments, which are referring to some historical reasons.
The Qur'an Dilemma English (The Qur'an Dilemma English, Volume 1)
I mean it is a rough and unfair approach to say that the Muslim world does not make progress because of the Islamic values that exclude free market, freedom of thought, secular values, human rights, scientific imagination, etc. The argument implicitly states that the development or the progress of the West results from Christian values. If religion is considered as an obstacle against progress, the argument will pave the way for the reflection that scientific imagination and social progress is just the result of the emergence of secular values that have omitted religion from the mind of individuals and public life.
Here, a transformation of public life in accordance with secularism is graded.
However, the approach indicates a kind of integration of religious thinking in a new form, which does not necessarily exclude religion. Indeed, religious, social and political interpretations and practices have emerged in contradictory sectarian forms in the history of Christianity.
Similar developments have also occurred in the history of Islam.
Rival schools of thought have emerged in Islam and they have consequently established new and different sects. All these differences have brought about intellectual debates among Muslim scholars. Besides, prominent political and humanitarian tragedies have been experienced in the history of Islam due to sectarian conflicts. All these differentiations are themselves indicators of the pluralistic interpretations and conceptions. Contrary to the popular perception, an examination of these facts in the history of Islam will indicate that Islam has many political, moral and economical features to establish a free society.
A difficulty in understanding the political theory of Islam is that there is no one authoritative text that deals with exclusive forms of government or even with the political obligation in general. It is the case that the prophet did not prescribe any specific form of government and no specific political prescription laid down in the Quran. Furthermore, the fragmentation of Islamic society in the modern world means that the basic principles of Islam have had to adjust to a variety of local circumstances Barry, Islam, Law, and Democracy In Islam, justice is one of the main virtues of society and it is the basis on which state exists.
For instance, Hallaq recognized the fact of justice as the core sense of Islamic position, when the relationship between Islam, law and the modern democratic state has been evaluated. According to Hallaq, there is always a tension between law and the state in the history of Islam.
The relation between Islam and democracy has been widely discussed in the last decade in the West and Islamic World. The question is whether Islam is compatible with democracy. If it is compatible with democracy, then the question is in what sense and by whose rationality? It should be stated that Islam as a religion has its unique law which is called Sharia or Islamic Law.
Sharia is referring to the position of Muslim great jurists as the concrete understanding of justice. The absence of a pluralistic approach in Muslim World does not stem from the moral structure of Islam. Clearly, I mean the lack of pluralism, liberty, and tolerance cannot be based on Islamic principles springing from Quran. In this sense, democracy or the theory of democracy is not basically an outcome of religious interpretation.
As a modern phenomenon, democratic theory has been established as the result of different ways of justifications one of which is religion. The notion of natural law, freedom, and equality before God are the core of all monotheistic religions including successively Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Indeed, some other religions such and Buddhism bear the same core ideas. The democratic theory presupposes the equality of individuals in terms of political rights such as the equal right for voting.
However, the liberal democratic theory specifically ignores the economic equality, since it is neither just nor possible to establish a society with equal individuals by means of law or political force. However, to have equal rights for voting is possible in theory and practice as the concept of the priority of law entails, which can also be enforced.
A poor or a rich human being as man or women has, in this sense, equal political rights in a community only through establishing the government with democratic standards.
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Some equal rights such as voting are the starting point to establish a democratic government. Although it is a necessary condition, it is not sufficient to establish a liberal democratic state.
But on the other hand, an intention to adopt equality to the whole universe of the human condition will rise to a totalitarian regime or dictatorship in different forms such as socialism or fascism. The idea of equality before God in the process of revelation has strong affects over equal political rights.
The affinity between religion and liberal democratic theory in this sense is obvious. This is one aspect of the story. There are some other interpretations too. In the west, some socialist interpretations are based on Christianity. In the writings of Christian Socialist writers such as Earnst Bloch, a socialist communal life is based on religious ideas. Indeed the socialist experiment in ex-Russia and ex-East Germany was experienced in mainly a Christian community.
That socialist tentative had also influenced Latin-American republics and the Muslim states. As for every mode of thought, religion, art, science, and ideology, Islam has also rival interpretations.
Amendments, rules and divine propositions are explained, interpreted and applied differently according to the interpreter, tradition or the historical era. In this sense, Islamic political thought has been represented by two main schools: Sunni Islam and Shia Islam.
In regard to the political structure of the State, it is obvious that Sunni Islam differs from Shia Islam in many respects. Naturally, the vice versa is true.
Islam, in this context, addresses to the universal community including individuals, groups, tribes, nations and the like, who have their own identities, customs, races, and languages. The addressee here is all humanity. Islam has brought a universal law stemmed from the will of God Allah.
It is a matter of fact that Islam has some unique and distinctive features. One of the major differences is about the content of Islamic law, which is binding for every follower including the rulers. In Islam, the final authority and the ultimate source of law is Allah, not a person, group or an institution.
The Dilemma Facing Ex-Muslims in Trump's America
In this sense, every human being is equal before God, and there is no priority of anyone over another except for piety or takwa. In my opinion, this principle of authority and law could serve as the basis of a free society where political equality and the priority of the rule of law become one of the basic principles.
Indeed it becomes a norm to establish a free social order and set limits to the will of rulers and the state By the same token, Islamic law is not made but discovered, which seems to contradict to liberal theories. Indeed, the law 5 Istanbul Network 5th International Conference Paper is discovered through revelation. This is, of course, a distinction made famous by Hayek and it is remarkable how Islamic conceptions of law bear a close resemblance to his jurisprudence. Consultation or Shura as the democratic way of making decisions had generated by the Prophet in Medina.
In this respect, a ruler should get the idea of the citizens of the community about decisions related public affairs as appropriate with universal principles of Quran. Conclusion Theoretical issues and empirical cases always cover close connections and tensions between method and application, which need deep insights to be resolved.
Indeed, there is no a necessary logical contradiction between religion and democracy. In order to overcome the difficulty between democracy and religion or Islam, we need to adopt a new vision which excludes traditional methodology of reading texts.
This approach bears negativity in itself in the sense that it conveys an idea of negation and destroying. It is not a kind of methodology but, rather, a strategy to eliminate such pseudo movements that situate religion and democracy in contradiction. Deconstructing the idea that Islam versus democracy has both negative and affirmative dimensions.
While the strategy omits a wrong comparison, it is, on the other hand, reaffirmed the sense that the ideals of justice and democracy have been proceeded by putting conventional notions of religion, justice, and democracy into question.
The Qur’an Dilemma
Under these considerations, I argue that depending on interpretation, there is a consistency between Islam and universal liberal principles related to human rights, democratic governance, and political integration of individuals, freedom of speech and the priority of the rule of law. In the process of shaping political regimes in the Muslim world, there have been many factors including historical, political, economic and religious ones.
Indeed in the establishment of modern states, ideological preferences have dominated the structure of social order in Muslim majority countries. As much as religious political movements, some other ideological, social and political groups have had powerful influences in the constitutions of a modern state and society.Although it is a necessary condition, it is not sufficient to establish a liberal democratic state.
Indeed, the law 5 Istanbul Network 5th International Conference Paper is discovered through revelation. By the same token, the actual democracy as theory and practice is constantly being questioned. As for every mode of thought, religion, art, science, and ideology, Islam has also rival interpretations. In this sense, there is a close and strong connection between civil society, liberalism, and democracy. A difficulty in understanding the political theory of Islam is that there is no one authoritative text that deals with exclusive forms of government or even with the political obligation in general.
Is it a result of free market namely liberal social order? Islam has brought a universal law stemmed from the will of God Allah. In the theological perspective, all these religions are to be deliberated in the same context of tradition.