FAMILY PLANNING METHODS PDF
KEY FACTS TO SHARE: FAMILY PLANNING METHODS. 1. Hormonal contraceptive methods include oral contraceptives pills, injectables, and implants . They. FAMILY. PLANNING. METHODS. Ministry of Health. P.O. Box , Kampala. Tel : + A Flipchart for Clinical Providers. It can help family planning providers to assist clients choosing a family planning method, to support effective use, and to solve clients' problems. Managers and.
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This flip-chart is a tool to use during family planning counselling or in group sessions with clients. It can: • help your clients choose and use the method of family. Other Methods of Contraception: (1) Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM): is a highly effective, temporary method of contraception; and. (2) Emergency. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods. Most. Effective. Less than 1 pregnancy per women in a year. Reversible. Implant. %*. Intrauterine Device.
One FGD with males and two FGDs with females were conducted in each of the eight project districts making a total of 8 groups for males and 16 for females ; refer to Table 1 for details. Study Sites The study was carried out in 8 villages of the 8 rural districts of Sindh, Punjab, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces in Pakistan refer to Table 1 for details. Research Instrument and Data Collection FGD guides were designed and developed by the MSS research team in English and were translated into the national language Urdu after pretesting in order to accommodate professional and cultural validation.
The moderators facilitating the FGDs were university graduates trained and experienced in social science research techniques and were fluent in local languages. Additional training on family planning and reproductive health concepts and qualitative methods of data collection was also provided to the moderators.
The FGDs were carried out separately with male and female participants using separate guidelines due to cultural and local area sensitivities.
Each FGD group consisted of 6 to 8 participants. As a standard procedure, male moderators conducted FGDs with males, whereas female moderators conducted FGDs with female groups.
Each FGD was audiotape-recorded and, in addition to audiotape recording, field and observational notes were also taken by research assistants. These transcripts were used for detailed analysis.
Using the thematic analysis approach, the researchers read and reread all of the transcripts several times to be familiar with the data and to identify predetermined and emerging themes from the data. Along with the manual analysis technique employed in the initial phase of data analysis, the data was also coded and thematically analyzed using QSR NVIVO 8 software for Windows.
The codes were further refined, combined, and categorized to develop additional codes for a detailed analysis. Further, all of the study participants were briefed about the purpose of the study and their right to refuse to answer any question or withdraw from the FGDs at any time.
They were informed that their names or any identification leading to them will be kept strictly confidential and that their names will not appear in any report or publication resulting from this study. They were further informed that the audio-recordings and hard copies of the transcripts will be kept under lock and key and subsequently destroyed in due time.
Before the start of FGDs, verbal and informed consent was also taken from the study participants. Findings The following themes and subthemes refer to Table 2 were identified and used for thematic analysis of data.
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The detailed findings will follow this table of themes. Table 2: Identified themes and subthemes. Mostly, they were living in a large joint family setup, especially in Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Including the mother-in-law, father in law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law, his wife and children; we are all around 15 people living together. Pregnancy-Related Problems There were some complications in last pregnancy and miscarriages experienced by participants in all regions. I was just sitting at home and miscarried.
In some cases women even have to rely on Dais traditional birth attendants or visit private hospitals outside their village for an abortion owing to poverty as they either do not want to have a female child or they do not want more children.
Natural Family Planning and Fertility Awareness
Health Service Seeking Behavior 3. Despite the awareness that these were not qualified doctors, they visited them for lack of a choice available to them. He does not have an MBBS degree.
He is a local practitioner. The majority of men and women have to travel outside in case of emergency which in a way affect the choice of availing FP methods.
We have to go to the main city Sakrand which is 14—16 kilometers away from our village. We listen to their advice carefully and trust them altogether. In addition, LHWs charge their late visit at night in case of emergency and they provide pills and injections to their relatives and neighbors only.
Knowledge of and Perceptions about Family Planning and Modern Contraception The men and women across the regions were familiar with different family planning methods, especially modern contraception except vasectomy. Among traditional methods, the majority of participants had little knowledge and were indifferent toward breast feeding as a natural way to avoid pregnancy. This attitude was prevailing mainly among the young men and women of these regions 19—23 years of age.
Sources of Knowledge regarding Family Planning and Modern Contraception The majority of men and women identified word of mouth as the main and most reliable and immediate source of information across the region. Current Contraceptive Use and Behavior The majority of men and women across all regions were not using any family planning method mainly because they wanted more children, had negative perceptions about family planning, or had concerns about side-effects and due to lack of access to information and services.
She used the method of IUCD for spacing between children. But suddenly both of her children died and after that she cannot get pregnant. It is safe and I can decide when to remove it whenever I want. Decision-Making regarding Contraceptive Use Discussions about decision-making regarding family planning and modern contraception yielded that husband and in-laws mainly influence how, when, and whether to practice family planning and use contraception.
Barriers towards Family Planning and Modern Contraception Findings of the study confirmed few barriers identified in previous studies. Quoting various religious injunctions and traditions, they discussed that bearing many children is advocated by Islam and is also beneficial for growth of Muslim Ummah the Muslim brotherhood.
Lack of Knowledge and Fear of Side-Effects Across all regions, the majority of participants, especially women, associated different types of side-effects with different contraceptive methods, for example, dangerous for fertility, black spots and hair growing on face, and impotency and lack of knowledge.
Social Stigma and Pressure It is important to note that the majority of young married males and females do not practice FP owing to various social stigmas. Social pressure to bear more children is identified as a barrier towards family planning as parents with more children are seen with more respect. They either laugh at you or scorn you. This is the most pivotal restriction to cope within Pakistan which is at times linked with sociocultural and health issues.
Restrictions on Female Mobility It is interesting to note that stringent restrictions on female mobility emerged as a major barrier across the regions. Females are not allowed to step out alone without the permission of their husbands or mothers-in-law. Women going alone even for medical help are thought to bring dishonor to the family.
We need permission from our husband or mother-in-law. Also there is no Centre here and to go to Sakrand you need to arrange conveyance and that requires extra expenditure. It is difficult to consult a male doctor on reproductive health issues. Discussion Almost all of the participants had entered into marriage very early with women entering into marriage relatively earlier than men, which is similar to national figures that report that on average women enter into marriage at the age of Both men and women reported that the ideal number of children they would like to have in a family is four comprising boys and girls with greater emphasis on boys.
In line with findings of the PDHS , males were reported as wanting more children than females [ 2 ].
Birth Control Methods Options Chart
Spouse husband involvement appears to be a key factor in deciding to take a family planning method and it is also equally important with regard to the number of children a couple will have [ 16 ]. As ovulation approaches and a person becomes more fertile , the fluid becomes more wet and stretchy like egg white.
Morning body temperature rises within about 12 hours of ovulation and stays at this slightly higher range until around the time of the next period. The following fertility awareness-based methods use a calculation to identify the fertile days: Standard Days Method using CycleBeads: based on statistical information about women who have regular menstrual cycles, you can use this method if your cycle is between 26 and 32 days long.
Counting from the first day of a period, days eight through 19 of the menstrual cycle are considered fertile days. Calendar Rhythm Method: count and record days in each menstrual cycle for six months and predict future fertile days days when pregnancy can occur using a standard calculation. The following fertility awareness-based methods rely on observing bodily changes: TwoDay Method: track cervical fluid every day, twice a day. A woman is considered fertile when she has secretions that become more wet and stretchy on either that day or the day prior.
Ovulation Method: observe and chart cervical fluid and identify fertile days. Symptothermal Method: observe and record cervical fluid as well as changes in basal body temperature. This method is for new mothers who feed their babies only breastmilk for up to six months and having no periods or spotting during that time.
Women considering LAM should get counseling from a healthcare provider to make sure it is the right choice for their lifestyle, as well as to plan for a new form of birth control as soon as breastfeeding frequency decreases or solid foods are introduced.
How effective is fertility awareness? Couples using more than one fertility awareness-based method correctly will increase their ability to identify fertile days accurately.
The effectiveness of using fertility awareness-based methods for pregnancy prevention depends on using the method correctly and consistently. Because there are various approaches to fertility awareness methods, the effectiveness rates vary.
These methods can be effective if the instructions are followed carefully for each menstrual cycle. Fertility products are available to help keep track of the changing fertility signs.
If preventing pregnancy is a high priority, more effective methods for example, an IUD or implant of birth control should be considered. These methods are safe and reasonably effective in preventing pregnancy when used correctly. These methods can help you avoid pregnancy.
A lot of obstacles can stand between a woman and easy access to life-saving contraceptives — everything from a dearth of trained health providers, to commodity stockouts, to rampant myths that contraceptives cause infertility. Recognizing that young people have an acute need for contraceptives PSI has made an FP Youth Pledge: PSI, through its global network of more than 50 country programs, commits to reaching 10 million people under the age of 25 with modern contraceptive methods by the end of December To meet this ambitious goal, PSI and its partners are testing new and bold ways of collaborating with young people to reimagine and redefine the way sexual and reproductive health and rights SRHR programs are designed, delivered, measured and evaluated.
A uses a marketing model that merges the rigor of public health, developmental science and cultural anthropology with the vigor of human centered design and youth partnership.
Rather than starting with the needs of public health systems and actors, our starting point as social marketers is to understand what is deeply desirable to young people. By putting girls at the center of our design process, we seek to breakthrough solutions to take to scale. We implement a number of other approaches and strategies to support FP goals, including: Creating franchised networks of medical providers to offer clinical services.View at Google Scholar D.
To plan a child independent from sexuality.
The tribe of the respondent was measured as categorical variables, whereby the most common tribes in Juba city were listed among the possible responses and the minority groups were included among the others. The provision of contraceptive methods, with a view to autonomous choice, points to the need for the services to provide a wide range of options so that clients can freely, safely and reliably choose the most appropriate method for the different times of their reproductive life, according to their history of health and adaptation 5.
What information and contraceptive methods are available to the clients of these services? The contraceptive methods that, scientifically, present the higher contraceptive efficacy are the most suggested and offered by the interviewees to the clients, with those of lower efficacy being less suggested and offered. To choose the ideal target population for the implementation of contraceptive education has been considered important for the positive response[ 9 , 12 , 16 ].
Yet a very small percentage of these couples actually are using a natural method correctly.
A male voluntary surgical contraception clinic was established in Ankara in based on a claim of a growing demand for services [ 16 ]. View at Google Scholar K.
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