VISUAL C PDF BOOKS
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Visual Studio Books
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Microsoft Visual Studio Unleashed, Third Edition
Part I: Extending Visual Studio Part V: Introducing Visual Studio Chapter 1. Working with the Visual Studio Tools Chapter 7. Extending Visual Studio Chapter Building Web Applications Chapter Null pointer values are useful for indicating special cases such as no "next" pointer in the final node of a linked list , or as an error indication from functions returning pointers.
In appropriate contexts in source code, such as for assigning to a pointer variable, a null pointer constant can be written as 0, with or without explicit casting to a pointer type, or as the NULL macro defined by several standard headers.
In conditional contexts, null pointer values evaluate to false, while all other pointer values evaluate to true. Since the size and type of the pointed-to object is not known, void pointers cannot be dereferenced, nor is pointer arithmetic on them allowed, although they can easily be and in many contexts implicitly are converted to and from any other object pointer type.
Because they are typically unchecked, a pointer variable can be made to point to any arbitrary location, which can cause undesirable effects. Although properly used pointers point to safe places, they can be made to point to unsafe places by using invalid pointer arithmetic ; the objects they point to may continue to be used after deallocation dangling pointers ; they may be used without having been initialized wild pointers ; or they may be directly assigned an unsafe value using a cast, union, or through another corrupt pointer.
In general, C is permissive in allowing manipulation of and conversion between pointer types, although compilers typically provide options for various levels of checking.
Some other programming languages address these problems by using more restrictive reference types. See also: C string Array types in C are traditionally of a fixed, static size specified at compile time. The more recent C99 standard also allows a form of variable-length arrays. However, it is also possible to allocate a block of memory of arbitrary size at run-time, using the standard library's malloc function, and treat it as an array.
C's unification of arrays and pointers means that declared arrays and these dynamically allocated simulated arrays are virtually interchangeable. Since arrays are always accessed in effect via pointers, array accesses are typically not checked against the underlying array size, although some compilers may provide bounds checking as an option. If bounds checking is desired, it must be done manually. C does not have a special provision for declaring multi-dimensional arrays , but rather relies on recursion within the type system to declare arrays of arrays, which effectively accomplishes the same thing.
The index values of the resulting "multi-dimensional array" can be thought of as increasing in row-major order. Multi-dimensional arrays are commonly used in numerical algorithms mainly from applied linear algebra to store matrices. The structure of the C array is well suited to this particular task. However, since arrays are passed merely as pointers, the bounds of the array must be known fixed values or else explicitly passed to any subroutine that requires them, and dynamically sized arrays of arrays cannot be accessed using double indexing.
A workaround for this is to allocate the array with an additional "row vector" of pointers to the columns. C99 introduced "variable-length arrays" which address some, but not all, of the issues with ordinary C arrays. Furthermore, in most expression contexts a notable exception is as operand of sizeof , the name of an array is automatically converted to a pointer to the array's first element.
This implies that an array is never copied as a whole when named as an argument to a function, but rather only the address of its first element is passed. Therefore, although function calls in C use pass-by-value semantics, arrays are in effect passed by reference. The latter only applies to array names: variables declared with subscripts int A.
However, arrays created by dynamic allocation are accessed by pointers rather than true array variables, so they suffer from the same sizeof issues as array pointers. Thus, despite this apparent equivalence between array and pointer variables, there is still a distinction to be made between them. Even though the name of an array is, in most expression contexts, converted into a pointer to its first element , this pointer does not itself occupy any storage; the array name is not an l-value , and its address is a constant, unlike a pointer variable.
Consequently, what an array "points to" cannot be changed, and it is impossible to assign a new address to an array name. Array contents may be copied, however, by using the memcpy function, or by accessing the individual elements.
Memory management[ edit ] One of the most important functions of a programming language is to provide facilities for managing memory and the objects that are stored in memory.
C provides three distinct ways to allocate memory for objects:  Static memory allocation : space for the object is provided in the binary at compile-time; these objects have an extent or lifetime as long as the binary which contains them is loaded into memory.
Automatic memory allocation : temporary objects can be stored on the stack , and this space is automatically freed and reusable after the block in which they are declared is exited.
Dynamic memory allocation : blocks of memory of arbitrary size can be requested at run-time using library functions such as malloc from a region of memory called the heap ; these blocks persist until subsequently freed for reuse by calling the library function realloc or free These three approaches are appropriate in different situations and have various trade-offs.
For example, static memory allocation has little allocation overhead, automatic allocation may involve slightly more overhead, and dynamic memory allocation can potentially have a great deal of overhead for both allocation and deallocation.
The persistent nature of static objects is useful for maintaining state information across function calls, automatic allocation is easy to use but stack space is typically much more limited and transient than either static memory or heap space, and dynamic memory allocation allows convenient allocation of objects whose size is known only at run-time.Static allocation that is too large is usually detected by the linker or loader , before the program can even begin execution.
C99 introduced "variable-length arrays" which address some, but not all, of the issues with ordinary C arrays.
C is often used in low-level systems programming where escapes from the type system may be necessary. However, since arrays are passed merely as pointers, the bounds of the array must be known fixed values or else explicitly passed to any subroutine that requires them, and dynamically sized arrays of arrays cannot be accessed using double indexing. Furthermore, in most expression contexts a notable exception is as operand of sizeof , the name of an array is automatically converted to a pointer to the array's first element.
Such issues are ameliorated in languages with automatic garbage collection. Xiaokai He Senior Program Manager.
In conditional contexts, null pointer values evaluate to false, while all other pointer values evaluate to true. Part I: The author presumes that you have some previous aquaintance with programming — you need to know what a variable is and what a function is — but you do not need much experience.
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